To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
This research communication addresses the hypothesis that the association of dietary vitamin E and Yerba Mate could help to prevent or decrease oxidation of milk enriched in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). Four multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square. Treatments were: (1) control diet with no Yerba Mate or vitamin E; (2) diet containing 375 IU/kg vitamin E; (3) diet containing 30 g/kg Yerba Mate; and (4) diet containing 375 IU/kg vitamin E and 30 g/kg Yerba Mate. To increase unsaturated fatty acids in milk, cows were fed 172 g/kg soybean seeds (on a dry matter basis). There was no interaction between vitamin E and Yerba Mate supplementation for milk antioxidant-related (polyphenols, reducing power, conjugated dienes, and TBARS) analyses. Milk reducing power was increased when cows were supplemented with Yerba Mate. Our results suggest that the association of dietary vitamin E and Yerba Mate does not help to prevent or decrease oxidation of milk in UFA.
Steep slope vineyards are a complex scenario for the development of ground robots. Planning a safe robot trajectory is one of the biggest challenges in this scenario, characterized by irregular surfaces and strong slopes (more than 35°). Moving the robot through a pile of stones, spots with high slope or/and with wrong robot yaw may result in an abrupt fall of the robot, damaging the equipment and centenary vines, and sometimes imposing injuries to humans. This paper presents a novel approach for path planning aware of center of mass of the robot for application in sloppy terrains. Agricultural robotic path planning (AgRobPP) is a framework that considers the A* algorithm by expanding inner functions to deal with three main inputs: multi-layer occupation grid map, altitude map and robot’s center of mass. This multi-layer grid map is updated by obstacles taking into account the terrain slope and maximum robot posture. AgRobPP is also extended with algorithms for local trajectory replanning during the execution of a trajectory that is blocked by the presence of an obstacle, always assuring the safety of the re-planned path. AgRobPP has a novel PointCloud translator algorithm called PointCloud to grid map and digital elevation model (PC2GD), which extracts the occupation grid map and digital elevation model from a PointCloud. This can be used in AgRobPP core algorithms and farm management intelligent systems as well. AgRobPP algorithms demonstrate a great performance with the real data acquired from AgRob V16, a robotic platform developed for autonomous navigation in steep slope vineyards.
To determine whether (-)-epicatechin (Epi) could decrease visceral adipose tissue and improve the metabolic profile of male offspring rats, after maternal obesity was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD).
Maternal obesity in albino Wistar rats was induced with a HFD, whereas male offspring were fed with chow diet throughout the study. Eight male offspring per group, from different litters, were randomly assigned to the experimental or to the control groups. In the experimental group, Epi was administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight to the male offspring twice daily for two weeks, beginning at postnatal day (PND).
Weight of visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte size, and several metabolic parameters.
Epi administration in the male offspring induced a significant decrease in the amount of visceral fat (11.61 g less, P < 0.05) and in the size of adipose cells (28% smaller, P < 0.01). Besides, Epi was able to decrease insulin, leptin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment -Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) (P < 0.05), as well as triglycerides, when the experimental group was compared to the untreated male offspring of obese rats (P < 0.01).
Epi administration can reverse the negative effects that maternal obesity has on the male offspring. This could be because Epi reduces the amount of visceral fat and improves metabolic profile.
To analyse the Nutritional Knowledge Test (NKT) using Item Response Theory (ITR) analysis and to assess the construct validity of the Nutritional Knowledge Scale (NKTS) and its associations with adolescent food group consumption and nutritional biomarkers.
Multicentre investigation conducted in ten European cities.
Adolescents aged 12·5–17·5 years (n 3215) who completed over 75 % of the NKT.
Factor analysis indicated that the NKT can be analysed with a one-dimensional model. Eleven out of twenty-three items from the NKT presented adequate parameters and were selected to be included in the NKTS. Nutrition knowledge was positively associated with consumption of fruits, cereals, dairy products, pulses, meat and eggs, and fish, as well as with blood concentrations of vitamin C, β-carotene, n-3 fatty acids, holo-transcobalamin, cobalamin and folate; nutrition knowledge was negatively associated with intake of olives and avocado, alcohol and savoury snacks.
The NKTS assessed nutritional knowledge adequately and it is proposed as a new tool to investigate this subject in future studies.
The value of the nosological distinction between non-affective and affective psychosis has frequently been challenged. We aimed to investigate the transdiagnostic dimensional structure and associated characteristics of psychopathology at First Episode Psychosis (FEP). Regardless of diagnostic categories, we expected that positive symptoms occurred more frequently in ethnic minority groups and in more densely populated environments, and that negative symptoms were associated with indices of neurodevelopmental impairment.
