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A student's t-test was applied in carbon nanospheres synthesis from cis-1,4-polyisoprene considering the green chemical principles. The synthesis was carried out by Chemical Vapor Deposition method with a quartz tube reactor using an AISI 304 steel bar as catalyst. It was possible to obtain two types of different samples, one from the surface of the steel bar (catalyst) and another from the quartz tube surface (without catalyst) in the same experiment. Carbon spheres were observed in both samples by micrographs obtained by FESEM. The Raman and FTIR spectroscopies shown characteristic bands of this carbon structures (G and D). The results obtained by student's t-test proved a statistical significance between spheres means of samples collected from steel bar and quartz tube surface.
The Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) can only be applied to children under 5 years of age and does not contemplate obesity. The aim of this study was to propose an Extended CIAF (ECIAF) that combines the characterization of malnutrition due to undernutrition and excess weight, and apply it in six Argentine provinces.
ECIAF excludes children not in anthropometric failure (group A) and was calculated from a percentage of children included in malnutrition categories B: wasting only; C: wasting and underweight; D: wasting, stunting and underweight; E: stunting and underweight; F: stunting only; Y: underweight only; G: only weight excess; and H: stunting and weight excess.
Cross-sectional study conducted in Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chubut, Jujuy, Mendoza and Misiones (Argentina).
10 879 children of both sexes aged between 3 and 13·99.
ECIAF in preschool children (3 to 4·99 years) was 15·1 %. The highest prevalence was registered in Mendoza (16·7 %) and the lowest in Misiones (12·0 %). In school children (5 to 13·99 years) ECIAF was 28·6 %. Mendoza also recorded the highest rate (30·7 %), while Catamarca and Chubut had the lowest values (27·0 %). In the whole sample, about 25 % of the malnutrition was caused by undernutrition and 75 % by excess weight.
The ECIAF summarizes anthropometric failure by both deficiency and excess weight and it highlights that a quarter of the malnutrition in the Argentine population was caused by undernutrition, although there are differences between Provinces (P < 0·05). ECIAF estimates are higher than those of CIAF or under-nutrition.
Adult size is the trait most closely correlated with reproductive output in insects, but may also have important selective implications determining additional fitness gains. In longhorn beetles, adult size-mediated ultimate benefits may arise from mate choice, male antennal spread width or male fighting for mates. In this paper, we examined factors potentially shaping adult size of Cerambyx welensii Küster (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an emergent oak (Quercus Linnaeus; Fagaceae) pest. Sex ratio and adult length/weight allometric relationships were also explored. Overwintering adults were collected inside oaks in Extremadura (southwestern Spain) during 2011–2017 to ensure that larval development was completed in the wild. Sex, host species, and wood quality affected adult size, though some interactions occurred and among-host differences were weak. Adults collected inside older trees and wider branches were significantly larger. Adult size was unaffected by either elevation, aspect, or population density. There was a robust allometric scaling in both sexes between elytral/adult length and weight, females being heavier than males and males longer than females when adults were large. Female-biased sex ratios occurred in old/veteran trees and in dense/crowded larval populations. We discuss these results from an evolutionary perspective considering the potential impact of C. welensii adult size on population dynamics and management tactics.
Composites from carbon nanotubes and polymers have been synthesized and studied. The composites were obtained joining carbon nanotubes with polymethyl methacrylate, nylon-6 and polystyrene. The materials were observed through scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the carbon nanotubes dispersion in the polymeric matrices. FTIR and Raman spectroscopies were used to analyze the interactions among functionalized and non-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polymers, demonstrating affinity and peculiar spectra behaviors for each composite with different carbon nanotubes loads.
Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are utilized to resolve low coupling coefficient issue by dispersing MWCNTs in poly(vinylidene fluoride) matrix to create stress reinforcing network, dispersant, and electron conducting functions for barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles. Various BT and MWCNT percentages of nanocomposite film are fabricated by FDM three-dimensional (3D) printing which can simplify the fabrication process as well as lower cost and design flexibility. Increasing MWCNTs and BT particles gradually increase piezoelectric coefficient (d31) by 0.13 pC/N with 0.4 wt%-MWCNTs/18 wt%-BT. These results provide not only a technique to print piezoelectric nanocomposites but also unique materials combination for sensor application.
