Vacancy type defects introduced by As+, P+, Si+ and B+ ion implantations into Si (100) single crystals were studied by a variable-energy positron beam. Depth distributions of the defects were obtained from measurements of Doppler broadening profiles of the positron annihilation as a function of incident positron energy. The results showed that this technique is sensitive not only to a vacancy type defect but to formation of amorphous regions. The defects introduced by lower doses were identified as vacancy clusters from isochronal annealing experiments. By higher doses such as 5×1014 /cm2, amorphous layers were formed for 150KeV As+, 150KeV P+, and 200KeV Si+ ions, and it was not formed for 80KeV B+ by the dose of 5×1015 /cm2. These results are consistent with the calculated critical doses. In the case of B+, pre-amorphous formation was observed with higher ion beam current over 5mA and a dose of 5×1015 /cm2.