To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Even though AA 7075 is an aluminum alloy with high mechanical properties, it is not often applied in manufacturing. This is so, because it is considered as very difficult to produce defect free welded joints. This is so, because this alloy has a tendency to hot cracking. The metallurgical problems that appear during welding of AA 7075 have not been fully solved but they have been reduced by applying alloys such as: 4043 and 5356 as filler metals. However, in literature there is little information about the metallurgical effects of these types of filler metals applied in arc welded joints of AA7075. This is especially true for Tungsten Inert gas welding. Therefore, this work is focused in comparing the microstructure and Vickers microhardness in weldments of AA 7075 with ER4043, ER5356 and AA7075 as filler metals. Besides, a set of welded joints with the three different filler metals were quenched after welding in order to modify the final microstructure. The results were evaluated by microstructural analysis focused on the Heat Affected Zone and Vickers microhardness and they were compared among them.
The burrower bug Scaptocoris castanea Perty, 1830 (Hemiptera: Cydnidae) is an agricultural pest feeding on roots of several crops. The histology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands of S. castanea were described. The salivary system has a pair of principal salivary glands and a pair of accessory salivary glands. The principal salivary gland is bilobed with anterior and posterior lobes joined by a hilus where an excretory duct occurs. The accessory salivary gland is tubular with a narrow lumen that opens into the hilus near the excretory duct, suggesting that its secretion is stored in the lumen of the principal gland. The cytoplasm of the secretory cells is rich in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles with different electron densities and mitochondria. At the base of the accessory gland epithelium, there were scattered cells that do not reach the gland lumen, with the cytoplasm rich in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, indicating a role in protein production. Data show that principal and accessory salivary glands of S. castanea produce proteinaceous saliva. This is the first morphological description of the S. castanea salivary system that is similar to other Hemiptera Pentatomomorpha, but with occurrence of basal cells in the accessory salivary gland.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Complex structures, such as living organisms or highly structured materials, share in common the fact that their inherent complexity may be accounted for by the tangled organization of a vast number of simple units. The complex behaviour arises not necessarily due to the atomic structure of the system, but to the orderly assembly of all, or part, of its constituents. Self-assembly of synthetic soft-matter components (polymers, liquid crystals, surfactants, colloids and organic/inorganic hybrids) results in regular hierarchically-organized structures. Here, we report on a photoluminescent highly-organized bilayer alkylene/siloxane hybrid self-assembled by intermolecular hydrogen bonding between amide groups, van der Waals interactions between the alkylene chains and an entropic term related to the organic-inorganic phase separation . These factors are decisive for the emergence of a thermally-actuated photoluminescence memory effect induced by a reversible order-disorder phase transition of the alkylene chains involving ~30 lamellae (~150 nm). The reversibility of this phase transition is attained through a heating/cooling cycle (20-120 C) from which a hysteretic behaviour of the emission energy emerges. The initial emission energy value is recovered after ~300 h, following a logarithmic time dependence, due to the slow kinetics of the restoration of the hydrogen-bonded amide-amide network. The photoluminescence is thus responsive to the annihilation/formation of the amide-amide array displaying nanoscopic sensitivity, contrarily to the customary case for which the local environment around the emitter probe determines the emission features. Moreover, the emission energy logarithmic time dependence reflects hierarchically constrained dynamics deprived of any characteristic microscopic time, meaning that the emission is governed by interactions at larger length scales.LD Carlos, V de Zea Bermudez, VS Amaral, SC Nunes, NJO Silva, RA Sá Ferreira, J Rocha, CV Santilli, D Ostrovskii, Adv. Mater., accepted
Chagas Disease is a zoonosis caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Several high-resolution markers have subdivided T. cruzi taxon into at least seven lineages or Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) (TcI-TcVI and TcBat). Trypanosoma cruzi I is the most diverse and geographically widespread DTU. Recently a TcI genotype related to domestic cycles was proposed and named as TcIDOM. Herein, we combined traditional markers and housekeeping genes and applied a Multispecies Coalescent method to explore intra-TcI relationships, lineage boundaries and genetic diversity in a random set of isolates and DNA sequences retrieved from Genbank from different countries in the Americas. We found further evidence supporting TcIDOM as an independent and emerging genotype of TcI at least in Colombia and Venezuela. We also found evidence of high phylogenetic incongruence between parasite's gene trees (including introgression) and embedded species trees, and a lack of genetic structure among geography and hosts, illustrating the complex dynamics and epidemiology of TcI across the Americas. These findings provide novel insights into T. cruzi systematics and epidemiology and support the need to assess parasite diversity and lineage boundaries through hypothesis testing using different approaches to those traditionally employed, including the Bayesian Multispecies coalescent method.
