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The aim of this study was to test the effective separation of shape indices of otoliths of three species belonging to the family Sciaenidae before and after in vitro digestion. We measured 328 sagittal otoliths and applied six shape indices. Before the experiment, the aspect ratio (otolith height/otolith length%), circularity, ellipticity and relative surface of the sulcus acusticus were suitable for differentiating the species of genera Paralonchurus and Stellifer. Among the species of Stellifer, the aspect ratio and rectangularity were suitable. Otoliths exposed to in vitro digestion showed no significant differences in their morphometry before and after the experiment. After in vitro digestion, the aspect ratio and circularity were effective in separating Paralonchurus and Stellifer. However, none of the indices used in the present study were efficient to separate otoliths of congeneric species after in vitro digestion.
To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the Takeaway Masterclass, a three-hour training session delivered to staff of independent takeaway food outlets that promoted healthy cooking practices and menu options.
A mixed-methods study design. All participating food outlets provided progress feedback at 6 weeks post-intervention. Baseline and 6-week post-intervention observational and self-reported data were collected in half of participating takeaway food outlets.
North East England.
Independent takeaway food outlet owners and managers.
Staff from eighteen (10 % of invited) takeaway food outlets attended the training; attendance did not appear to be associated with the level of deprivation of food outlet location. Changes made by staff that required minimal effort or cost to the business were the most likely to be implemented and sustained. Less popular changes included using products that are difficult (or expensive) to source from suppliers, or changes perceived to be unpopular with customers.
The Takeaway Masterclass appears to be a feasible and acceptable intervention for improving cooking practices and menu options in takeaway food outlets for those who attended the training. Further work is required to increase participation and retention and explore effectiveness, paying particular attention to minimising adverse inequality effects.
Austral summer sea-ice processes were investigated in January 1999 during a cruise of the R.V. Nathaniel B. Palmer in the central and eastern Ross Sea, Antarctica. The crystal texture, 18O/16O ratios, density and salinity of ice cores and of ice blocks ‘perched’ on slush at the ice surface were studied. The perched ice blocks had a distinctive polygonal granular (PG) crystal texture and very negative isotope signature that were also characteristic of layers at the top of first-year floes and of layers ‘buried’ below the surface in multi-year floes. The PG ice is superimposed ice that results from melting in the snow cover and refreezing at the slush surface and directly on top of ice floes. If PG ice is buried after the ice surface floods and the resultant slush freezes, then snow ice forms above the PG ice. The contribution of superimposed ice to floe surface mass balance and some implications with respect to weather and climate are discussed.
We report sea-ice temperature and bulk salinity measurements as well as textural analysis from 33 first-year drift- and fast-ice stations sampled between November 2007 and June 2008 in the southern Beaufort Sea–Amundsen Gulf, Canadian Arctic, during the International Polar Year Circumpolar Flaw Lead (IPY-CFL) system study. We use this significant dataset to investigate the halo-thermodynamic evolution of sea ice from growth to melt. A strong desalination phase is observed over a small time window in the spring. Using calculated proxies of sea-ice permeability (brine volume fraction) and of the intensity of brine convection (Rayleigh number) we demonstrate that this phase corresponds to full-depth gravity drainage initiated by a restored connectivity of the brine network with warming in the spring. Most stations had a textural sequence typical of Arctic first-year ice, with granular ice overlying columnar ice. Unusual textural features were observed sporadically: sandwiched granular ice, platelet ice and draped platelet ice. We suggest that turbulence in leads and double diffusion in strong brine plumes following the refreeze of cracks are plausible mechanisms for the formation of these textures.
To determine the source of a Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5 nosocomial outbreak and the role of the heat exchanger installed on the hot water system within the previous year.
A 400-bed tertiary care university hospital in Sherbrooke, Canada.
Hot water samples were collected and cultured for L. pneumophila from 25 taps (baths and sinks) within wing A and 9 taps in wing B. Biofilm (5) and 2 L water samples (3) were collected within the heat exchangers for L. pneumophila culture and detection of protists. Sequence-based typing was performed on strain DNA extracts and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were analyzed.
