To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Pyrophyllite is an important layered phyllosilicate material that is used in many fields due to its beneficial physicochemical and mechanical properties. Due to the presence of multiple defects in pyrophyllite, an in-depth investigation was conducted using density functional theory to explore the effects of Na(I), K(I), Mg(II), Ca(II) and Fe(II) doping on the atomic structure, electronic properties and mechanical characteristics of pyrophyllite. The results demonstrated that, among the studied defects, K(I) doping had the most pronounced effects on the lattice constants and bonding lengths of pyrophyllite, while the least significant effects were observed in the case of Fe(II) doping. Moreover, the partial and total densities of states and band structures of the five kinds of doped pyrophyllite also changed significantly due to the redistribution of electrons. Finally, the elastic constants of the doped pyrophyllite were lower than that of the undoped pyrophyllite. Doping with Na(I), K(I), Mg(II), Ca(II) and Fe(II) reduced the deformation resistance, stiffness and elastic wave velocity but increased the degree of anisotropy in pyrophyllite. The observed effects on the mechanical properties of pyrophyllite followed the order: Mg(II) > Fe(II) > Ca(II) >K(I) > Na(I).
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by both clinical symptoms and cognitive deficits. Prior studies have typically examined either symptoms or cognition correlated with brain measures, thus causing a notable paucity of stable brain markers that capture the full characteristics of MDD. Brain controllability derived from newly proposed brain model integrating both metabolism (energy cost) and dynamics from a control perspective has been considered as a sensitive biomarker for characterizing brain function. Thus, identifying such a biomarker of controllability related to both symptoms and cognition may provide a promising state monitor of MDD.
To assess the associations between two multi-dimensional clinical (symptoms and cognition) and brain controllability data of MDD in an integrative model.
Sparse canonical correlation analysis (sCCA) was used to investigate the association between brain controllability at a network level and both clinical symptoms and cognition in 99 first-episode medication-naïve patients with MDD. The potential mediation effect of cognition on relationship between controllability and symptoms was also tested.
Average controllability was significantly correlated with both symptoms and cognition (rmean=0.54, PBonferroni=0.03). Average controllability of dorsal attention network (DAN) (r=0.46) and visual network (r=0.29) had the highest correlation with both symptoms and cognition. Among clinical variables, depressed mood (r=-0.23) , suicide(r=-0.25), work and activities(r=-0.27), gastrointestinal symptoms (r=-0.25) were significantly negatively associated with average controllability, while cognitive flexibility (r=0.29) was most strongly positively correlated with average controllability. Additionally, cognitive flexibility fully mediated the association between average controllability of DAN and depressed mood (indirect effect=-0.11, 95% CI [-0.18, -0.04], P=0.001) in MDD.
Brain average controllability was correlated with both clinical symptoms and cognition in first-episode medication-naïve patients with MDD. The results suggest that average controllability of DAN and visual network reached high associations with clinical variates in MDD, thus these brain features may serve as stable biomarkers to control the brain functional states transitions to be relevant to cognitions deficits and clinical symptoms of MDD. Additionally, altered average controllability of DAN in patients could induce impairment of cognitive flexibility, and thus cause severe depressed mood, indicating that controllability of DAN may be a potential intervention target for alleviating depressed mood through improving cognitive flexibility in MDD.
Recently, Scholten and Read (2014) found new violations of dominance in intertemporal choice. Although adding a small receipt before a delayed payment or adding a small delayed receipt after an immediate receipt makes the prospect objectively better, it decreases the preference for that prospect (better is worse). Conversely, although adding a small payment before a delayed receipt or adding a small delayed payment after an immediate payment makes the prospect objectively worse, it increases the preference for that prospect (worse is better). Scholten and Read explained these violations in terms of a preference for improvement. However, to produce violations such as these, we find that the temporal sequences need not be constructed as Scholten and Read suggested. In this study, adding a small receipt before a dated receipt (thus constructed as improving) or adding a receipt after a dated payment (thus constructed as improving) decreases preferences for those prospects. Conversely, adding a small payment after a dated receipt (thus constructed as deteriorating) or adding a small payment before a delayed payment (thus constructed as deteriorating) increases preferences for those prospects.
Metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) might be an alternative valuable target in obesity treatment. We aimed to assess whether alternative Mediterranean (aMED) diet and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet were favourably associated with obesity and MHO phenotype in a Chinese multi-ethnic population. We conducted this cross-sectional analysis using the baseline data of the China Multi-Ethnic Cohort study that enrolled 99 556 participants from seven diverse ethnic groups. Participants with self-reported cardiometabolic diseases were excluded to eliminate possible reverse causality. Marginal structural logistic models were used to estimate the associations, with confounders determined by directed acyclic graph (DAG). Among 65 699 included participants, 11·2 % were with obesity. MHO phenotype was present in 5·7 % of total population and 52·7 % of population with obesity. Compared with the lowest quintile, the highest quintile of DASH diet score had 23 % decreased odds of obesity (OR = 0·77, 95 % CI 0·71, 0·83, Ptrend < 0·001) and 27 % increased odds of MHO (OR = 1·27, 95 % CI 1·10, 1·48, Ptrend = 0·001) in population with obesity. However, aMED diet showed no obvious favourable associations. Further adjusting for BMI did not change the associations between diet scores and MHO. Results were robust to various sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, DASH diet rather than aMED diet is associated with reduced risk of obesity and presents BMI-independent metabolic benefits in this large population-based study. Recommendation for adhering to DASH diet may benefit the prevention of obesity and related metabolic disorders in Chinese population.
As the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues around the world, understanding the transmission characteristics of COVID-19 is vital for prevention and control. We conducted the first study aiming to estimate and compare the relative risk of secondary attack rates (SARs) of COVID-19 in different contact environments. Until 26 July 2021, epidemiological studies and cluster epidemic reports of COVID-19 were retrieved from SCI, Embase, PubMed, CNKI, Wanfang and CBM in English and Chinese, respectively. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated in pairwise comparisons of SARs between different contact environments using the frequentist NMA framework, and the ranking of risks in these environments was calculated using the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA). Subgroup analysis was performed by regions. Thirty-two studies with 68 260 participants were identified. Compared with meal or gathering, transportation (RR 10.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–77.85), medical care (RR 11.68, 95% CI 1.58–86.61) and work or study places (RR 10.15, 95% CI 1.40–73.38) had lower risk ratios for SARs. Overall, the SUCRA rankings from the highest to the lowest were household (95.3%), meal or gathering (81.4%), public places (58.9%), daily conversation (50.1%), transportation (30.8%), medical care (18.2%) and work or study places (15.3%). Household SARs were significantly higher than other environments in the subgroup of mainland China and sensitive analysis without small sample studies (<100). In light of the risks, stratified personal protection and public health measures need to be in place accordingly, so as close contacts categorising and management.
The effects of early thiamine use on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between early thiamine administration and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with AKI. The data of critically ill patients with AKI within 48 h after ICU admission were extracted from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC III) database. PSM was used to match patients early receiving thiamine treatment to those not early receiving thiamine treatment. The association between early thiamine use and in-hospital mortality due to AKI was determined using a logistic regression model. A total of 15 066 AKI patients were eligible for study inclusion. After propensity score matching (PSM), 734 pairs of patients who did and did not receive thiamine treatment in the early stage were established. Early thiamine use was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (OR 0·65; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·87; P < 0·001) and 90-d mortality (OR 0·58; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·74; P < 0·001), and it was also associated with the recovery of renal function (OR 1·26; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·36; P < 0·001). In the subgroup analysis, early thiamine administration was associated with lower in-hospital mortality in patients with stages 1 to 2 AKI. Early thiamine use was associated with improved short-term survival in critically ill patients with AKI. It was possible beneficial role in patients with stages 1 to 2 AKI according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria.
