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Only 30% or fewer of individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) convert to full psychosis within 2 years. Efforts are thus underway to refine risk identification strategies to increase their predictive power. Our objective was to develop and validate the predictive accuracy and individualized risk components of a mobile app-based psychosis risk calculator (RC) in a CHR sample from the SHARP (ShangHai At Risk for Psychosis) program.
In total, 400 CHR individuals were identified by the Chinese version of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. In the first phase of 300 CHR individuals, 196 subjects (65.3%) who completed neurocognitive assessments and had at least a 2-year follow-up assessment were included in the construction of an RC for psychosis. In the second phase of the SHARP sample of 100 subjects, 93 with data integrity were included to validate the performance of the SHARP-RC.
The SHARP-RC showed good discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.78 (p < 0.001). The individualized risk generated by the SHARP-RC provided a solid estimation of conversion in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.80 (p = 0.003). A risk estimate of 20% or higher had excellent sensitivity (84%) and moderate specificity (63%) for the prediction of psychosis. The relative contribution of individual risk components can be simultaneously generated. The mobile app-based SHARP-RC was developed as a convenient tool for individualized psychosis risk appraisal.
The SHARP-RC provides a practical tool not only for assessing the probability that an individual at CHR will develop full psychosis, but also personal risk components that might be targeted in early intervention.
Altered resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) has been noted in large-scale functional networks in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, identifying consistent abnormalities of functional networks is difficult due to varied methods and results across studies. To integrate rsFC alterations and search for coherent patterns of intrinsic functional network impairments in ADHD, this research conducts a coordinate-based meta-analysis of voxel-wise seed-based rsFC studies comparing rsFC between ADHD patients and healthy controls. A total of 25 datasets from 21 studies including 700 ADHD patients and 580 controls were analyzed. We extracted the coordinates of seeds and between-group effects. Each seed was then categorized into a seed-network by its location within priori 7-network parcellations. Then, pooled meta-analyses were conducted for the default mode network (DMN), frontoparietal network (FPN) and affective network (AN) separately, but not for the ventral attention network (VAN), dorsal attention network (DAN), somatosensory network (SSN) and visual network due to a lack of primary studies. The results showed that ADHD was characterized by hyperconnectivity between the FPN and regions of the DMN and AN as well as hypoconnectivity between the FPN and regions of the VAN and SSN. These findings not only support the triple-network model of pathophysiology associated with ADHD but also extend this model by highlighting the involvement of the SSN and AN in the mechanisms of network interactions that may account for motor hyperactivity and impulsive symptoms.
Asia Minor bluegrass (Polypogon fugax Nees ex Steud.) is a problem grass weed of winter crops in China, where a population has become resistant to aryloxyphenoxypropionate (APP) herbicides. The mechanism of resistance is due to an Ile-2041-Asn mutation of the ACCase gene. Screen house experiments were conducted to study the growth, fecundity characteristics, and competitive ability of this aryloxyphenoxypropionate-resistant (APP-R) biotype compared with a susceptible (APP-S) biotype. When grown under noncompetitive conditions, the APP-R P. fugax developed more rapidly than the APP-S plants, with earlier tiller and panicle emergence and seed shedding; the APP-R P. fugax set seeds nearly 12 d earlier than the APP-S biotype. APP-R and APP-S biotypes had similar aboveground dry weight before the flowering stage. Fecundity of the APP-R biotype was similar to the APP-S biotype (8.57 g seeds plant−1 and 0.17 g seeds panicle−1 versus 8.22 g seeds plant−1 and 0.13 g seeds panicle−1, respectively). Ultimately, the relatively slower-developing APP-S P. fugax had 50% more shoot dry weight than the APP-R plants. Relative competitiveness among the APP-R and APP-S P. fugax biotypes was investigated through replacement series experiments. No difference in competitive ability was measured between APP-R and APP-S biotypes on the basis of shoot dry weight before the tillering stage. These results indicate that there is no apparent fitness penalty for the APP-R P. fugax. The shorter growth cycle of APP-R with no apparent fitness penalty suggests that growers will need begin weed control earlier and possibly include vegetative crops with an even shorter growth cycle in their rotations.
A viscous damping model is proposed based on a simplified equation of fluid motion in a moonpool or the narrow gap formed by two fixed boxes. The model takes into account the damping induced by both flow separation and wall friction through two damping coefficients, namely, the local and friction loss coefficients. The local loss coefficient is determined through specifically designed physical model tests in this work, and the friction loss coefficient is estimated through an empirical formula found in the literature. The viscous damping model is implemented in the dynamic free-surface boundary condition in the gap of a modified potential flow model. The modified potential flow model is then applied to simulate the wave-induced fluid responses in a narrow gap formed by two fixed boxes and in a moonpool for which experimental data are available. The modified potential flow model with the proposed viscous damping model works well in capturing both the resonant amplitude and frequency under a wide range of damping conditions.
