Please note, due to essential maintenance online transactions will not be possible between 02:30 and 04:00 BST, on Tuesday 17th September 2019 (22:30-00:00 EDT, 17 Sep, 2019). We apologise for any inconvenience.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Mg is one of the elements that are regarded as having a beneficial effect on the Al electromigration (EM) lifetime. In this paper, we compare the EM behavior of 0.4 μm wide passivated Al-1%Mg-0.5%Cu, Al-0.5%Cu and Al-l%Si-0.5%Cu lines. Plan-view transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam imaging reveal that Al(MgCu) film undergoes bimodal grain growth. Auger electron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry show a strong surface segregation and a severe bulk depletion of Mg. Additionally the line-width dependence of the rate of the resistivity decay during aging shows also a different behavior for Al(MgCu) compared to Al(Cu) and Al(SiCu). All these findings are consistent with the EM results that Al(MgCu), processed with our experimental conditions, has both the lowest median time to failure and deviation in time to failure. The results are discussed in the light of the effect of Mg addition on the microstructure and of the great surface activity of Mg.
The reaction mechanisms observed when sintering loose Cr2O3–CaF2 powder mixtures were analyzed, and the influence of the sintering parameters on the reaction behavior is presented. Using x-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements, CaCrO4 was shown to be the reaction product when sintering in air. The reaction occurs in two steps: CaF2 transforms to CaO at the Cr2O3–CaF2 interface, followed by a CaO–Cr2O3 interaction, which creates the reaction product. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis showed an increasing loss of CaF2 with increasing sintering temperature and heating rate, while an opposite evolution of the amount of reaction product was observed.
In this paper, we have studied the segregation phenomenon of Cu on the surfaces of patterned lines, dry-etched films and non-etched films, by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and lower energy Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. Significant enrichment of Cu is found on the sidewall of the lines. Annealing at 350°C and above cause the disappearance of this enrichment. Origin and evolution of this Cu enrichment have been investigated on films taken out from different steps of the etching process. It has been found that most of the Cu products induced by the plasma etching are CuCl and CuCl2 and they are removed mostly from the top Al oxide layer by the strip process. On the interface area between Al and the native oxide, considerable quantities of etched induced Cu are retained. This Cu is identified to be mainly metallic Cu. Different from the mechanism explained above, thermal annealing can also cause Cu segregation. We have found that Cu atoms diffuse into the native Al oxide where they form Cu2O.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.