The South Qinling block, a segment of the Yangtze craton involved in the Qinling–Dabie orogen, is critical for understanding the tectonic evolution of eastern China. However, the tectonic setting of the South Qinling block and the northern margin of the Yangtze block during middle Neoproterozoic time has long been the subject of debate, with two distinctly different models (continental rift or volcanic arc) proposed. Here, a comprehensive study of zircon U–Pb geochronology and geochemistry has been carried out on the Chengwan granitic pluton from the Suizao terrane in the South Qinling block. The granites are monzogranite and syenogranite in lithology, and are mainly composed of potash feldspar, quartz, plagioclase and biotite. This suite has long been regarded as a Palaeozoic magmatic pluton, but zircon U–Pb ages of 809 ± 9 Ma and 816 ± 4 Ma are obtained in this study. The granites are metaluminous to strongly peraluminous with high alkali contents, and exhibit highly fractionated features, including high SiO2, low Zr/Hf ratios, rare earth element tetrad effects and enrichment of K and Rb. They show Hf–Nd isotopic decoupling, which may be genetically related to their petrogenetic process. Based on the geochemical features and the positive εHf(t) values of the zircons, it is indicated that the granites may have been derived from partial melting of juvenile tonalitic rocks by biotite breakdown under fluid-absent conditions. The Chengwan granite geochemically belongs to the A2-subtype granites, suggesting that it might have formed in a post-orogenic tectonic setting. The highly fractionated A-type granite in this study may represent extensional collapse shortly after the collisional events in the South Qinling block, and thus indicate a tectonic regime switch, from compression to extension, as early as middle Neoproterozoic time. Integrating our new data with documented magmatic, metamorphic and sedimentary events during middle Neoproterozoic time in the region may support a continental rift model, and argues against arc models.
The current epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) significantly affects human health worldwide. Activation of brown adipocytes and browning of white adipocytes are considered as a promising molecular target for T2DM treatment. Mulberry leaf, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been demonstrated to have multi-biological activities, including anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Our experimental results showed that mulberry leaf significantly alleviated the disorder of glucose and lipid metabolism in T2DM rats. In addition, mulberry leaf induced browning of inguinal white adipose tissue (IWAT) by enhancing the expressions of brown-mark genes as well as beige-specific genes, including uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain containing protein 16 (PRDM16), cell death inducing DFFA-like effector A (Cidea), CD137 and transmembrane protein 26 (TMEM26). Mulberry leaf also activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) by increasing the expressions of brown-mark genes including UCP1, PGC-1α, PPARα, PRDM16 and Cidea. Moreover, mulberry leaf enhanced the expression of nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) genes that are responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis in IWAT and BAT. Importantly, mulberry leaf also increased the expression of UCP1 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1) proteins in both IWAT and BAT via a mechanism involving AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and PGC-1α pathway. In conclusion, our findings identify the role of mulberry leaf in inducing adipose browning, indicating that mulberry leaf may be used as a candidate browning agent for the treatment of T2DM.
To explore the association between dietary Na intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a nationally representative sample of the US population.
In this cross-sectional study, the associations between Na intake and NAFLD, defined by the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and the fatty liver index (FLI), were assessed through multivariable logistic regression models.
Communities in the USA from 2007 to 2014.
Men and women aged 20 years and older.
A total of 11 022 participants were included in the HSI-defined NAFLD analysis, and a subsample of 5320 participants was included in the FLI-defined NAFLD analysis. Compared with the lowest quartile of Na intake, the highest quartile had a multivariate-adjusted OR and 95 % CI of 1·46 (1·29, 1·65) for NAFLD as defined by HSI, and 1·41 (1·18, 1·69) for NAFLD as defined by FLI. This association was, to some degree, attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for several related metabolic parameters, including BMI, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and diabetes.
Findings from the current study indicate that dietary Na intake is positively associated with NAFLD in US adults.
This research communication describes associations between variation in the fatty acid binding protein 4 gene (FABP4) and milk fat composition in New Zealand Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cross dairy cows. After correcting for the effect of the amino acid substitution p.K232A in diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), which is associated with variation in many milk fatty acid (FA) component levels, the effect of FABP4 c.328A/G on milk FA levels was typically small. For the five genotypes analysed, the AB cows produced more medium-chain fatty acids than CC cows (P < 0.05), and more C14:0 FA than AA and AC cows (P < 0.05). The AA and AC cows produced less C22:0 FA (P < 0.01) than the BC cows, and the AC cows produced more C24:0 FA (P < 0.05) than was produced by the BC cows. Cows of genotype CC produce more long-chain fatty acids than cows of genotype BC (P < 0.05).
