Testate amoebae (TA) are a group of free-living protozoa, important in ecology and paleoecology. Testate amoebae taxonomy is mainly based on the morphological features of the shell, as examined by means of light microscopy or (environmental) scanning electron microscopy (SEM/ESEM). We explored the potential applications of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), two photon excitation microscopy (TPEM), phase contrast, differential interference contrast (DIC Nomarski), and polarization microscopy to visualize TA shells and inner structures of living cells, which is not possible by SEM or environmental SEM. Images captured by CLSM and TPEM were utilized to create three-dimensional (3D) visualizations and to evaluate biovolume inside the shell by stereological methods, to assess the function of TA in ecosystems. This approach broadens the understanding of TA cell and shell morphology, and inner structures including organelles and endosymbionts, with potential implications in taxonomy and ecophysiology.