Seeking to build on related successes in other information technology sectors, the government of India has signaled its intent to transform the country's performance in microelectronics. Facing a young and expanding population, India needs to create manufacturing jobs in promising industries, and it needs to build out from its limited high-technology base. Semiconductors are foundational in this regard. Today, there is much discussion within India about the link between semiconductors and innovation in bio-electronics, alternative energy production and storage, and various micro- and nano-devices. The government's contemporary attempt to promote the building of infrastructure for manufacturing and applied research in semiconductors highlights reasons for hope. So too does the remarkable talent now available in the Indian diaspora. But significant impediments, especially in postsecondary and graduate-level education, must still be overcome if the necessary human capital is to be developed, equipped, and deployed effectively.