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Teaching Secondary History provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of teaching History to years 7–12 in Australian schools. Engaging directly with the Australian Curriculum, this text introduces pre-service teachers to the discipline of History. It builds on students' historical knowledge, thinking and skills and offers practical guidance on how to construct well-rounded History lessons for students. From inquiry strategies and teacher- and student-centred practice, to embedding the cross-curriculum priorities in planning and assessment, this text supports the learning and development of pre-service History teachers by connecting the 'big ideas' of teaching with the nuance of History content. Each chapter features short-answer and Pause and think questions to enhance understanding of key concepts, Bringing it together review questions to consolidate learning, classroom scenarios, examples of classroom work and a range of information boxes to connect students to additional material.
The aim of this quality improvement project is to improve identification and management of mood disorder in patients over 65 years admitted to Royal Surrey County Hospital (RSCH) with hip fractures by introducing a standardised assessment tool to guide appropriate interventions.
The signs of depression in the elderly can be subtle and often go unnoticed. The multidisciplinary team (MDT) at RSCH observed that low mood could negatively impact on a patient's recovery, affecting pain thresholds and leading to poor engagement with rehabilitation. Proactive identification and management of mood disorder is an important part of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment but not routinely performed in patients with hip fracture admitted to RSCH.
Notes and discharge summaries of patients with hip fracture admitted over a four-month period were retrospectively reviewed to establish if patients were screened for low mood. A mood screening tool was chosen and implemented prospectively over a four-month period. Occupational therapists and junior doctors completed a Cornell Score for all patinets. Those identified with depression or probable depression were issued verbal advice, an information leaflet and follow-up arranged.
Ninety-eight patients were included in the retrospective cohort. No patients were formally identified as having depression or probable depression, and there was no indication that mood was considered or assessed at any point during admission. During the four-month prospective period, 90 patients were admitted to RSCH with hip fracture and 86 patients (96%) were screened for low mood. Four patients were excluded due to a terminal prognosis. Of the patients screened, 9% had major depression and 16% probable depression. Feedback from our occupational therapists and doctors was positive, with the tool being relatively easy to use in patients with or without cognitive impairment. Much of the assessment could be incorporated into their initial assessment or in gaining collateral history from next of kin. Anecdotally, considering patients psychological well-being had a positive impact on inpatient therapy sessions guided the MDT in supporting the patient appropriately.
Implementation of a standardised and validated mood screening tool enabled us to identify that a quarter (25%) of the patients admitted following a hip fracture had, or probably had depression. This allowed us to intervene with simple measures such as verbal advice and an information leaflet and consider pharmacological intervention where appropriate.
To develop an international template to support patient submissions in Health Technology Assessments (HTAs). This was to be based on the experience and feedback from the implementation and use of the Scottish Medicines Consortium's (SMC) Summary Information for Patient Groups (SIP).
To gather feedback on the SMC experience, web-based surveys were conducted with pharmaceutical companies and patient groups familiar with the SMC SIP. Semistructured interviews with representatives from HTA bodies were undertaken, along with patient group discussions with those less familiar with the SIP, to explore issues around the approach. These qualitative data informed the development of an international SIP template.
Survey data indicated that 82 percent (18 of 22 respondents) of pharmaceutical company representatives felt that the SIP was worthwhile; 88 percent (15/17) of patient group respondents found the SIP helpful. Both groups highlighted the need for additional support and guidance around plain language summaries. Further suggestions included provision of a glossary of terms and cost-effectiveness information. Patient group interviews supported the survey findings and led to the development of a new template. HTA bodies raised potential challenges around buy-in, timing, and bias connected to the SIP approach.
The international SIP template is another approach to support deliberative processes in HTA. Although challenges remain around writing summaries for lay audiences, along with feasibility considerations for HTA bodies, the SIP approach should support more meaningful patient involvement in HTAs.
Research suggests that the metacognitive model is applicable to clinical child populations. However, few measures related to the model are available for younger age groups. A key concept of the model is the cognitive attentional syndrome (CAS), which encompasses the individual’s worry and rumination, maladaptive coping strategies, and metacognitive beliefs. While the CAS has been successfully measured in adults, this has not yet been attempted in children.
The aim of this study was to adapt a measure of the CAS for use with children and investigate the measure’s associations with anxiety, worry, depression and metacognitions.
Our study included 127 children with anxiety disorders aged 7–13 years. The adult measure of CAS was adapted for use with children and administered at pre- and post-treatment. We examined the correlations between variables and the ability of the CAS measure to explain variance in anxious symptomatology, as well as the measure’s sensitivity to treatment change.
The adapted measure, CAS-1C, displayed strong associations with overall anxiety, depression, worry and metacognitions. The CAS-1C explained an additional small amount of variance in anxiety and worry symptoms after accounting for metacognitions, which may be due to the measure also assessing thinking styles and coping strategies. Furthermore, the measure displayed sensitivity to treatment change.
The child measure of the CAS is a brief tool for collecting information on metacognitive beliefs and strategies that maintain psychopathology according to the metacognitive model, and it can be used to monitor treatment changes in these components.
