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In previous chapters, the simple case of two-component systems, i.e., one single solute crystallizing in a solvent (or solvent mixture), was mainly considered. However, because crystallization is most often employed as a purification process, numerous impurities resulting from the upstream part of the process are necessarily present in solution, such as buffer components, residual reactants, intermediates, or by-products. These impurities may affect the crystallization process and the resulting crystal properties, even at low concentration. Besides, additives are sometimes placed intentionally in solution with a view to tuning certain crystal properties. The mechanisms by which impurities and additives dissolved in solution affect the crystallization process can be rationalized in a common framework, so they will both be placed under the umbrella of foreign species in this chapter. The species to be purified will instead be referred to as the host species.
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