After the recent detection, by both morphology and DNA barcodes, of the larval stages of an unknown species of pea crab (Pinnotheres sp.) in European waters, adults of this crab are herein reported and described as a new species. The current known geographic distribution of the species comprises the Gulf of Cádiz in the eastern Atlantic and the adjacent Mediterranean waters of the south of the Iberian Peninsula (Alboran Sea), where this crab is well-established inside the anomiid bivalve Anomia ephippium. In the Gulf of Cádiz, the species displayed a relatively high prevalence: on average, 55.6–77.7%, in A. ephippium samples. The dominant demographic categories of the new species were soft females (61.8–77.0%) with fewer males (17.7–21.10%). Most of the host bivalves carried only one crab; in bivalves harbouring two crabs, heterosexual pairs were collected more frequently than expected by chance, which suggests that they could be mated pairs. A strong correlation between host size and soft female size was found (r = 0.73, P < 0.01) indicating that space availability within hosts seems to be relevant in determining the size of the sedentary phase of the new crab species.
This study aimed to propose an adapted feedback using a psychological learning technique based on Skinner’s shaping method to help the users to modulate two cognitive tasks (right-hand motor imagination and relaxed state) and improve better control in a Brain-Computer Interface. In the first experiment, a comparative study between performance in standard feedback (N = 9) and shaping method (N = 10) was conducted. The NASA Task Load Index questionnaire was applied to measure the user’s workload. In the second experiment, a single case study was performed (N = 5) to verify the continuous learning by the shaping method. The first experiment showed significant interaction effect between sessions and group (F(1, 17) = 5.565; p = .031) which the shaping paradigm was applied. A second interaction effect demonstrates a higher performance increase in the relax state task with shaping procedure (F(1, 17) = 5. 038; p = .038). In NASA-TXL an interaction effect was obtained between the group and the cognitive task in Mental Demand (F(1, 17) = 6, 809; p = .018), Performance (F(1, 17) = 5, 725; p = .029), and Frustration (F(1, 17) = 9, 735; p = .006), no significance was found in Effort. In the second experiment, a trial-by-trial analysis shows an ascendant trend learning curve for the cognitive task with the lowest initial acquisition (relax state). The results suggest the effectiveness of the shaping procedure to modulate brain rhythms, improving mainly the cognitive task with greater initial difficulty and provide better interaction perception.
The influence of the concentration of carbon black nanoparticles on the mechanical behavior of a structural adhesive was studied to evaluate and understand the stiffness, strength, and deformation behavior of a reinforced epoxy adhesive. Two carbon black nanoparticles with different dielectric properties and sizes (Monarch® 120 and Vulcan® XC72R) were studied. A bi-component structural epoxy adhesive was selected. Specimens with different concentrations of carbon black were manufactured (0, 5, 10, and 20% on volume of resin) for each type of nanoparticle. The specimens were cured in a hydraulic hot-plates press machine. The mechanical behavior of the adhesives was found not to vary significantly as a function of carbon black nanoparticles amount. A scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed to evaluate the fracture surface. The fracture surfaces of specimens were correlated with the mechanical response obtained through tensile tests.