This study included 2182 FEP individuals recruited across six countries, as part of the EUropean network of national schizophrenia networks studying Gene–Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. Symptom ratings were analysed using multidimensional item response modelling in Mplus to estimate five theory-based models of psychosis. We used multiple regression models to examine demographic and context factors associated with symptom dimensions.
A bifactor model, composed of one general factor and five specific dimensions of positive, negative, disorganization, manic and depressive symptoms, best-represented associations among ratings of psychotic symptoms. Positive symptoms were more common in ethnic minority groups. Urbanicity was associated with a higher score on the general factor. Men presented with more negative and less depressive symptoms than women. Early age-at-first-contact with psychiatric services was associated with higher scores on negative, disorganized, and manic symptom dimensions.
Our results suggest that the bifactor model of psychopathology holds across diagnostic categories of non-affective and affective psychosis at FEP, and demographic and context determinants map onto general and specific symptom dimensions. These findings have implications for tailoring symptom-specific treatments and inform research into the mood-psychosis spectrum.
Trichomonas vaginalis is responsible for the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted infection, human trichomoniasis, and is associated with an increased susceptibility to HIV. An escalation in resistance (2.5–10%) to the clinical drug, metronidazole (MTZ), has been detected and this compound also has adverse side-effects. Therefore, new treatment options are urgently required. Herein, we investigate the possible anti-T. vaginalis activity of 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (phendione) and its metal complexes, [Ag(phendione)2]ClO4 and [Cu(phendione)3](ClO4)2·4H2O. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against T. vaginalis ATCC 30236 and three fresh clinical isolates and mammalian cells were performed using serial dilution generating IC50 and CC50 values. Drugs combinations with MTZ were evaluated by chequerboard assay. A strong anti-T. vaginalis activity was found for all test compounds. IC50 values obtained for [Cu(phendione)3](ClO4)2·4H2O were similar or lower than those obtained for MTZ. In vitro assays with normal cells showed low cytotoxicity and [Cu(phendione)3](ClO4)2·4H2O presented a high selectivity index (SI) for fibroblasts (SI = 11.39) and erythrocytes (SI > 57.47). Chequerboard assay demonstrated that the combination of [Cu(phendione)3](ClO4)2·4H2O with MTZ leads to synergistic interaction, which suggests distinct mechanisms of action of the copper–phendione complex and avoiding the MTZ resistance pathways. Our results highlight the importance of phendione-based drugs as potential molecules of pharmaceutical interest.
The neurocognitive trajectory in bipolar disorder (BD) is variable, with controversial findings, and most evidence come from cross-sectional studies. We aimed to examine the course of neurocognitive functioning in a sample of euthymic BD patients in comparison with a control group during a 5-year follow-up.
Ninety-nine euthymic bipolar patients and 40 healthy controls were assessed using a comprehensive neurocognitive battery (six neurocognitive domains) at baseline (T1) and then at 5-year follow-up (T2) in a longitudinal study.
No evidence of a progression in neurocognitive dysfunction was found either in cognitive composite index or in any of the neurocognitive domains for the whole cohort. However, there was a negative correlation between number of manic episodes and hospitalisations due to manic episodes and change in neurocognitive composite index (NCI) during the follow-up. Moreover, patients with higher number of manic and hypomanic episodes have a greater decrease in NCI, working memory and visual memory. History of psychotic symptoms was not related to the trajectory of neurocognitive impairment.
Our results suggest that, although the progression of cognitive decline is not a general rule in BD, BD patients who have a greater number of manic or hypomanic episodes may constitute a subgroup characterised by the progression of neurocognitive impairment. Prevention of manic and hypomanic episodes could have a positive impact on the trajectory of cognitive function.
Recent open-label trials show that psychedelics, such as ayahuasca, hold promise as fast-onset antidepressants in treatment-resistant depression.
To test the antidepressant effects of ayahuasca, we conducted a parallel-arm, double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in 29 patients with treatment-resistant depression. Patients received a single dose of either ayahuasca or placebo. We assessed changes in depression severity with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating scale at baseline, and at 1 (D1), 2 (D2), and 7 (D7) days after dosing.
We observed significant antidepressant effects of ayahuasca when compared with placebo at all-time points. MADRS scores were significantly lower in the ayahuasca group compared with placebo at D1 and D2 (p = 0.04), and at D7 (p < 0.0001). Between-group effect sizes increased from D1 to D7 (D1: Cohen's d = 0.84; D2: Cohen's d = 0.84; D7: Cohen's d = 1.49). Response rates were high for both groups at D1 and D2, and significantly higher in the ayahuasca group at D7 (64% v. 27%; p = 0.04). Remission rate showed a trend toward significance at D7 (36% v. 7%, p = 0.054).
To our knowledge, this is the first controlled trial to test a psychedelic substance in treatment-resistant depression. Overall, this study brings new evidence supporting the safety and therapeutic value of ayahuasca, dosed within an appropriate setting, to help treat depression. This study is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02914769).