Malnutrition and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common complications in hospitalised patients, and both increase mortality; however, the relationship between them is unknown. This is a retrospective propensity score matching study enrolling 46 549 inpatients, aimed to investigate the association between Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and AKI and to assess the ability of NRS-2002 and AKI in predicting prognosis. In total, 37 190 (80 %) and 9359 (20 %) patients had NRS-2002 scores <3 and ≥3, respectively. Patients with NRS-2002 scores ≥3 had longer lengths of stay (12·6 (sd 7·8) v. 10·4 (sd 6·2) d, P < 0·05), higher mortality rates (9·6 v. 2·5 %, P < 0·05) and higher incidence of AKI (28 v. 16 %, P < 0·05) than patients with normal nutritional status. The NRS-2002 showed a strong association with AKI, that is, the risk of AKI changed in parallel with the score of the NRS-2002. In short- and long-term survival, patients with a lower NRS-2002 score or who did not have AKI achieved a significantly lower risk of mortality than those with a high NRS-2002 score or AKI. Univariate Cox regression analyses indicated that both the NRS-2002 and AKI were strongly related to long-term survival (AUC 0·79 and 0·71) and that the combination of the two showed better accuracy (AUC 0·80) than the individual variables. In conclusion, malnutrition can increase the risk of AKI and both AKI and malnutrition can worsen the prognosis that the undernourished patients who develop AKI yield far worse prognosis than patients with normal nutritional status.
Existing data on folate status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis are scarce. We prospectively examined whether serum folate concentrations at diagnosis were associated with liver cancer-specific survival (LCSS) and overall survival (OS) among 982 patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated HCC, who were enrolled in the Guangdong Liver Cancer Cohort (GLCC) study between September 2013 and February 2017. Serum folate concentrations were measured using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI by sex-specific quartile of serum folate. Compared with patients in the third quartile of serum folate, patients in the lowest quartile had significantly inferior LCSS (HR = 1·48; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·09) and OS (HR = 1·43; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·99) after adjustment for non-clinical and clinical prognostic factors. The associations were not significantly modified by sex, age at diagnosis, alcohol drinking status and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage. However, there were statistically significant interactions on both multiplicative and additive scale between serum folate and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels or smoking status and the associations of lower serum folate with worse LCSS and OS were only evident among patients with CRP > 3·0 mg/l or current smokers. An inverse association with LCSS were also observed among patients with liver damage score ≥3. These results suggest that lower serum folate concentrations at diagnosis are independently associated with worse HCC survival, most prominently among patients with systemic inflammation and current smokers. A future trial of folate supplementation seems to be promising in HCC patients with lower folate status.
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) provides an integrity service for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The conventional RAIM algorithm is based on the assumption of a single fault and typically uses the forward-backward method, which is based on the w-test or correlation analysis methods, to exclude the faults. It is suitable for single fault detection and exclusion, while it can lead to inefficiency, can be misleading and can even fail in the exclusion of multiple faults. To solve this problem, an improved method based on consensus voting of the w-test and correlation analysis methods is presented. To verify the performance of the improved method, tests using Global Positioning System (GPS)/BeiDou System (BDS) data have been carried out in comparison with the conventional methods in terms of false and correct faults exclusion rate and computational complexity in the case of a different number of faults. Results show that the improved method has almost the same correct exclusion rate compared to the conventional RAIM in the case of a single fault. It is worth noting that the improved method has a higher correct exclusion probability and computational efficiency as well as a lower possibility of false exclusion in the case of multiple faults.
Depression and anxiety disorders (AD) are the first and sixth leading causes of disability worldwide. Despite their high prevalence and significant disability resulted, there are limited advances in new drug development. Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have greatly advanced our understanding of the genetic basis underlying psychiatric disorders.
