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Discovered at the beginning of the twentieth century, the Abri Casserole (Dordogne, France) was the subject of salvage excavations in the early nineties. The fieldwork revealed a sequence of 13 archaeological levels that document human occupations from the Gravettian to the Magdalenian, including very rare and poorly known assemblages (e.g. Early Badegoulian, Protosolutrean) that afford a particular importance to this sequence. Results of a previous dating program that focused on the Badegoulian levels were obtained in 1994 but were neither extensively published nor discussed. Five AMS 14C ages obtained for the Gravettian and Solutrean assemblages in the early 2010s served to complement the site’s chronology. However, since the beta counting ages for the Badegoulian levels were in conflict with the accepted AMS chronology for the region’s late Pleniglacial archaeological record, a new AMS dating program was implemented to renew the radiometric framework of this specific portion of the sequence. Compared to the previous beta counting measurements, the seven newly obtained AMS ages are about 1000 years older (23.3–20.5 cal ka BP) and congruent with other AMS-dated Badegoulian sequences. These results thereby restore the inter-site chronological coherence of the Solutrean–Badegoulian and Badegoulian–Magdalenian transitions.
It is widely assumed that celebrities are imbued with political capital and the power to move opinion. To understand the sources of that capital in the specific domain of sports celebrity, we investigate the popularity of global soccer superstars. Specifically, we examine players’ success in the Ballon d’Or—the most high-profile contest to select the world’s best player. Based on historical election results as well as an original survey of soccer fans, we find that certain kinds of players are significantly more likely to win the Ballon d’Or. Moreover, we detect an increasing concentration of votes on these kinds of players over time, suggesting a clear and growing hierarchy in the competition for soccer celebrity. Further analyses of support for the world’s two best players in 2016 (Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo) show that, if properly adapted, political science concepts like partisanship have conceptual and empirical leverage in ostensibly non-political contests.
Patients suffering from an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) associated with an initial shockable rhythm have a better prognosis than their counterparts. The implications of recurrent or refractory malignant arrhythmia in such context remain unclear. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between the number of prehospital shocks delivered and survival to hospital discharge among patients in OHCA.
This cohort study included adult patients with an initial shockable rhythm over a 5-year period from a registry of OHCA in Montreal, Canada. The relationship between the number of prehospital shocks delivered and survival to discharge was described using dynamic probabilities. The association between the number of prehospital shocks delivered and survival to discharge was assessed using multivariable logistic regression.
A total of 1,788 patients (78% male with a mean age of 64 years) were included in this analysis, of whom 536 (30%) received treatments from an advanced care paramedic. A third of the cohort (583 patients, 33%) survived to hospital discharge. The probability of survival was highest with the first shock (33% [95% confidence interval 30%-35%]), but decreased to 8% (95% confidence interval 4%-13%) following nine shocks. A higher number of prehospital shocks was independently associated with lower odds of survival (adjusted odds ratio=0.88 [95% confidence interval 0.85-0.92], p < 0.001).
Survival remains possible even after a high number of shocks for patients suffering from an OHCA with an initial shockable rhythm. However, requiring more shocks is independently associated with worse survival.
Drawing on an extensive range of French archival sources as well as Jean Monnet's papers, this article challenges several commonly held views regarding the establishment of the Monnet Plan by re-examining the domestic political context in post-war France. It reveals that the distinctive ‘supra-ministerial’ structure of the Monnet Plan was developed only after, and in direct response to, the October 1945 legislative elections in which the French Communist Party won the most seats and subsequently gained control of France's main economic ministries. Furthermore, Monnet managed to convince communist ministers to surrender important powers from their ministries to Monnet's nascent planning office on false premises, a finding that challenges the usual depiction of Monnet as an open and honest broker.
The enterohormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is required to amplify glucose-induced insulin secretion that facilitates peripheral glucose utilisation. Alteration in GLP-1 secretion during obesity has been reported but is still controversial. Due to the high adaptability of intestinal cells to environmental changes, we hypothesised that the density of GLP-1-producing cells could be modified by nutritional factors to prevent the deterioration of metabolic condition in obesity. We quantified L-cell density in jejunum samples collected during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in forty-nine severely obese subjects analysed according to their fat consumption. In mice, we deciphered the mechanisms by which a high-fat diet (HFD) makes an impact on enteroendocrine cell density and function. L-cell density in the jejunum was higher in obese subjects consuming >30 % fat compared with low fat eaters. Mice fed a HFD for 8 weeks displayed an increase in GLP-1-positive cells in the jejunum and colon accordingly to GLP-1 secretion. The regulation by the HFD appears specific to GLP-1-producing cells, as the number of PYY (peptide YY)-positive cells remained unchanged. Moreover, genetically obese ob/ob mice did not show alteration of GLP-1-positive cell density in the jejunum or colon, suggesting that obesity per se is not sufficient to trigger the mechanism. The higher L-cell density in HFD-fed mice involved a rise in L-cell terminal differentiation as witnessed by the increased expression of transcription factors downstream of neurogenin3 (Ngn3). We suggest that the observed increase in GLP-1-positive cell density triggered by high fat consumption in humans and mice might favour insulin secretion and therefore constitute an adaptive response of the intestine to balance diet-induced insulin resistance.
In addition to the spicules typically produced by sponges, about twenty hypercalcified species belonging to both classes Demospongiae and Calcispongiae secrete a massive basal calcareous skeleton composed of calcite or aragonite. Skeletal growth rates and growth mechanisms are still poorly known in those hypercalcified Calcispongiae. In situ calcein staining experimentation on the Mediterranean calcisponge Petrobiona massiliana revealed a mean annual growth rate of the massive skeleton of 236 µm/y (±90). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that some spicules are entrapped within the massive skeleton (a solid mass forming apical crests with multidirectional growth axes) during its formation. Whole actines were observed within the massive skeleton of fractured specimens, indicating that they do not dissolve after entrapping. Calcein incorporation bands seen through epifluorescence microscopy and SEM morphological observations of the skeletal surface revealed cone shaped protuberances corresponding to active growth areas. A spatially discontinuous growth was highlighted, but the annual growth rates were similar at the tip of crests and at the bottom of depressions separating them. The skeleton of P. massiliana is composed of magnesium calcite with strontium as the main trace element. Significant differences in skeletal chemistry of specimens collected in different Mediterranean locations revealed a possible temperature dependence of Mg/Ca. Although such temperature signature exists in the massive skeleton of P. massiliana, its use as an accurate environmental recorder is limited by several factors including multidirectional and spatially discontinuous growth.
It is currently unknown whether the antidepressant effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) depends on specific characteristics of the stimulated frontal area, such as metabolic changes. We investigated the effect of high-frequency rTMS, administered over the most hypometabolic prefrontal area in depressed patients in a two-site, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled add-on study. Forty-eight patients with medication-resistant major depression underwent magnetic resonance imaging and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) in order to determine a target area for rTMS. After randomization to PET-guided (n=16), standard (n=18), or sham rTMS (n=14) conditions, the patients received 10 sessions of 10-Hz rTMS (1600 pulses/session) at 90% motor threshold. Change from baseline in Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores did not differ between PET-guided, standard and sham groups at 2-wk end-point. Exploratory comparison of left PET-guided (n=9), right PET-guided, standard, and sham rTMS revealed significant effects. The highest improvement in MADRS scores was observed with left PET-guided (60±31%), significantly superior to sham (30±37%, p=0.01) and right-guided (31±33%, p=0.02) stimulation. Comparison between left PET-guided and standard rTMS (49±28%) was not significant (p=0.12). Comparison between stimulation over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9-46), stimulation of other areas, and sham rTMS was statistically significant. Stimulation over BA 9-46 region (n=15) was superior to sham rTMS (p=0.02). The results do not support the general hypothesis of increased antidepressant effects of high-frequency rTMS with prefrontal hypometabolism-related PET guidance. Nonetheless, whether metabolism and anatomy characteristics of left frontal area underneath the coil might account for an increase or speeding up of rTMS effects needs further investigation.