A new approach to inhabitation problems in simply typed lambda-calculus is shown, dealing with both decision and counting problems. This approach works by exploiting a representation of the search space generated by a given inhabitation problem, which is in terms of a lambda-calculus for proof search that the authors developed recently. The representation may be seen as extending the Curry–Howard representation of proofs by lambda terms. Our methodology reveals inductive descriptions of the decision problems, driven by the syntax of the proof-search expressions, and produces simple, recursive decision procedures and counting functions. These allow to predict the number of inhabitants by testing the given type for syntactic criteria. This new approach is comprehensive and robust: based on the same syntactic representation, we also derive the state-of-the-art coherence theorems ensuring uniqueness of inhabitants.
This study evaluated the population structure, growth and longevity of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in the State of Sergipe. The obtained data were compared with other populations on a latitudinal scale in order to evaluate whether the latitudinal paradigm applies to this species. Shrimp sampling took place monthly from September 2013 to August 2014, in nine stations distributed at 5, 15 and 30 m depths, using a shrimp fishery boat equipped with a ‘double rig’ net. Sexual maturity was estimated by the logistic function y = a/(1 + b*exp(-cx)), and the sex ratio was analysed with the Chi-square test. The individual growth rate was estimated using the von Bertalanffy model, and the longevity was estimated by the inverse form of this formula. A total of 6418 (3457 females and 2961 males) was analysed. The size at onset of sexual maturity was 12 mm of carapace length (CL) for males and 12.5 mm CL for females. The total sex ratio did not differ from the expected (1:1). Males exhibited higher growth coefficients (k) and smaller asymptotic growth (CC∞ = 28.74 mm, k = 0.0081 day−1) than females (CC∞ = 30.79 mm, k = 0.0058 day−1). The estimated longevity (years) was 1.55 for males and 2.15 for females. No evident latitudinal pattern was observed regarding the size at onset of sexual maturity or the growth parameters for X. kroyeri. The information found, besides contributing to the knowledge about the biology of this shrimp, can also clarify hypotheses presented in relation to the latitudinal paradigm along the Brazilian coast.
The deficiency of Se, an essential micronutrient, has been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our study was designed to determine total serum Se, selenoproteins (extracellular glutathione peroxidase (GPx-3), selenoprotein P (SeP)), selenoalbumin (SeAlb) and selenometabolites in healthy women and their newborns at delivery. This cross-sectional study included eighty-three healthy mother–baby couples. Total Se and Se species concentrations were measured in maternal and umbilical cord sera by an in-series coupling of two-dimensional size-exclusion and affinity HPLC. Additional measurements of serum SeP concentration and of serum GPx-3 enzyme activity were carried out using ELISA. Total Se concentration was significantly higher in maternal serum than in cord serum (68·9 (sd 15·2) and 56·1 (sd 14·6) µg/l, respectively; P<0·01). There were significant correlations between selenoprotein and SeAlb concentrations in mothers and newborns, although they also showed significant differences in GPx-3 (11·2 (sd 3·7) v. 10·5 (sd 3·5) µg/l; P<0·01), SeP (42·5 (sd 9·5) v. 28·1 (sd 7·7) µg/l; P<0·01) and SeAlb (11·6 (sd 3·6) v. 14·1 (sd 4·3) µg/l; P<0·01) concentrations in maternal and cord sera, respectively. Serum GPx-3 activity and concentration were positively correlated in mothers (r 0·33; P=0·038) but not in newborns. GPx-3 activity in cord serum was significantly correlated with gestational age (r 0·44; P=0·009). SeAlb concentration was significantly higher in babies, whereas SeP and GPx-3 concentrations were significantly higher in mothers. The differences cannot be explained by simple diffusion; specific transfer mechanisms are probably involved. GPx-3 concentrations in mothers, at delivery, are related to maternal Se status, whereas the GPx-3 activity in cord serum depends on gestational age.
Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease, which needs improvements in drug development, mainly due to the toxicity, parasite resistance and low compliance of patients to treatment. Therefore, the development of new chemotherapeutic compounds is an urgent need. This opinion article will briefly highlight the feasible use of calpain inhibitors as leading compounds to search for new therapeutic options to treat leishmaniasis. The milestone of this approach is to take advantage on the myriad of inhibitors developed against calpains, some of which are in advanced clinical trials. The deregulated activity of these enzymes is associated with several pathologies, such as strokes, diabetes and Parkinson's disease, to name a few. In Leishmania, calpain upregulation has been associated to drug resistance and virulence. Whereas the difficulties in developing new drugs for neglected diseases are more economical than biotechnological, repurposing approach with compounds already approved for clinical use by the regulatory agencies can be an interesting shortcut to a successful chemotherapeutic treatment for leishmaniasis.