Following 2 cases of hospital-acquired legionellosis, the hot water system investigation revealed a large proportion of L. pneumophila serogroup 5 positive taps (22/25 in wing A and 5/9 in wing B). High positivity was also detected in the heat exchanger of wing A in water samples (3/3) and swabs from the heat exchanger (4/5). The outbreak genotyping investigation identified the hot water system as the source of infections. Genotyping results revealed that all isolated environmental strains harbored the same related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern and sequence-based type.
Two cases of hospital-acquired legionellosis occurred in the year following the installation of a heat exchanger to preheat hospital hot water. No cases were reported previously, although the same L. pneumophila strain was isolated from the hot water system in 1995. The heat exchanger promoted L. pneumophila growth and may have contributed to confirmed clinical cases.
New results (compositional data and reflectance values) are reported for some rare sulfides enriched in K, Tl and Pb, which are related to djerfisherite, thalfenisite, bartonite, a “Cl-bearing bartonite”, or chlorbartonite, and also for shadlunite, from the Noril'sk and Salmagorsky complexes, Russia. Our observations and comparisons with relevant data in the literature imply that: (1) bartonite is probably a S-dominant (or Cl-free) analogue of djerfisherite; and a “Cl-bearing bartonite” and chlorbartonite are probably compositional variants of the djerfisherite–bartonite series. (2) The most probable formulae of bartonite and djerfisherite are (K,Me2+)6(Fe,Cu,Ni)25–xS26(S,Cl) and (K,Me2+)6(Fe,Cu,Ni)25–xS26(Cl,S), where 0 ≤ x ≤ 5, respectively. (3) Two independent substitution mechanisms probably operate in the natural series. A coupled substitution [Me2+ + S2– ↔ K+ + Cl–] is reflected by an observed deficit in K, accompanied by the incorporation of Me2+(Pb, Fe, or Ni) in the K site. Another mechanism is inferred to be [2Fe3+ + 〈 ↔ 3Fe2+], which assumes the existence of vacancy-type defects at the Me site. Thus, the second mechanism could possibly control the existing variations of Σ(Fe, Cu, Ni) in the range of ∼21 to 25 a.p.f.u., documented in djerfisherite- and bartonite-type minerals. The minerals analysed from Noril'sk, which are free of Cl and related to bartonite and to a Tl-dominant analogue of bartonite (unnamed species), probably crystallized from microvolumes of late fluid rich in K and Tl, under conditions of relatively low oxygen fugacity in the environment. Uniform contentss of Fe and Cu, observed in coexisting phases of normal (Cl-bearing) djerfisherite and bartonite (or Cl-free analogue of djerfisherite) at Salmagorsky imply that they reached equilibrium with regard to the distribution of these elements during crystallization. These phases probably formed as a result of fluctuations in the ratios of sulfur and chlorine fugacity in a fluid at a postmagmatic hydrothermal stage.
This work presents a wideband amplifier, in 12–19 GHz frequency range, with noise figure lower than 1.35 and 26 dB of gain developed in the frame of European Component Initiative program, supported by European Space Agency. By using a flexible biasing, this amplifier allows us to reach a significant linearity, output power at 1 dB compression up to 19 dBm, or to reduce the DC consumption close to 210 mW. This versatility implies that a user has a low-noise amplifier) or medium power amplifier in a single chip. The D01PHS process, from OMMIC foundry, has been chosen in order to realize this MMIC, thanks to linearity capability, and also thanks to a significant potential for low-noise amplification.