The complex formed by chronic illness, episodes of acute illness, physiological disabilities, functional limitations, and cognitive problems is prevalent among frail elderly persons. These individuals rely on assistance from social and health care programs, which in Canada are still fragmented. SIPA (Services intégrés pour les personnes âgées fragiles) is an integrated service model based on community services, a multidisciplinary team, case management that retains clinical responsibility for all the health and social services required, and the capacity to mobilize resources as required and according to the care protocol. The SIPA demonstration project used an experimental design, with random allocation of the 1,230 participants from two areas of Montreal to an experimental and a control group. The costs of institutional services were $4,270 less for those in the SIPA group compared to the control group; the costs of community care were $3,394 more. The proportion of persons waiting in acute care hospitals for nursing home placement was twice as high in the control group as in the SIPA group. The costs of acute hospitalizations for persons in the SIPA group with ADL disabilities were at least $4,000 lower than those for persons in the control group. In conclusion, the SIPA trial showed that it is possible to undertake ambitious and rigorous demonstration projects in Canada. These results were obtained without an increase in the overall costs of health and social services, without reducing the quality of care, and without increasing the burden on elderly persons and their relatives.
The oxidised derivatives of phytosterols (oxyphytosterols) were identified in plasma samples from thirteen healthy human volunteers, using MS. All the samples contained noticeable quantities of (24R)-5β,6β-epoxy-24-ethylcholestan-3β-ol (β-epoxysitostanol) and (24R)-ethylcholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol (sitostanetriol) and also trace levels of (24R)-5α,6α-epoxy-24-ethylcholestan-3β-ol (α-epoxysitostanol), (24R)-methylcholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol (campestanetriol) and (24R)-ethylch olest-5-en-3β-ol-7-one(7-ketositosterol). The amounts of these oxyphytosterols in plasma varied from 4·8 to 57·2 ng/ml. There are two possibilities concerning the origin of these compounds. First, they could come from the small amounts of oxyphytosterols in food. Second, they could originate from the in vivo oxidation of phytosterols in plasma. Very few data actually exist concerning these compounds. Their identification in human samples suggests that further research is necessary in this field.
Objectives: To explore one aspect of the external validity of the randomized controlled trial (RCT), specifically how being selected for inclusion in a trial and having participated has influenced the use and cost of asthma-related health services.
Methods: Services used by asthmatic users of inhaled corticosteroids (iCSTs) having previously participated in an RCT (TS, n = 46) were compared with individuals who had never participated (NS, n = 51).
Results: TS were more likely to use higher (≥400 μg) daily doses of iCSTs than NS (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.1–8.3) but less likely to visit emergency departments (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1–0.7). Total asthma-related costs did not differ significantly.
Conclusions: Subject differences may impede generalizing from RCTs to real life.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary oxysterols on coronary atherosclerosis and vasospasm. Golden Syrian hamsters were fed three diets with different lipid contents for 3 months: (1) a normolipidaemic diet containing 25 g corn oil–fish oil (4:1, w/w)/kg (group Low L); (2) a hyperlipidaemic diet composed of the normolipidaemic diet supplemented with 150 g lard+30 g cholesterol/kg (group High L); (3) a third diet, similar to the hyperlipidaemic diet, in which 4 g cholesterol/kg was replaced by a mixture of oxysterols (group High L+OS). The oxysterol mixture contained (g/kg): 5,6α-epoxycholesterol 211, 5,6β-epoxycholesterol 179, 7α-hydroxycholesterol 67, 7β-hydroxycholesterol (7βOH) 185, 7-ketocholesterol (7 K) 235; and trace amounts of 7-hydroperoxycholesterols (approximately 30 g/kg). Atherosclerosis was evaluated by measuring myocardial Ca, oxysterols and acyl-CoA cholesterol acyl transferase (ACAT) activity; furthermore, coronary reactivity to sodium nitroprusside (5×10-6 m) was measured and the morphology of coronary arteries was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. Coronary spasm was determined by evaluating reactivity to serotonin (5×10-6 m). Feeding the high-lipid diet (group High L) increased the plasma level of 7βOH, 7 K and cholestanetriol. The presence of oxysterols in the diet (group High L+OS) further increased the concentrations of 7βOH and 7 K in the plasma. However, as evidenced by myocardial Ca, ACAT activity and coronary reactivity to sodium nitroprusside, severe atherosclerosis did not develop during the 3-month diet. 7 K was increased in myocardial lipids of groups High L and High L+OS. Electron microscopy did not show the development of atherosclerosis in group High L, whereas vascular wall thickening, endothelial damage and smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration occurred when oxysterols were present in the food. Serotonin (5×10-6 m) induced exacerbated coronary vasoconstriction in group High L that was completely reversed by dietary oxysterols. In conclusion, dietary oxysterols exhibit anti-spasmodic properties, but they cannot be used as agents against excess dietary lipid-induced coronary spasm because of their atherogenic properties.
The cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham) [= C. assimilis (Paykull)] (Colonnelli 1993), is a univoltine species native to Europe that feeds on canola and other oilseed cruciferous plants. The adult overwinters in debris and soil outside fields and colonizes canola at the blooming stage (Dosdall et al. 2001). Eggs are laid singly into the immature pods and each larva consumes five to seven seeds before cutting a hole in the pod to wriggle out and pupate in the soil (Dmoch 1965). Yield losses are difficult to assess because the plant compensates for bud and pod injuries caused by insects or pathogens (Lamb 1989). Nevertheless, pod feeding by larvae causes much damage, as canola yields can be reduced from 15 to 35% (Homan and McCaffrey 1993). Feeding by adults can also be significant, as it can reduce oil content, seed weight, and seed germination (Buntin et al. 1995).
We develop the distinction between “referential” and “modalizing” aspects of language and describe their functional dissociation, as observed in various manifestations of aphasia and in the speech of hemispherectomy and commissurotomy patients. Such a frequently observable dissociation is taken to reflect certain cognitive and neurobiological distinctions that do not seem to be accounted for by the structurally motivated linguistic models currently utilized in neurolinguistic studies. The dissociation appears to generate fresh and original insights when applied to acquired language impairments.
The dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) is a meaningful candidate gene because it unifies the dopamine and the limbic hypotheses for schizophrenia. We tested for an allelic association between schizophrenia and the DRD3 Mscl alleles, hypothesising heterogeneity between childhood/early adolescence-onset schizophrenia (CO-SZ) and adult-onset schizophrenia (A-SZ).
The frequencies of the DRD3 alleles were compared between 70 DSM-III-R schizophrenics (35 CO-SZ and 35 A-SZ) and 79 controls.
Compared with the controls, the subsample of A-SZ, but not CO-SZ, showed an over-proportion (P = 0.025) of allele 1. The association was not found in the total sample, combining the two subsamples.
Consistently with former studies, our data suggest an aetiological heterogeneity between CO-SZ and A-SZ and a possible specificity of the excess of allele 1 to the familial form of schizophrenia and to schizophrenia with a better outcome.
Ultra thin films (50 nm and 180 nm) of amorphous diamond-like carbon on a silicon substrate produced by laser ablation are tested by nanoindentation with a new instrument deriving from a Surface Force Apparatus. Quasi-static measurements of the load and dynamic measurements of the contact stiffness are continuously and simultaneously recorded versus the penetration depth. Scanning lines on the tested surface before and after indentation are made by means of tangential displacement of the diamond indenter on the surface.
The tests are conducted with maximum loads from 50 μN to 2500 μN, which correspond to maximum indentation depths between 7 nm and 70 nm. The indentation curves show near elastic recovery but scanning lines and/or topographic images on the surfaces show detectable plastic prints. Despite the extremely small residual indentation depths for these ultra thin films, we show how the hardness value we calculate from the indentation curves with an elastoplastic theory is in good agreement with the hardness value we calculate from the indentation print profile. The determination of the Young's modulus, even at the smallest indentation depths, must take into account the mechanical properties of the substrate. The determination of both values, hardness and elastic modulus, also requires a calibration procedure for the geometry of the tip and knowledge of the piling-up effect.
We find that the apparent hardness and the apparent Young's modulus of the tested diamondlike films are high. They are underestimated in comparison with the real values. A rough correction which overestimates the Young’s modulus gives higher values than those of natural diamond.
The food habits of four hypogeous Macrotermitinae species were studied using stable carbon isotope analysis in several biotopes of a humid savanna of West Africa (Lamto, Côte d'Ivoire). The proportion of woody and herbaceous material in the diet of the different species was determined by measuring the 13C natural abundance in the fungus comb. The diet varied with season and biotope, especially tree density. The results confirm the flexibility of the food habits of the fungus-growing termites as a consequence of their exosymbiosis with the fungus Termitomyces sp.