The Interdisciplinary Network for Dementia Using Current Technology, INDUCT, is a Marie Sklodowska Curie funded International Training Network that aims to develop a multi-disciplinary, inter-sectorial educational research framework for Europe to improve technology and care for people with dementia, and to provide the evidence to show how technology can improve the lives of people with dementia. Within INDUCT (2016-2020) 15 Early Stage Researchers worked on projects in the areas of Technology to support every day life; technology to promote meaningful activities; and health care technology.
Three transversal objectives were adopted by INDUCT: 1) To determine the practical, cognitive and social factors needed to make technology more useable for people with dementia; 2) To evaluate the effectiveness of specific contemporary technology; and 3) To trace facilitators and barriers for implementation of technology in dementia care.
The main recommendations resulting from the research projects are integrated in a web-based digital Best Practice Guidance on Human Interaction with Technology in Dementia which will be presented at the congress. The recommendations are meant to be helpful for different target groups, i.e. people with dementia, their formal and informal carers, policy makers, designers and researchers, who can easily select the for them relevant recommendations in the Best Practice Guidance by means of a selection tool. The main aim of the Best Practice Guidance is to improve the development, usage and implementation of technology for people with dementia in the three mentioned technology areas.
This Best Practice Guidance is the result of the intensive collaborative partnership of INDUCT with academic and non-academic partners as well as the involvement of representatives of the different target groups throughout the INDUCT project.
Acknowledgements: The research presented was carried out within the Marie Sklodowska Curie International Training Network (ITN) action, H2020-MSCA-ITN-2015, grant agreement number 676265.
The inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasing, but there have been no longitudinal studies of included students in Australia. Interview data reported in this study concern primary school children with ASD enrolled in mainstream classes in South Australia and New South Wales, Australia. In order to examine perceived facilitators and barriers to inclusion, parents, teachers, and principals were asked to comment on the facilitators and barriers to inclusion relevant to each child. Data are reported about 60 students, comprising a total of 305 parent interviews, 208 teacher interviews, and 227 principal interviews collected at 6-monthly intervals over 3.5 years. The most commonly mentioned facilitator was teacher practices. The most commonly mentioned barrier was intrinsic student factors. Other factors not directly controllable by school staff, such as resource limitations, were also commonly identified by principals and teachers. Parents were more likely to mention school- or teacher-related barriers. Many of the current findings were consistent with previous studies but some differences were noted, including limited reporting of sensory issues and bullying as barriers. There was little change in the pattern of facilitators and barriers identified by respondents over time. A number of implications for practice and directions for future research are discussed.
To evaluate the effect of cosmetic surgery and the stability of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) diagnosis in patients with a minimal defect in appearance, with and without BDD, 5 years after their request for plastic surgery.
Subjects and methods
Thirty patients requesting cosmetic surgery with minimal defect in appearance, of whom 12 had BDD and 18 did not, were re-evaluated 5 years later by telephone interview regarding their cosmetic surgery interventions, satisfaction with the intervention, BDD diagnosis, handicap, and psychiatric comorbidity.
Of the 30 patients, we were able to re-evaluate 24 subjects (80%), 10 with BDD and 14 non-BDD. Seven BDD subjects had undergone cosmetic surgery vs 8 non-BDD. Patient satisfaction with the intervention was high in both groups. Nevertheless at follow-up, 6 of the 7 operated BDD patients still had a BDD diagnosis and exhibited higher levels of handicap and psychiatric comorbidity compared to their non-BDD counterparts. Moreover, 3 non-BDD patients had developed a BDD at follow-up.
This prospective study confirms that cosmetic surgery is not efficient on BDD despite declared patient satisfaction. Cosmetic surgery had no significant effects on BDD diagnosis, handicap or psychiatric comorbidity in BDD patients at 5-year follow-up. Furthermore, BDD appeared at follow-up in some initially non-BDD diagnosed subjects. Patients' declared satisfaction with surgery may contribute to explain why some plastic surgeons may not fully adhere to the contraindication of cosmetic surgery in BDD.
This chapter will review the evidence of early oasis development in Western Egypt and Eastern Libya, broadly following the course of the ‘route of the oases’, running west from the Nile to Siwa, then onwards to Awjila and al-Jufra in Libya, where it met the major north-south route from the Mediterranean to Garamantian Fazzan and beyond to Chad. The evidence presented for pre-Islamic oasis development is particularly strong in this part of the Sahara; indeed the origins of agriculture at some of the Egyptian oases went back to the third millennium BC and the route as a whole seems to have been well-developed by the fifth century BC.
We suggest that the ultimate origins of oasis agriculture in the Western Desert are to be sought in the Nile Valley and the Fayum, with a package of plants and irrigation techniques first developed there, then adopted in the oasis depressions of the Western Desert – notably Kharga, Dakhla, Farfara, Bahariya and Siwa (Fig. 3.1).
Decisions on the use of nature reflect the values and rights of individuals, communities and society at large. The values of nature are expressed through cultural norms, rules and legislation, and they can be elicited using a wide range of tools, including those of economics. None of the approaches to elicit peoples’ values are neutral. Unequal power relations influence valuation and decision-making and are at the core of most environmental conflicts. As actors in sustainability thinking, environmental scientists and practitioners are becoming more aware of their own posture, normative stance, responsibility and relative power in society. Based on a transdisciplinary workshop, our perspective paper provides a normative basis for this new community of scientists and practitioners engaged in the plural valuation of nature.