To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To understand better the microbial functional populations which are involved in methanogenesis and denitrification in paddy soils with rice straw (RS) and/or nitrogen fertiliser (potassium nitrate, N) application, the dynamics of methanogens and the denitrifying community were monitored simultaneously during the incubation period. The results show that the community structure of methanogens remained relatively stable among treatments based on 16S rDNA analysis, but fluctuated based on 16S rRNA. The Methanocellaceae and Methanosarcinaceae dominated all treatments at 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA level, respectively. RS+N increased the relative abundance of Methanosaetaceae at the 16S rRNA level, while there was an increasing trend in that Methanomicrobiaceae following RS addition at the 16S rDNA level. RS and/or N did not significantly change the diversity of methanogens targeting both 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA. RS and RS+N increased copy numbers of methanogens targeting both 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA analyses. The community structure and abundance of nirS and nosZ-containing denitrifiers, and the diversity of nirS-containing denitrifiers was significantly altered only by the N treatment. These results indicate that the community structure, diversity and abundance of methanogens respond differently to RS addition at the 16S rDNA and 16S rRNA levels.
Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable mental illness that transmits intergeneratively. Previous studies supported that first-degree relatives (FDRs), such as parents, offspring, and siblings, of patients with bipolar disorder, had a higher risk of bipolar disorder. However, whether FDRs of bipolar patients have an increased risk of schizophrenia, major depressive disorder (MDD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains unclear.
Among the entire population in Taiwan, 87 639 patients with bipolar disorder and 188 290 FDRs of patients with bipolar disorder were identified in our study. The relative risks (RRs) of major psychiatric disorders were assessed among FDRs of patients with bipolar disorder.
FDRs of patients with bipolar disorder were more likely to have a higher risk of major psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (RR 6.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.95–6.30), MDD (RR 2.89, 95% CI 2.82–2.96), schizophrenia (RR 2.64, 95% CI 2.55–2.73), ADHD (RR 2.21, 95% CI 2.13–2.30), and ASD (RR 2.10, 95% CI 1.92–2.29), than the total population did. These increased risks for major psychiatric disorders were consistent across different familial kinships, such as parents, offspring, siblings, and twins. A dose-dependent relationship was also found between risk of each major psychiatric disorder and numbers of bipolar patients.
Our study was the first study to support the familial coaggregation of bipolar disorder with other major psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, MDD, ADHD, and ASD, in a Taiwanese (non-Caucasian) population. Given the elevated risks of major psychiatric disorders, the public health government should pay more attention to the mental health of FDRs of patients with bipolar disorder.
An all-fiberized high-average-power narrow linewidth ns pulsed laser with linear polarization is demonstrated. The laser system utilizes a typical master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is effectively suppressed due to the short fiber length and large mode area in the main amplifier, combined with the narrow pulse duration smaller than the phonon lifetime of SBS effect. A maximal output power of 466 W is obtained with a narrow linewidth of
203.6 MHz, and the corresponding slope efficiency is
80.3%. The pulse duration is condensed to be
4 ns after the amplification, corresponding to the peak power of 8.8 kW and the pulse energy of
. Near-diffraction-limited beam quality with an
factor of 1.32 is obtained at the output power of 442 W and the mode instability (MI) is observed at the maximal output power. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average output power of the all-fiberized narrow linewidth ns pulsed fiber laser with linear polarization and high beam quality, which is a promising source for the nonlinear frequency conversion, laser lidar, and so on.
The solute equilibrium partition coefficients (ki) of C, Si, Mn, P, and S in high sulfur steel during the solidification process were investigated by the thermodynamic calculation. The effect of MnS precipitation on ki was explored. The results showed that the precipitation of MnS inclusion would influence the concentrations of solutes Mn and S, leading to the changing of ki. Due to the precipitation of MnS, the kC and kS decreased first and then increased with temperature decreasing, while kSi, kMn, and kP changed monotonously. The impacts of solidification temperature on kSi and kMn were greater than that on kC, kS, and kP. With the increase of S content, kC, kSi, and kP increased while kMn and kS decreased. Whereas, an opposite effect was found with the increase of Mn content. The order of influence extent by S and Mn contents was kSi > kS > kMn > kC > kP.
Centerline segregation is one of the typical internal defects, which occurs during slab continuous casting (CC). To investigate and predict the centerline segregation encountered in a continuously cast slab, a combined 3-D and 2-D hybrid simulation model for centerline segregation was developed. The average deviation between the calculated and experimented results reaches as low as 0.5%, which demonstrates that the hybrid simulation model has relatively high reliability. The centerline segregation of the slab was predicted accurately. The results show that macrosegregation occurring during the slab CC process has heredity. In the casting direction, the concentration of solutes in the liquid pool increases gradually until the casting has solidified completely. After complete solidification, the solutes’ concentration maintains an almost constant value. On the centerline, the maximum segregation degree occurs at a position roughly 614 mm from the slab center. The maximum centerline segregation degrees of C, Si, Mn, P, and S solutes are 1.163, 1.058, 1.045, 1.111, and 1.165, respectively.