This study aim to derive and validate a simple and well-performing risk calculator (RC) for predicting psychosis in individual patients at clinical high risk (CHR).
From the ongoing ShangHai-At-Risk-for-Psychosis (SHARP) program, 417 CHR cases were identified based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), of whom 349 had at least 1-year follow-up assessment. Of these 349 cases, 83 converted to psychosis. Logistic regression was used to build a multivariate model to predict conversion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to test the effectiveness of the SIPS-RC. Second, an independent sample of 100 CHR subjects was recruited based on an identical baseline and follow-up procedures to validate the performance of the SIPS-RC.
Four predictors (each based on a subset of SIPS-based items) were used to construct the SIPS-RC: (1) functional decline; (2) positive symptoms (unusual thoughts, suspiciousness); (3) negative symptoms (social anhedonia, expression of emotion, ideational richness); and (4) general symptoms (dysphoric mood). The SIPS-RC showed moderate discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.744 (p < 0.001). A risk estimate of 25% or higher had around 75% accuracy for predicting psychosis. The personalized risk generated by the SIPS-RC provided a solid estimate of conversion outcomes in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.804 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.662–0.951].
The SIPS-RC, which is simple and easy to use, can perform in the same manner as the NAPLS-2 RC in the Chinese clinical population. Such a tool may be used by clinicians to counsel appropriately their patients about clinical monitor v. potential treatment options.
The present paper presents a novel method to cope with the difficulty that an N-order filter can introduce a maximum number of transmission zeros (TZs) – no more than N. The method is described by a coupling topology and realized by a regular fully canonical filter structure to increase one more TZ for an N-order filter without any filter size increase. Besides, the TZ shift property, as another advantage of the proposed topology, is investigated. The coupling topology consists of a group of fully canonical coupling nodes with the harmonic node (non-resonating node (NRN)) excited by a λ/4 resonator. Owing to the unique coupling topology and coupling node distribution as well as the inclusion of an NRN, N + 1 TZs are generated by an N-order bandpass filter, while all the TZs are close to the passband and far away from the harmonic passband resulting the highly selective passbands. For demonstration, two-, three-, and four-order filters are designed and measured with the experimental results that confirm the proposed technique.
A numerical analysis of flow around a circular cylinder oscillating in-line with a steady flow is carried out over a range of driving frequencies
at relatively low amplitudes
and a constant Reynolds number of 175 (based on the free-stream velocity). The vortex shedding is investigated, especially when the shedding frequency
synchronises with the driving frequency. A series of modes of synchronisation are presented, which are referred to as the
are natural numbers. When a
is detuned to
, representing the shedding of
pairs of vortices over
cycles of cylinder oscillation. The
modes are further characterised by the periodicity of the transverse force over every
cycles of oscillation and a spatial–temporal symmetry possessed by the global wake. The synchronisation modes
with relatively small natural numbers are less sensitive to the change of external control parameters than those with large natural numbers, while the latter is featured with a narrow space of occurrence. Although the mode of synchronisation can be almost any rational ratio (as shown for
smaller than 10), the probability of occurrence of synchronisation modes with
being an even number is much higher than
being an odd number, which is believed to be influenced by the natural even distribution of vortices in the wake of a stationary cylinder.
The resolution of the electron microscope is now largely limited by the performance of its electron source when various aberrations in the electron imaging system, especially spherical aberrations, are corrected. A nanowire tip could be an ideal point electron source, where electrons are emitted from a small physical area. In this article, we review recent advances in electric-field-induced electron emission using a single nanowire, specifically, single-crystalline lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) nanowire, compared to the state-of-the-art contemporary tungsten cold-field electron emitter W(310) as well as single atom tip and single-carbon nanotube emitters. Owing to its low work function, improved emission stability, and high emission brightness, the LaB6 nanowire as a cold-field-emission electron source offers a new and exciting opportunity for developing the next generation of electron microscopes.
In this paper, a compact dual-band bandpass filter (DB-BPF) using new dual-mode resonator-loaded resonators (DM-RLRs) is presented and investigated to simultaneously achieve controllable return loss (RL), bandwidth (BW) and transmission zeros (TZs), and the simple strategy for this type of filter design is proposed. The DB-BPF consists of two high-flexibility DM-RLRs with separated electric and magnetic coupling (SEMC). Specifically, the proposed DM-RLR provides the DB-BPF with center frequency control as well as RL control, and SEMC is utilized for the BW and TZ control. To facilitate the design, a simple optimization-based design strategy is proposed and employed, resulting in an example layout. Finally, the example filter, with center frequencies of 1.57 GHz (channel 1 for GPS) and 3.5 GHz (channel 2 for WiMAX), is fabricated and measured. The measurement insertion loss and RL are 0.9/0.9 and 17/20 dB. The fabricated DB-BPF also exhibits a compact size of 0.12λg × 0.08λg at 1.57 GHz.