As apex predators, sharks are known to play an important role in marine food webs. Detailed information on their diet and trophic level is however needed to make clear inferences about their role in the ecosystem. A total of 335 stomachs of smooth hammerhead sharks, Sphyrna zygaena, were obtained from commercial fishing vessels operating in the Ecuadorian Pacific between January and December 2004. A total of 53 prey items were found in the stomachs. According to the Index of Relative Importance (%IRI), cephalopods were the main prey (Dosidicus gigas, Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis, Ancistrocheirus lesueurii and Lolliguncula [Loliolopsis] diomedeae). Sphyrna zygaena was thus confirmed to be a teutophagous species. The estimated trophic level of S. zygaena was between 4.6 and 5.1 (mean ± SD: 4.7 ± 0.16; males: 4.7; females: 4.8). Levin's index (BA) was low (overall: 0.07; males: 0.08; females: 0.09), indicating a narrow trophic niche. We found that sharks <150 cm in total length consumed prey of coastal origin, whereas sharks ≥150 cm foraged in oceanic waters and near the continental shelf. The analyses indicate that S. zygaena is a specialized predator consuming mainly squids.
Recent open-label trials show that psychedelics, such as ayahuasca, hold promise as fast-onset antidepressants in treatment-resistant depression.
To test the antidepressant effects of ayahuasca, we conducted a parallel-arm, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in 29 patients with treatment-resistant depression. Patients received a single dose of either ayahuasca or placebo. We assessed changes in depression severity with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating scale at baseline, and at 1 (D1), 2 (D2), and 7 (D7) days after dosing.
We observed significant antidepressant effects of ayahuasca when compared with placebo at all-time points. MADRS scores were significantly lower in the ayahuasca group compared with placebo at D1 and D2 (p = 0.04), and at D7 (p < 0.0001). Between-group effect sizes increased from D1 to D7 (D1: Cohen's d = 0.84; D2: Cohen's d = 0.84; D7: Cohen's d = 1.49). Response rates were high for both groups at D1 and D2, and significantly higher in the ayahuasca group at D7 (64% v. 27%; p = 0.04). Remission rate showed a trend toward significance at D7 (36% v. 7%, p = 0.054).
To our knowledge, this is the first controlled trial to test a psychedelic substance in treatment-resistant depression. Overall, this study brings new evidence supporting the safety and therapeutic value of ayahuasca, dosed within an appropriate setting, to help treat depression. This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02914769).
Non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) and/or non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) reductions may occur from diet and/or exercise-induced negative energy balance interventions, resulting in less-than-expected weight loss. This systematic review describes the effects of prescribed diet and/or physical activity (PA)/exercise on NEPA and/or NEAT in adults. Studies were identified from PubMed, web-of-knowledge, Embase, SPORTDiscus, ERIC and PsycINFO searches up to 1 March 2017. Eligibility criteria included randomised controlled trials (RCT), randomised trials (RT) and non-randomised trials (NRT); objective measures of PA and energy expenditure; data on NEPA, NEAT and spontaneous PA; ≥10 healthy male/female aged>18 years; and ≥7 d length. The trial is registered at PROSPERO-2017-CRD42017052635. In all, thirty-six articles (RCT-10, RT-9, NRT-17) with a total of seventy intervention arms (diet, exercise, combined diet/exercise), with a total of 1561 participants, were included. Compensation was observed in twenty-six out of seventy intervention arms (fifteen studies out of thirty-six reporting declines in NEAT (eight), NEPA (four) or both (three)) representing 63, 27 and 23 % of diet-only, combined diet/exercise, and exercise-only intervention arms, respectively. Weight loss observed in participants who decreased NEAT was double the weight loss found in those who did not compensate, suggesting that the energy imbalance degree may lead to energy conservation. Although these findings do not support the hypothesis that prescribed diet and/or exercise results in decreased NEAT and NEPA in healthy adults, the underpowered trial design and the lack of state-of-the-art methods may limit these conclusions. Future studies should explore the impact of weight-loss magnitude, energetic restriction degree, exercise dose and participant characteristics on NEAT and/or NEPA.