The aim of this research is to ameliorate the dispersion of pristine and functionalized Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) into polystyrene with hydroxyl end groups (PSOH) matrices using low magnetic fields. The Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using benzene as carbon source; to produce CNTs with and without functional groups two catalysts were used (stainless steel and ferrocene). The obtained nanotubes contained iron nanoparticles inside. PSOH were synthesized using styrene as monomer, azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator and 2-MeOH as chain transfer agent. The MWCNTs-PSOH matrices were formed using 1.6 wt % of carbon nanotubes into PSOH and ultrasonic mixing for 30 min. The mixing materials were poured into containers and dry at room temperature. While the material was drying, constant magnetic fields of 0.24 T were being applied for 50 min. The MWCNTs-PSOH composites were analysed by SEM, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. SEM micrographs showed that MWCNTs without functional groups were incorporated in the middle of PSOH. The MWCNTs functionalized perform differently; a better dispersion through the entire polymer matrix was achieved, because the polymer embedded the CNTs. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy showed chemical interaction between PSOH and MWCNTs functionalized. The CNTs dispersion into PSOH was ameliorated through the use of low magnetic fields and functionalization.
By using strontium isotopic ratios of dental enamel from molars, we were able to reconstruct the migration context for three individuals of a Columbian mammoth population (Mammuthus columbi) around Laguna de las Cruces, San Luis Potosí, central México. A three-step leaching procedure was applied to eliminate secondary Sr contributions in the molar enamel. One of the studied individuals showed 87Sr/86Sr ratios similar to those obtained from soils and plants from Laguna de las Cruces and was identified as local, whereas the other two mammoths had different molar 87Sr/86Sr values, indicative of migration and mobility contexts.
This paper focus on evaluating the ability to use Mexican fly ash (FA) and copper slag (CS) to produce alkali cements (0% OPC) or hybrid cements (20% OPC + 80% fly ash). The alkali activators used were two: 8 M NaOH solution for alkali cements and NaCl with sodium silicate for hybrid cement (HYC). Results of mechanical testing and characterization of the reaction products formed after 2 and 28 days are presented and discussed. Mechanical strength in some cases exceeded 20 MPa, at 2 days curing. The chemical characterization techniques used were X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Aluminum titanium oxynitride (TiAlNO) coatings were deposited on 316 steel substrates by the sputtering technique, varying the nitrogen flow from 2.5, 5, 7.5 to 10 sccm, and maintaining constant at 12 sccm the flow argon gas. We used targets of titanium and alumina with 99.995% purity. The hardness and tribological analyses were determined by Vickers microhardness and tribology (tribometer pin-disc), respectively. The results show that the coating with a nitrogen flow of 10 sccm had the lowest volumetric wear (2.047738693 mm3) and the maximum value of hardness (11.2 GPa). Analysis of X-ray diffraction evidenced the presence of three crystalline phases: Ti2N, Al2O3 and TiO2. It can be observed that by increasing the nitrogen flow, the portion of semi-Ti2N phase increases, Al2O3 decreases and TiO2 remains almost constant, and also producing a change in crystallographic orientation with reference to the Ti2N phase. Crystal grain sizes were estimated by X-ray diffraction Fourier line profile analysis using Warren–Averbach method. This analysis showed a grain size between 5 and 15 nm. Raman spectroscopy results show the presence of the TiO2 phase which corroborated the X-ray diffraction results.
Functional hemodynamic response was studied in a new Verbal Fluency Task (VFT) that demanded the production of geographical words while fMRI data was obtained. Participants completed 7 trials with a total duration of 2 min. 20 s. Four simple arithmetic subtraction trials were alternated with 3 geographical naming trials. Each trial had a duration of 20 s. Brain activity was contrasted between both conditions and significant differences (p < .05, Family Wise Error correction) were observed in the prefrontal medial gyrus, typically associated with word retrieval and phonological awareness, and in the parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex and lingual gyrus, areas related to spatial cognition. These results indicate that geographic VFT could be incorporated into a browser of cognitive processes using VFT considering its specific relationship with spatial cognition. Further investigations are proposed, taking special interest in the gender variable and eliminating phonological restrictions, because the evoked Argentinean cities and towns ended in a consonant letter.