Known life cycles of myxosporean parasites have two hosts, but very few life cycles have been disclosed, especially in the marine environment. Sphaerospora dicentrarchi Sitjà-Bobadilla and Álvarez-Pellitero, 1992 is a systemic parasite from the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758), a highly valuable commercial fish. It affects its health, leading to aquaculture production losses. During 2013 and 2014, an actinospore survey was conducted in a total of 5942 annelids collected from a fish farm in Algarve and from the Aveiro Estuary, in Portugal. A new tetractinomyxon actinospore was found in a capitellid polychaete, belonging to the genera Capitella collected at the fish farm. The tetractinomyxons were pyriform measuring 11·1 ± 0·7 µm in length and 7·2 ± 0·4 µm in width, and presented three rounded polar capsules measuring 2·4 ± 0·3 µm in diameter. The molecular analysis of the 18S rRNA gene sequences from the tetractinomyxons revealed a similarity of 100% with the DNA sequences deposited in the GenBank from S. dicentrarchi myxospores collected from the European seabass and the spotted seabass in the same fish farm and 99·9% similarity with the DNA sequence obtained from the myxospores found infecting the European seabass in the Aveiro Estuary. Therefore, the new tetractinomyxons are inferred to represent the actinospore phase of the S. dicentrarchi life cycle.
Field and in vitro studies have shown that high salinities and temperatures promote the proliferation and dissemination of Perkinsus marinus in several environments. In Brazil, the parasite infects native oysters Crassostrea gasar and Crassostrea rhizophorae in the Northeast (NE), where the temperature is high throughout the year. Despite the high prevalence of Perkinsus spp. infection in oysters from the NE of Brazil, no mortality events were reported by oyster farmers to date. The present study evaluated the effects of salinity (5, 20 and 35 psu) and temperature (15, 25 and 35 °C) on in vitro proliferation of P. marinus isolated from a host (C. rhizophorae) in Brazil, for a period of up to 15 days and after the return to the control conditions (22 days; recovery). Different cellular parameters (changes of cell phase's composition, cell density, viability and production of reactive oxygen species) were analysed using flow cytometry. The results indicate that the P. marinus isolate was sensitive to the extreme salinities and temperatures analysed. Only the highest temperature caused lasting cell damage under prolonged exposure, impairing P. marinus recovery, which is likely to be associated with oxidative stress. These findings will contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of perkinsiosis in tropical regions.
This paper intends to analyze the microstructure of concrete with recycled aggregates (RA) from construction and demolition waste from various Portuguese recycling plants. To that effect, several scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were performed. Various concrete mixes were evaluated in order to analyze the influence of the RA’s collection point and consequently of their composition on the mixes’ characteristics. Afterward all the mixes were subjected to the capillary water absorption test in order to quantitatively evaluate their porosity. Results from the SEM/EDS analysis were compared with those from capillary water absorption test. The SEM/EDS analysis showed that the bond capacity of aggregates to the new cement paste is greatly influenced by the RA’s nature. On the other hand, there was an increase in porosity with the incorporation of RA.
In this work, the correlation between the number of nonbridging oxygen (NBO) atoms and the thermal and optical properties of TeO2–Li2O–MoO3 glasses was studied. Samples containing (100 − x)TeO2–x(Li2O–MoO3) with x = 10, 15, 20, and 25 mol% were investigated by Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. From the optical absorption measurements, the band gap energies were determined. The Raman and FTIR results showed that with increasing x, the TeO4 units transform into TeO3+1 units and then into TeO3 units, while the Mo coordination changes from 4 → 6. This transformation corresponds to a decrease in the total number of NBO with increasing x in this glass matrix. The decrease in the NBO is also confirmed by the increase in band gap energies and the decrease in the optical basicity, indicating a more polymerized network with increasing x.
Micro energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (µ-EDXRF) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to evaluate dentin treated with an etch and rinse adhesive (ER) and a self-etch adhesive (SE). Ten human molars (H) and ten bovine anterior teeth (B) were prepared (exposure of dentin and divided in the middle) and allocated into two different adhesion strategy groups per substrate (n=40). µ-EDXRF data and SEM images were obtained before and after treatment. Untreated dentin of both substrates did not differ in terms of Ca (p<0.1503), P (p<0.2986) or Ca/P ratio (p<0.1400). H-SE and B-SE specimens showed reduced P content (p<0.0001; p<0.0002), while H-ER and B-ER specimens showed reduced Ca and P content (p<0.0001; p<0.0001) when compared with untreated specimens. The Ca/P ratio was significantly higher in H-ER and B-ER specimens than in H-SE and B-SE specimens (p<0.0001; p<0.0080). Untreated dentin showed a homogeneous elemental distribution. However, after adhesive treatments, the surface of the dentin showed an irregular demineralization pattern. The resin tags and adhesive layer were shorter in bovine specimens than in human specimens due to morphological differences.