This study evaluated the population structure, growth and longevity of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in the State of Sergipe. The obtained data were compared with other populations on a latitudinal scale in order to evaluate whether the latitudinal paradigm applies to this species. Shrimp sampling took place monthly from September 2013 to August 2014, in nine stations distributed at 5, 15 and 30 m depths, using a shrimp fishery boat equipped with a ‘double rig’ net. Sexual maturity was estimated by the logistic function y = a/(1 + b*exp(-cx)), and the sex ratio was analysed with the Chi-square test. The individual growth rate was estimated using the von Bertalanffy model, and the longevity was estimated by the inverse form of this formula. A total of 6418 (3457 females and 2961 males) was analysed. The size at onset of sexual maturity was 12 mm of carapace length (CL) for males and 12.5 mm CL for females. The total sex ratio did not differ from the expected (1:1). Males exhibited higher growth coefficients (k) and smaller asymptotic growth (CC∞ = 28.74 mm, k = 0.0081 day−1) than females (CC∞ = 30.79 mm, k = 0.0058 day−1). The estimated longevity (years) was 1.55 for males and 2.15 for females. No evident latitudinal pattern was observed regarding the size at onset of sexual maturity or the growth parameters for X. kroyeri. The information found, besides contributing to the knowledge about the biology of this shrimp, can also clarify hypotheses presented in relation to the latitudinal paradigm along the Brazilian coast.
Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, which can develop in domestic as well as wild animals and humans throughout the world. Currently, this disease is spreading in rural and urban areas of non-endemic regions in Brazil. Recently, bats have gained epidemiological significance in leishmaniasis due to its close relationship with human settlements. In this study, we investigated the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in blood samples from 448 bats belonging to four families representing 20 species that were captured in the Triangulo Mineiro and Alto Paranaiba areas of Minas Gerais State (non-endemic areas for leishmaniasis), Brazil. Leishmania spp. DNA was detected in 8·0% of the blood samples, 41·6% of which were Leishmania infantum, 38·9% Leishmania amazonensis and 19·4% Leishmania braziliensis. No positive correlation was found between Leishmania spp. and bat food source. The species with more infection rates were the insectivorous bats Eumops perotis; 22·2% (4/18) of which tested positive for Leishmania DNA. The presence of Leishmania in the bat blood samples, as observed in this study, represents epidemiological importance due to the absence of Leishmaniasis cases in the region.
Background: The mechanisms and triggers of the attentional bias in social anxiety are not yet fully determined, and the modulating role of personality traits is being increasingly acknowledged. Aims: Our main purpose was to test whether social anxiety is associated with mechanisms of hypervigilance, avoidance (static biases), vigilance-avoidance or the maintenance of attention (dynamic biases). Our secondary goal was to explore the role of personality structure in shaping the attention bias. Method: Participants with high vs low social anxiety and different personality structures viewed pairs of faces (free-viewing eye-tracking task) representing different emotions (anger, happiness and neutrality). Their eye movements were registered and analysed for both whole-trial (static) and time-dependent (dynamic) measures. Results: Comparisons between participants with high and low social anxiety levels did not yield evidence of differences in eye-tracking measures for the whole trial (latency of first fixation, first fixation direction, total dwell time), but the two groups differed in the time course of overt attention during the trial (dwell time across three successive time segments): participants with high social anxiety were slower in disengaging their attention from happy faces. Similar results were obtained using a full-sample, regression-based analysis. Conclusion: Our results speak in favour of a maintenance bias in social anxiety. Preliminary results indicated that personality structure may not affect the maintenance (dynamic) bias of socially anxious individuals, although depressive personality structures may favour manifestations of a (static) hypervigilance bias.
Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is a major veterinary concern and a public health issue. Serological data are essential for disease management. Several antigens used in serological assays have specificity related problems preventing relevant seropositivity values establishment. Herein we report significant seropositivity level disparity in a study cohort with 384 dogs from eight countries, for antigens traditionally used in CanL – soluble promastigote Leishmania antigens (SPLA) and K39 recombinant protein (rK39): 43·8 and 2·9% for SPLA and rK39, respectively. To better understand the reasons for this disparity, CanL-associated serological response was characterized using, for complement serological evaluation, a ubiquitous antigen – soluble Escherichia coli antigens (SECAs). Using cohorts of CanL dogs and dogs without clinical evidences of CanL from non-endemic regions of Portugal, the serological response of CanL animals followed specific trend of seropositivity rK39 > SPLA > SECA absent in non-diseased animals. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, these characteristic trends were converted in ratios, SPLA/SECA, rK39/SECA and rK39/SPLA, that presented high predictive for discriminating the CanL cohort that was potentiated when applied in a scoring system involving positivity to four out of five predictors (rK39, SPLA, SPLA/SECA, rK39/SECA and rK39/SPLA). In fact, this approach discriminated CanL with similar sensitivity/specificity as reference antigens, diminishing seropositivity in European cohort to 1·8%. Ultimately, non-related antigens like SECA and seropositivity ratios between antigens enable different perspectives into serological data focusing on the search of characteristic serological signatures and not simple absolute serology values contributing to comprehensive serological status characterization.
Cognitive interventions (either restorative or compensatory) developed for mild Alzheimer's Disease (AD) have been tested widely with cognitive measures, but less is known about how the effects of such interventions are generalizable to daily functioning. In the present study, we looked at affective state and perceived functionality and quality of life indicators, for three different cognitive rehabilitation programs.
Fifty-one AD patients in the mild stage of the disease were selected for the study and were randomly assigned to one of three cognitive training groups: (1) Memo+ (a paper and pencil memory training program); (2) SenseCam (wearable camera used as a passive external memory aid); (3) Written diary (a personal journal, used as control condition). All patients attended 11 sessions, twice a week, of 1-hour length. The three outcome indicators were examined with standardized instruments applied before the intervention, one week after and at six months follow-up.
After treatment, the SenseCam and Memo+ groups had significantly reduced depressive symptoms compared to the Diary control condition. The same was found for measures of perceived functional capacity. No intervention effects were found for quality of life measures. The immediate effects of the interventions were not maintained at follow-up.
Our results suggest that two types of memory rehabilitation can improve depressive symptomology and instrumental activities of daily living, suggesting that these interventions can stimulate not only cognition but also well-being, at least in the short term.
The biological and genetic diversity of Neospora caninum is very limited because of availability of only a few viable isolates worldwide. This study describes the isolation and biological and molecular characterization of a new viable isolate of N. caninum (NC-SP1), from a cattle in Brazil. Approximately 400 g of brain from a naturally infected adult male cattle from an abattoir was fed to a 2-month-old dog. Neospora-like oocysts were observed on day 7 post-inoculation (PI) and the duration of oocyst shedding was 14 days. The DNA obtained from oocysts was characterized molecularly and the final sequence was 99% identical to homologous sequences of N. caninum available in GenBank®. For bioassay, gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were orally inoculated with 10 100 and 1000 oocysts; all gerbils remained clinically normal but developed N. caninum antibodies 14 days PI. Cell culture isolation was successful using the brain homogenate from one of the gerbils and tachyzoites were observed 24 days PI. Microsatellite genotyping revealed a unique genetic profile for this new reference isolate.