In this letter, a passive high-selectivity dual-band filter with two controllable transmission zero (TZ) pairs is proposed, while synthesis method and control mechanism of the two TZ pairs are investigated. Specifically, by employing the magnetic/electric mixed coupling (MEMC), source–load coupling (S–L coupling) and stepped-impedance resonators, a dual-band bandpass filter with two pairs of controllable TZs is constructed. Two controllable TZ pairs can be independently adjusted by re-modifying the associated coupling structures. To validate the synthesizability and controllability of the TZ pairs, mathematical synthesis, and EM simulations are carried out. Two demonstrative filters with identical passband performance and different central TZ distributions for GSM (0.9/1.8 GHz) are designed and measured. The analysis and experimental results show that the synthesis-controllable TZ pair (fz2, fz3) introduced by MEMC can be synthesized and controlled using inline mixed coupling synthesis, and the optimization-controllable TZ pair (fz1, fz4) because of S–L coupling is controlled by S–L coupling strength optimization procedure.
A new lithium ion hybrid supercapacitor is reported, in which the negative electrode was made from ZnO nano-crystals coated with a nitrogen doped carbon, and a positive electrode composed of activated carbon. The ZnO nano-crystals were highly dispersed in a nitrogen doped carbon matrix through a bio-inspired route. Dopamine, used as the nitrogen and carbon source, self-polymerized and deposited onto the surface of ZnO nano-crystal. After pyrolysis, a nitrogen doped amorphous carbon coated ZnO nano-crystal materials were obtained. The characteristics of the synthesized carbon coated ZnO nano-crystal electrode as well as the electrochemical performance of the hybrid device were investigated. The ZnO nano-crystal structure was preserved in the course of the carbon coating. The lithium ion supercapacitor demonstrated a high capacity and good cycling stability. Such good performance can be attributed to improved conductivity, the prevention of ZnO nano particles from pulverization and the high degree of crystallinity of the ZnO material.
Triquetrous murdannia is an annual weed commonly found in rice fields in China. Laboratory and screenhouse experiments were carried out to determine the effect of light, temperature, osmotic and salt stress, seed burial depth, amount of rice residue, and depth of flooding on seed germination and seedling emergence of triquetrous murdannia and to evaluate the response of this weed to commonly available POST herbicides in China. Germination was greater than 93% under a wide day/night temperature range of 20/10 to 30/20 C in the light/dark regime. The time to onset of germination decreased as temperature increased. Germination was slightly stimulated when seeds were placed in light/dark conditions compared with seeds placed in the dark. The osmotic potential and NaCl concentration required for 50% inhibition of maximum germination were −0.5 MPa and 122 mM, respectively. The highest germination (68%) was observed from seeds sown on the soil surface, but decreased with increasing burial depth. Only 7% of seedlings emerged from a depth of 4 cm, and no seedlings emerged from seeds buried deeper than 6 cm. Seedling emergence decreased from 93 to 35% with increasing quantity of rice residue (1 to 6 103 kg ha−1) applied on the soil surface. Seedling emergence was reduced by 40, 48, 64, and 70% at flooding depths of 1, 2, 4, and 6 cm, respectively, for the seeds sown on the soil surface. Fluroxypyr and MCPA herbicides provided 100% control of triquetrous murdannia at the 2- to 6-leaf stages; however, to achieve 100% control with bispyribac-sodium, MCPA+bentazone or MCPA+fluroxypyr, herbicides had to be applied by the 4-leaf stage. The results of this study could help in developing more sustainable and effective integrated weed management strategies for the control of triquetrous murdannia in rice fields in China.
Hydrophobic functionalized SBA-15 has been developed via postsynthesis modification with trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and used for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) removal. The adsorption and desorption performance of different SBA-15-TMCS under static and dynamic conditions were investigated. Experimental results indicated that all samples showed a highly ordered two dimensional hexagonal mesostructure, and the organic groups were chemically incorporated into the pore surface of SBA-15 substrate. Comparing with commercial silica gel and activated carbon, SBA-15-TMCS shows higher static adsorption capacities of n-hexane and 93# gasoline, good recyclability, lower water vapor adsorption capacity, higher dynamic adsorption capacity, and longer breakthrough time. The high adsorption efficiency and stability of SBA-15-TMCS are associated with their hydrophobic surface, uniform and large pore size, high surface area and pore volume. The designed SBA-15-TMCS with high VOC adsorption capacity and recyclability shows great potential for VOC removal.