To model the dynamics of discrete deterministic systems, we extend the Petri nets
framework by a priority relation between conflicting transitions, which is encoded by
orienting the edges of a transition conflict graph. The aim of this paper is to gain some
insight into the structure of this conflict graph and to characterize a class of suitable
orientations by an analysis in the context of hypergraph theory.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Gemstones are pieces of materials that once cut and polished are used as jewels or adornments. Gemstones may be single crystal (such as diamonds), polycrystalline (such as lapis lazuli), or amorphous (such as amber). In any case, gems may have inclusions that may yield a variety of optic effects. It is also important to unravel the crystal structure of the inclusion(s) in order to determine the origin of the gem and to help to understand their formation mechanism. Here, we expand the use of powder diffraction to identify crystalline inclusions in bulk gemstones highlighting Mo Kα radiation to penetrate within compact gems. Initially, rock crystal quartz with rutile needles was investigated and rutile diffraction peaks were more conspicuous in the Mo pattern than in the Cu pattern. Next, rock crystal quartz with beetle legs was characterized and the red iron oxide inclusion was identified as hematite. The study of a fake gem, glass showing aventurine effect, gave the diffraction peaks of metallic copper. Later, polycrystalline gems, moss agate, and aventurine quartz were also studied. The powder patterns of these compact gemstones could be successfully fitted using the Rietveld method. Finally, we discuss opportunities for further improvements in laboratory powder diffraction to characterize inclusions in compact gems.
Spatial distribution and species diversity of Cephalopoda caught in ARSA bottom trawl
surveys were studied out during two different seasons (autumn and spring) in the Gulf of
Cadiz (Spain) from 2000 to 2007. Species composition of cephalopod assemblages was
analysed, using both clustering analyses and non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis
(nMDS). Spatial distribution of the assemblages identified and abundance of the main
species were mapped with Surfer 8.0 software, using kriging as the geostatistical gridding
method. A total of 35 cephalopod species belonging to 6 families were found at depths
between 20 and 700 m. In each season, Sepiolidae was the most abundant family in terms of
number of species, followed by Octopodidae. The species richness increased up to 100–120 m
depth, where it reached the maximum value. From 120 m, the species richness decreased
progressively with depth. In spring, the species with the highest occurrence was
Eledone moschata (34%) and in autumn it was Alloteuthis media
(70%). In both seasons, the most abundant species in terms of weight was
Octopus vulgaris, while Alloteuthis media showed the
highest yields in terms of numbers. Most species showed wide bathymetric ranges,
especially in autumn. Three different assemblages were found in both seasons during the
time period analysed (although 2003 and 2006 were not included in the cluster analysis):
shelf assemblage (20–160 m), deep shelf/upper slope assemblage (100–350 m) and middle
slope assemblage (320–700 m). The specific composition of these three assemblages was
similar between spring and autumn and an overlap could be observed between them, mainly in
the two continental shelf groups: shelf and deep shelf/upper slope assemblages.
Alloteuthis media and Alloteuthis subulata were the
most abundant species in the shelf assemblage as well as in the deep shelf/upper slope
assemblage. In the middle slope assemblage, Illex coindetii was the most
abundant species. The assemblages and their spatial distributions could be largely related
to a combination of physical and biological factors and their interactions.
TO describe what is, to our knowledge, the first nosocomial outbreak of infection with pan–drug-resistant (including colistin-resistant) Acinetobacter baumannii, to determine the risk factors associated with these types of infections, and to determine their clinical impact.
Nested case-control cohort study and a clinical-microbiological study.
A 1,521-bed tertiary care university hospital in Seville, Spain.
Case patients were inpatients who had a pan-drug-resistant A. baumannii isolate recovered from a clinical or surveillance sample obtained at least 48 hours after admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) during the time of the epidemic outbreak. Control patients were patients who were admitted to any of the “boxes” (ie, rooms that partition off a distinct area for a patient's bed and the equipment needed to care for the patient) of an ICU for at least 48 hours during the time of the epidemic outbreak.
All the clinical isolates had similar antibiotic susceptibility patterns (ie, they were resistant to all the antibiotics tested, including Colistin), and, on the basis of repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction, it was determined that all of them were of the same clone. The previous use of quinolones and glycopeptides and an ICU stay were associated with the acquisition of infection or colonization with pan-drug-resistant A. baumannii. To control this outbreak, we implemented the following multicomponent intervention program: the performance of environmental decontamination of the ICUs involved, an environmental survey, a revision of cleaning protocols, active surveillance for colonization with pan-drug-resistant A. baumannii, educational programs for the staff, and the display of posters that illustrate contact isolation measures and antimicrobial use recommendations.
We were not able to identify the common source for these cases of infection, but the adopted measures have proven to be effective at controlling the outbreak.