To date, the spatial distribution pattern and density of Brazil nut trees in logged forest stands is unclear across the Amazon basin. We asked the following questions: (1) What are the densities and spatial distributions of Brazil nut juveniles (10 ≤ dbh < 40 cm) and adults (≥ 40 cm dbh) in three selectively logged Brazil nut concessions (1413 ha sampled) in Madre de Dios, Peru; (2) What is the spatial relationship between adults and juveniles (10 ≤ dbh < 30 cm); and (3) What is the spatial relationship between juveniles (10 ≤ dbh <30 cm) and cut stumps (≥ 10 y)? Spatial analyses were conducted using statistics derived from Ripley's K function. Juveniles were aggregated in all three concessions. Results for adult populations rejected the null hypothesis of a random distribution among trees ≥ 40 cm dbh. We did not find an attraction between juveniles and cut-stump locations, nor between adults and juveniles. The strong peaks of aggregation for juveniles and adult Brazil nuts in this study occurred at long distances (300–900 m), suggesting multiple tree canopy gaps as drivers of spatial distribution patterns, either via natural or anthropogenic sources. Our data contribute to a more thorough understanding of Brazil nut population structure in disturbed forests in south-western Amazonia.
We provide an expanded and updated, 2-locus phylogeny (mtSSU, nuLSU) of the lichenized fungal family Trypetheliaceae, with a total of 196 ingroup OTUs, in order to further refine generic delimitations and species concepts in this family. As a result, the following 15 clades are recognized as separate genera, including five newly established genera: Aptrootia, Architrypethelium, Astrothelium (including the bulk of corticate species with astrothelioid ascospores; synonyms: Campylothelium, Cryptothelium, Laurera), Bathelium s. str. (excluding B. degenerans and relatives which fall into Astrothelium), the reinstated Bogoriella (for tropical, lichenized species previously placed in Mycomicrothelia), Constrictolumina gen. nov. (for tropical, lichenized species of Arthopyrenia), Dictyomeridium gen. nov. (for a subgroup of species with muriform ascospores previously placed in Polymeridium), Julella (provisionally, as the type species remains unsequenced), Marcelaria (Laurera purpurina complex), Nigrovothelium gen. nov. (for the Trypethelium tropicum group), Novomicrothelia gen. nov. (for an additional species previously placed in Mycomicrothelia), Polymeridium s. str., Pseudopyrenula, Trypethelium s. str. (T. eluteriae group), and Viridothelium gen. nov. (for the Trypethelium virens group). All recognized genera are phenotypically characterized and a discussion on the evolution of phenotypic features in the family is given. Based on the obtained phylogeny, species delimitations are revised and the importance of characters such as thallus morphology, hymenial inspersion, and secondary chemistry for taxonomic purposes is discussed, resulting in a refined species concept.
This study aimed to augment existing knowledge of the reproductive characteristics of Donax trunculus through analysis of timing variations and the influence of shell size on partial fecundity (PF) during the reproductive period. To achieve this objective, two reproductive timing characteristics were also studied: size at first maturity (SL50) and the reproductive cycle using histology and image analysis techniques. SL50 was 10.83 mm for females and 10.86 for males. Donax trunculus showed a continuous and simultaneous release of gametes and high oocyte regeneration ability during the reproductive period (from February to July). These reproductive characteristics impeded the estimation of total fecundity. However, throughout the reproductive period an increasing pattern of PF was observed followed by a significant drop at the end of the same period, which could be quantified (293,390 of vitellogenic and ripe oocytes). At the same time PF quantifications allowed for predicting and estimating the influence of shell length (SL) on the reproductive output as a function of oocyte typology (PF = 4.12 + 3.96 SL; r2 = 0.86; all types). Levels of prevalence of a digenetic trematode-like parasite with castrate ability fluctuated between 0–20% depending on the time of the year and sex. In addition, the possible consequences of two different scenarios of population size structure on the reproductive output were simulated, and highlighted how beach areas supporting high levels of anthropogenic pressure (Isla Canela) could compromise future recruitments, producing 84% less oocytes than a beach with a lower level of disturbance (Doñana).