Inconel 617 alloy (IN 617) is an important candidate material of advanced ultrasupercritical power unit above 700 °C. However, there are some issues in welding of IN 617 such as constitutional liquation and hot cracking. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) is considered as an effective welding method to join IN 617 because of low heat input and high quality. Investigation of the microstructure variation of TIG welded joint and its correlation with properties is helpful in deep understanding the stability and reliability of IN 617 welded joint. In this paper, the microstructure evolution and element segregation of IN 617 welded joint were investigated systematically. It is found that the base metal (BM) with significant banded structure is characterized by austenitic grains and some secondary phases distribute along the grain boundaries and inside the grains. The fine secondary phases are determined as M23C6 enriched with Cr and Mo elements. A few large polygon phases are identified as Ti(C, N) with a size of about 10 μm. The coarsened secondary phases are observed in the heat affected zone (HAZ) close to BM whilst the lamellar structure enriched with Cr and Mo is present along grain boundaries in the HAZ near the fusion line. The weld metal (WM) is fully austenitic with a dendritic structure and contains particles dispersing in the matrix. The element segregation on grain boundaries of IN 617 welded joint was analyzed by energy dispersive spectrometer. No obvious element segregation was observed in HAZ. In WM, the area in the vicinity of solidification grain boundaries and solidification subgrain boundaries (SSGBs) has a local depletion of Ni and Co while the Cr and Mo have no obvious segregation. Microhardness and high temperature tensile test of BM and WM were conducted. The WM has a little bit larger hardness value than BM and HAZ because of the strengthening effect of SSGBs. The fracture position is determined in the middle of WM, which is attributed to the grain boundary failure in the center of WM. The high temperature tensile properties of the welded joint are close to BM. In this investigation, the constitutional liquation in HAZ and solidification in WM have little effect on the high temperature tensile properties. TIG welding method is proved to be a suitable welding method to join IN 617.
A compact microstrip multi-stub loaded bandpass filter (BPF) with ultra-wide stopband is introduced and investigated. Lumped-equivalent circuit (LEC) method is adopted to analyze the characteristics of the in-band response based upon the low frequency LEC and even-odd mode analytical method. Besides, equivalent transmission line circuit method with even-odd mode analytical method are adopted to discuss the mechanism of the out-band rejection based upon the transmission poles and the transmission zeros analysis of the even-/odd-mode equivalent circuits. Accordingly, the design and the optimization procedures of this type of filters are summarized. To experimentally validate the proposed method, the filter is fabricated and measured. The measured results illustrate this BPF centered at f0 = 2.8 GHz, with −3 dB fractional bandwidth of 109.3%, the insert loss (IL) of less than 1 dB from 1.4 to 4 GHz, and the rejection level of 20 dB from 5.1 to 33.5 GHz(1.82f0 to 11.96f0).
With the increasing usage of Al alloys in vehicle manufacture, it is necessary to join dissimilar Al alloys with lap joint. However, hot cracking is a challenging issue due to the chemical composition and thermal tension, which greatly determines the reliability of automobile operation. Among different Al alloys, the series 5000 (Al–Mg) and 6000 (Al–Mg–Si) are widely used. To better understand the hot cracking behavior, various stack ups of AA5754 and AA6013 were laser welded to investigate the effects of process parameters on hot cracking formation. The chemical composition, microstructure, fusion ratio, and fracture morphology of the weld joint were also examined. The results showed that the order of material stacking affected weld's susceptibility to hot cracking significantly, and the critical process parameters were obtained for tested conditions which could effectively reduce hot cracking. The findings from this work provide guidance for hot cracking prevention in laser welding of dissimilar Al alloys.
The association of 24 h urinary Na and potassium excretion with the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has not been studied in China. The aim of the present study was to examine this association by analysing the data from 1906 study participants living in north China. To this end, 24 h urine samples were collected. Of the 1906 participants, 471 (24·7 %) had the MetS. The mean urinary Na and K excretion was 228·7 and 40·8 mmol/d, respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the odds of the MetS significantly increased across the increasing tertiles of urinary Na excretion (1·00, 1·40 and 1·54, respectively). For the components of the MetS, the odds of central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG, but not the odds of low HDL-cholesterol and elevated fasting glucose, significantly increased with the successive tertiles of urinary Na excretion. Furthermore, for every 100 mmol/d increase in urinary Na excretion, the odds of the MetS, central obesity, elevated blood pressure and elevated TAG was significantly increased by 29, 63, 22 and 21 %, respectively. However, urinary K excretion was not significantly associated with the risk of the MetS. These findings suggest that high Na intake might be an important risk factor for the MetS in Chinese adults.