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To determine the source of a Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 nosocomial outbreak and the role of the heat exchanger installed on the hot water system within the previous year.
A 400-bed tertiary care university hospital in Sherbrooke, Canada.
Hot water samples were collected and cultured for L. pneumophila from 25 taps (baths and sinks) within wing A and 9 taps in wing B. Biofilm (5) and 2 L water samples (3) were collected within the heat exchangers for L. pneumophila culture and detection of protists. Sequence-based typing was performed on strain DNA extracts and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were analyzed.
Following 2 cases of hospital-acquired legionellosis, the hot water system investigation revealed a large proportion of L. pneumophila serogroup 5 positive taps (22/25 in wing A and 5/9 in wing B). High positivity was also detected in the heat exchanger of wing A in water samples (3/3) and swabs from the heat exchanger (4/5). The outbreak genotyping investigation identified the hot water system as the source of infections. Genotyping results revealed that all isolated environmental strains harbored the same related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern and sequence-based type.
Two cases of hospital-acquired legionellosis occurred in the year following the installation of a heat exchanger to preheat hospital hot water. No cases were reported previously, although the same L. pneumophila strain was isolated from the hot water system in 1995. The heat exchanger promoted L. pneumophila growth and may have contributed to confirmed clinical cases.
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).
The purpose of this study was to determine the factors which influence advance directive (AD) completion among older adults.
Direct interviews of hospitalized and community-dwelling cognitively intact patients >65 years of age were conducted in three tertiary teaching settings in New York. Analysis of AD completion focused on its correlation with demographics, personal beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, and exposure to educational media initiatives. We identified five variables with loadings of at least 0.30 in absolute value, along with five demographic variables (significant in the univariate analyses) for multiple logistic regression. The backward elimination method was used to select the final set of jointly significant predictor variables.
Of the 200 subjects consenting to an interview, 125 subjects (63%) had completed ADs. In comparing groups with and without ADs, gender (p < 0.0002), age (p < 0.0161), race (p < 0.0001), education (p < 0.0039), and religion (p < 0.0104) were significantly associated with having an AD. Factors predicting AD completion are: thinking an AD will help in the relief of suffering at the end of life, (OR 76.3, p < 0.0001), being asked to complete ADs/ or receiving explanation about ADs (OR 55.2, p < 0.0001), having undergone major surgery (OR 6.3, p < 0.0017), female gender (OR 11.1, p < 0.0001) and increasing age (76–85 vs. 59–75: OR 3.4, p < 0.0543; <85 vs. 59–75: OR 6.3, p < 0.0263).
Significance of results:
This study suggests that among older adults, the probability of completing ADs is related to personal requests by health care providers, educational level, and exposure to advance care planning media campaigns.
New emissions regulations will increase the need for compact, inexpensive sensors for monitoring and control of automotive exhaust gas pollutants. Species of interest include hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The current work is directed towards the development of fast, high sensitivity electrochemical NOx sensors for automotive diesel applications. We have investigated potentiometric NO sensors with good sensitivity and fast response when operated in 10% O2. The sensors consist of yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates attached with NiCr2O4 sensing electrodes and Pt reference electrodes. A composite NiCr2O4:Rh sensing electrode is shown to give significantly faster response than NiCr2O4 alone. The exact role of the Rh in enhancing the response speed is not clear at present. However, the Rh appears to accumulate at the contacts between the NiCr2O4 particles and may enhance the inter-particle electronic conduction. Ongoing testing of these sensors is being performed to elucidate the sensing mechanisms and to quantify cross sensitivity to, for example, NO2.
Fibromatosis represents a diverse group of fibroproliferative tumours. Their behaviour and pathological qualities are situated in an intermediate position between benign and malignant disease. The following represents the pathological and radiological presentation of a 29-year-old female with fibromatosis.
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