Gestational methyl donor deficiency (MDD) leads to growth retardation as well as to cognitive and motor disorders in 21-d-old rat pups. These disorders are related to impaired neurogenesis in the cerebral neurogenic areas. Olfactory bulbs (OB), the main target of neuronal progenitors originating from the subventricular zone, play a critical role during the postnatal period by allowing the pups to identify maternal odour. We hypothesised that growth retardation could result from impaired suckling due to impaired olfactory discrimination through imbalanced apoptosis/neurogenesis in the OB. Since neurosteroidogenesis modulates neurogenesis in OB, in the present study, we investigated whether altered neurosteroidogenesis could explain some these effects. Pups born to dams fed a normal diet (n 24) and a MDD diet (n 27) were subjected to olfactory tests during the lactation and weaning periods (n 24 and 20, respectively). We studied the markers of apoptosis/neurogenesis and the expression levels of the key neurosteroidogenic enzyme aromatase, the cholesterol-transfer protein StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) and the ERα oestrogen receptor and the content of oestradiol in OB. The 21-d-old MDD female pups displayed lower body weight and impaired olfactory discrimination when compared with the control pups. MDD led to greater homocysteine accumulation and more pronounced apoptosis, along with impaired cell proliferation in the OB of female pups. The expression levels of aromatase, StAR and ERα as well as the content of oestradiol were lower in the OB of the MDD female pups than in those of the control female pups. In conclusion, gestational MDD may alter olfactory discrimination performances by affecting neurogenesis, apoptosis and neurosteroidogenesis in OB in a sex-dependent manner. It may be involved in growth retardation through impaired suckling.
An accurate and very large band (30–110 GHZ) lumped element equivalent circuit model of capacitive RF-MEMS components based on a standard 250 nm BiCMOS technology is presented. This model is able to predict the effect of the fabrication process dispersion, synthesize new components and monitor the failure mechanisms. Moreover, a reliability study is performed in order to define a screening criterion (VPOUT > 36 V and |VPIN − VPOUT| ≤ 1) based on which a selection of the devices with optimal performance in terms of RF and lifetime performance can be made. Finally, a very quick effective technique (non-intrusive) is proposed to carry out this operation.
Catherine Esnouf, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Paris,Marie Russel, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Paris,Nicolas Bricas, Centre de Co-opération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Paris
This chapter presents some original findings based on a study of the carbon footprint of food in France. Factors that are liable to explain the inter-individual variability of the carbon footprint associated with the usual food consumption of a representative sample of French adults were explored. By analysing the relationship between the nutritional quality of food and its carbon footprint, this chapter also addresses the more general issue of the compatibility of two of the pillars of sustainability.
The authors would like to thank the ADEME and INRA for their financial support that enabled this study to be conducted.
Initial observations of the environmental impact of food demonstrated a broad inter-individual variability of this impact (even when taking account of variations in energy consumption). This contributed to the suggestion that dietary choices could simply be altered (i.e. replacing certain foods) to reduce the environmental impact of food (Carlsson-Kanyama et al., 2003; Coley et al., 1998). In particular, a reduction in the consumption of red meat from ruminants was suggested, because it is the production of these foods that generates the most greenhouse gas emissions per kilocalorie (kcal) (approximately 11 g eqCO2/ kcal) (Kling and Hough, 2010).
A previously undocumented marine vertebrate fauna comprising ichthyosaur, plesiosaur, marine crocodilian and fish remains from the Toarcian–Aalenian succession at Lafarge quarry, southern Beaujolais (Rhône, France) is described on the basis of both historical collections and new discoveries. The taxonomic composition of the Lafarge quarry marine vertebrate assemblage highlights its cosmopolitan nature and strong relationships with taxa known from elsewhere in Europe. Several groups are recorded for the first time in the Toarcian–Aalenian succession of France, implying new palaeobiogeographic interpretations and prompting discussion of marine amniote diversity during this interval.
The Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO) is carrying out a survey as part of an international collaboration to image the northe, at a common resolution, in emission from all major constituents of the interstellar medium; the neutral atomic gas, the molecular gas, the ionised gas, dust and relativistic plasma. For many of these constituents the angular resolution of the images (1 arcmin) will be more than a factor of 10 better than any previous studies. The aim is to produce a publicly-available database of high resolution, high-dynamic range images of the Galaxy for multi-phase studies of the physical states and processes in the interstellar medium. We will sketch the main scientific motivations as well as describe some preliminary results from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey/Releve Canadien du Plan Galactique (CGPS/RCPG).