Here we employed gene-set analyses of GWAS summary statistics for drug repositioning. We explored five related GWAS datasets, including two on major depressive disorder (MDD2018 and MDD-CONVERGE, with the latter focusing on severe melancholic depression), one on AD, and two on depressive symptoms and neuroticism in the population. We extracted gene-sets associated with each drug from DSigDB and examined their association with each GWAS phenotype. We also performed repositioning analyses on meta-analyzed GWAS data, integrating evidence from all related phenotypes.
Importantly, we showed that the repositioning hits are generally enriched for known psychiatric medications or those considered in clinical trials. Enrichment was seen for antidepressants and anxiolytics but also for antipsychotics. We also revealed new candidates or drug classes for repositioning, some of which were supported by experimental or clinical studies. For example, the top repositioning hit using meta-analyzed p values was fendiline, which was shown to produce antidepressant-like effects in mouse models by inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase.
Taken together, our findings suggest that human genomic data such as GWAS are useful in guiding drug discoveries for depression and AD.
Invasive smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel) eradication is important for the health of many coastal ecosystems. An integrated regime of continuous submergence after clear mowing, with three interval levels between mowing and submergence (5, 10, and 15 d) and three submergence depths (20, 30, and 50 cm), was implemented in cofferdams enclosing invader populations along a Chinese coast. In July of the following year, after the roots of mowed S. alterniflora had been submerged for 12 mo, some ramets grew under the regime with an interval of 15 d and the regime with a submergence depth of 20 cm, but no ramets occurred under the regimes with submergence depths of 30 or 50 cm and intervals of 5 or 10 d. Four crab species were documented: Helice tridens tientsinensis Rathbun, Sesarma dehaani H. Milne-Edwards, Ocypode stimpsoni Ortmann, and Chiromantes haematocheir de Haan. Biomass and abundance values of crab species in the cofferdams were similar to those in the mudflats but different from those in smooth cordgrass populations. Thus, the treatment of submergence after mowing, which was implemented in the cofferdams, can control S. alterniflora and provide a mudflat-like habitat that promotes crab recovery if this treatment uses the proper combination of submergence depth and interval between mowing and submergence.
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) was significantly decreased in oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) were checked by RT-PCR; however, there were no differences between the AZD5438-treated and non-treated control groups. Our results demonstrate that porcine oocyte activation via an EP in combination with AZD5438 treatment can lead to a high blastocyst formation rate in PA and SCNT experiments.
Exponential additive Runge-Kutta methods for solving semi-linear equations are discussed. Related order conditions and stability properties for both explicit and implicit schemes are developed, according to the dimension of the coefficients in the linear terms. Several examples illustrate our theoretical results.
Excavation of the Han Dynasty chambered tomb at Laoguanshan in Chengdu, south-west China, has provided the earliest known evidence of pattern loom technology. Four model looms, along with accompanying artefacts and figurines relating to the weaving process, give insight into the technique of jin silk production. The discovery is hugely significant as it provides the first direct evidence of pattern-weave textile production in ancient China. Jin silk, made using this method, was both valuable and widely distributed, and the design of the machine influenced the invention of later looms and the spread of technology throughout Eurasia and Europe, representing great technological accomplishment for the second century BC.
The high-cycle fatigue (HCF) behavior is significantly affected by surface roughness, especially for high strength metal FV520B-I. However, with surface roughness effect, neither the fatigue property, nor the high-cycle fatigue life model about FV520B-I with surface roughness has been reported. In this paper, designed fatigue experiment using the specimen with different surface roughness is presented to study the effectiveness of the roughness to the fatigue. The observations of the fatigue crack initiation sites and the crack propagation. Then the high cycle fatigue behavior of FV520B-I affected by surface roughness is analyzed. The existing very-high-cycle fatigue life model is not well-fit for high-cycle fatigue model of FV520B-I. A NEW high-cycle fatigue life prediction model of FV520B-I, taking surface roughness as a main effective variable is proposed. The model is built up by a comprehensive use of experimental data and the traditional fatigue modeling theory. The new finding between the fatigue strength coefficient and stress amplitude, with surface roughness, is adopted, leading to a NEW modified life prediction model. Study on fatigue model of FV520B-I with surface roughness is a very beneficial effort in fatigue theory and fatigue engineering development.