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Extracorporeal circulatory membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a technology that allows recovery of adults in cardiorespiratory failure with encouraging results, but is not available in the Brazilian universal public health system (SUS) due to high implementation costs. Time-driven activity based costing (TDABC) is applied to measure processes in an economic perspective by identifying opportunities to make processes more efficient through the reduction of resources used in each activity. The literature has explored the use of TDABC to measure costs related with clinical procedures and technologies in microcosting studies, identifying opportunities to improve the process by making it more efficient. This research measures the real costs to implement ECMO in Brazil to compare with the current public reimbursement system.
This study applied TDABC using data from 6 patients to measure costs of ECMO intervention considering the public perspective in Brazil. In sequence, standard price payed by SUS was used to estimate the current reimbursement amount received by the hospital for ECMO procedure. Cost variable analysis was conducted to understand when and how patients receiving ECMO are using hospital resources. Cost data were collected from an academic public hospital using an average of 18 months (2016–2017) for the department costs.
The real average cost was USD 128,923. Most significant resource costs was medical staff, particularly for the three survivor patients, and the ECMO equipment presented the second highest cost. ECMO activities were separated into: before implantation of ECMO, period using ECMO, intensive care post-ECMO and rehabilitation, being the period where ECMO is the most expensive, particularly in nurse and physician costs. The SUS average was USD 31,437, which shows a difference of USD 97,485 between the real ECMO cost and the public reimbursement in Brazil.
A critical element of the propagation of ECMO in Brazil and its reimbursement by public health system is the high cost and out-of-date standard payments by the Ministry of Health. Effort to implement a trustworthy method to guide decisions of SUS for the adoption and financing new technologies is essential to contribute to the optimization of public health policies in a country with a universal health system and limited resources dedicated to health sectors.
Venoarterial extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is increasingly used in patients during cardiogenic shock, due to favorable results in this very high-risk scenario. However, it is a costly intervention that requires heavy financial investment and specialized human resources.
Cost-effectiveness analysis to evaluate ECLS in the perspective of the Brazilian public health system (SUS) in the population of adult patients with cardiogenic shock. A decision tree comparing ECLS and usual care was built, using efficacy data from a systematic review of literature, and cost data from SUS reimbursement values. Impact of parameter variability and uncertainty were ascertained with deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis.
Usual care resulted in thirty percent probability of survival, at an average cost of 3,000 international dollars (Int$/USD); the strategy that includes ECLS resulted in sixty-two percent survival rate, and average cost of Int$ 23,000, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of Int$ 62.215 per averted in-hospital death. Results were sensitive to device cost, and survival difference between strategies. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, ECLS was consistently more costly and more effective than usual care; based on a willingness-to-pay of three times Brazilian gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (Int$ 45,000), there was twenty-seven percent probability of ECLS being cost-effective.
ECLS has the potential to increase survival for cardiogenic shock, but would significantly increase costs. In the Brazilian public health system, the cost per averted in-hospital death is 4.1 times the domestic GDP per capita.
Previous work showed traumatic life events (TLE) with intention to harm, like bullying and abuse, to be more strongly associated with psychotic experiences (PE) than other types of trauma, like accidents. However, this association is subject to reporting bias and can be confounded by demographic characteristics and by differences in dose of exposure across different trauma categories. We studied the association between TLE with and without intention to harm and PE, taking into account potential confounders and biases.
A total of 2245 children and adolescents aged 6–14 years were interviewed by psychologists. The interview included the presence of 20 PE (both self-report and psychologist evaluation). In addition, parents provided information on child exposure to trauma, mental health and PE.
Results showed no significant association between TLE without intention to harm only and PE for the three methods of assessment of PE (self-report, parent report and psychologist rating). On the other hand, there was a positive association between PE and TLE in groups exposed to traumatic experiences with intention to harm (with intention to harm only and with and without intention to harm). Results remained significant after controlling for demographic and clinical confounders, but this positive association was no longer significant after adjusting for the number of TLE.
TLE with intention to harm display a stronger association with PE than TLE without intention to harm, and this difference is likely reducible to a greater level of traumatic exposure associated with TLE with intention to harm.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adult life is a prevalent condition. We systematically reviewed the literature available by searching for meta-analyses assessing pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for adults with ADHD.
Using wide-ranging search terms, we retrieved 191 titles from the PubMed and Cochrane databases. Two independent evaluators judged all abstracts. Only meta-analyses about the treatment of adults with ADHD were included. Information from meta-analyses found was systematically extracted by 3 independent evaluators.
Eight meta-analyses were identified. Results from those meta-analyses suggest that stimulants are effective in decreasing ADHD symptoms on a short-term basis with a medium to large effect size (ES). Short-acting stimulants might be superior to long-acting stimulants, but no data on difference in adherence are available for the comparison of these two types of formulation. Bupropion is superior to placebo but less effective than stimulants. No conclusions about the impact of psychosocial interventions can be drawn based on meta-analyses so far.
The efficacy of stimulants in reducing ADHD symptoms for adults is well documented in meta-analyses, but there is a concerning lack of meta-analysis about other treatment interventions.
The available meta-analytic literature does not cover questions of essential clinical relevance for adults with ADHD.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) are frequently co-occurring disorders in children and adolescents. However, their clinical status among adults is still under discussion. This study analyzes how the current clinical presentation of adult ADHD might be influenced by a lifetime history of CD and ODD.
We compared three groups of patients: ADHD without history of CD/ODD (n = 178), ADHD + history of ODD (n = 184), and ADHD + history of CD (n = 96).
A history of CD (and to a lower extent ODD) is associated with a more severe and externalizing profile.
Past CD and ODD entail a significant negative mental health impact on persistent ADHD, reinforcing the importance of actively assessing the developmental history of adult ADHD patients.
Juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD) is a highly impairing chronic mental health condition that affects children and adolescents' overall functioning. Comorbidity with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is extremely prevalent and may determine worse response to treatment. Few investigations have addressed the use of recent atypical antipsychotics in JBD, although several guidelines suggest their use.
We conducted a 6-week open trial with aripiprazole in 10 children and adolescents with JBD comorbid with ADHD to assess impact on mania and ADHD symptoms, respectively, by means of the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Scale, as well as on global functioning (Clinical Global Impressions–Severity), and adverse events.
Significant improvement in global functioning scores (F=3.17, P=.01, effect size=0.55), manic symptoms (F=5.63, P<.01; ES=0.93), and ADHD symptoms (t=3.42, P<.01; ES=1.05) were detected. Although an overall positive tolerability was reported, significant weight gain (F=3.07, P=.05) was observed.
Aripiprazole was effective in improving mania and ADHD symptoms, but neither JBD nor ADHD symptom remission was observed in most of the cases. Randomized placebo-controlled trials for JBD and ADHD are needed.
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