In this manuscript, we demonstrate high-power, narrow-linewidth linearly polarized fiber laser with excellent beam quality through compact one-stage amplification scheme. By employing a single-mode–multimode–single-mode structure seed laser, a linearly polarized Yb-doped fiber laser with narrow linewidth and high output power is achieved. This laser, when used as a master oscillator, can be capable of suppressing the ASE in the process of power amplification. Thus, only one-stage amplification structure is used to scale up the laser power, and linearly polarized output with a polarization extinction ration of 14 dB, a narrow linewidth of 0.3 nm and an output power of 1018 W are achieved. Moreover, due to the good beam quality of seed laser and the well-designed amplifier stage, the beam quality of the output laser is near-diffraction-limited with
at the maximum power, and without mode instability occurring.
Drawing from self-concept and implicit leadership theories, we propose a multilevel model to examine whether, why, and when self-sacrificial leadership motivates followers’ affiliative and challenging citizenship behaviors in China. Data from 329 full-time employees in 83 work groups provide support for the hypothesized model. Specifically, we demonstrated that self-sacrificial leadership was positively related to followers’ relational self-concept constructs of leader identification and leader-based self-esteem, which had differential, downstream implications for followers’ two types of citizenship behavior. Whereas leader identification was found to mediate the positive relationship between self-sacrificial leadership and affiliative citizenship behavior only, leader-based self-esteem mediated the positive relationships of self-sacrificial leadership with both affiliative and challenging citizenship behaviors. We further demonstrated individual power distance orientation as a significant cultural contingency in the above mediation relationships, which were found to exist among followers with low rather than high power distance orientations. We conclude by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
To investigate the solute transport and redistribution in the slab continuous casting processes of high sulfur steel, a three-dimensional model coupling turbulent flow, heat and solute transportation was developed. And then a thermodynamic model for MnS precipitation was established to study the MnS precipitation and distribution in strand on a macroscale and its effect on solute macrosegregation was also explored. The results showed that the temperature and solutes concentration were the main factors for the precipitation of MnS. The effect of temperature was significant when the solid fraction was greater than 0.8. Due to the precipitation of MnS, the segregation ratio of solutes Mn and S on the center line declined from 1.05–1.15 to 0.97–1.01 and from 1.2–1.45 to 1.00–1.08, respectively. And the solute concentration of Mn and S declined and distributed more uniformly in the strand, and the macrosegregation of Mn and S was also suppressed greatly.
We combine radio-echo sounding ice thickness data from the BEDMAP Project database and the PCMEGA (Prince Charles Mountains Expedition of Germany and Australia) dataset to generate a new ice thickness grid for the southern limit region of the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica. We then reassess the mass balance of the central portion of the Lambert-Amery system, incorporating flow information derived from synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) and a modeled surface mass-balance dataset based on regional atmospheric modeling. Our analysis reveals that Mellor and Fisher Glaciers are approximately in balance to the level of our measurement uncertainty, while Lambert Glacier has a positive imbalance of 4.2 ±2.3 Gta1. The mass budget for the whole Lambert Glacier basin is approximately in balance, and the average basal melt rate in the downstream section of the ice shelf is 5.1 ± 3.0 m a-1. Our results differ substantially from other recent estimates using hydrostatically derived ice thickness data.
The Myanmar snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus strykeri was discovered in 2010 on the western slopes of the Gaoligong Mountains in the Irrawaddy River basin in Myanmar and subsequently in the same river basin in China, in 2011. Based on 2 years of surveying the remote and little disturbed forest of the Gaoligong Mountains National Nature Reserve in China, with outline transect sampling and infrared camera monitoring, a breeding group comprising > 70 individuals was found on the eastern slopes of the Gaoligong Mountains in the Salween River Basin. Given the Critically Endangered status of this primate (a total of < 950 individuals are estimated to remain in the wild), efforts to protect the relatively undisturbed habitat of this newly discovered population and to prevent hunting are essential for the long-term survival of this species.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver malignancy that mainly occurs in patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Risk factors for HCC include hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the specific role of HBV infection in HCC development is not yet completely understood. In order to reveal the effects of HBV on HCC, we compare the genes of HCC patients infected with HBV with those who are not infected.
We encoded the genes of these two types of HCC in databases using enrichment scores of Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway terms. A random forest algorithm was employed in order to distinguish these two types in the classifier, and a series of feature selection approaches was used in order to select their optimal features. Novel HBV-associated and -non-associated HCC genes were predicted, respectively, based on their optimal features in the classifier. A shortest-path algorithm was also employed in order to find all of the shortest-paths genes connecting the known related genes.
A total of 54 different features between HBV-associated and -non-associated HCC genes were identified. In total, 1236 and 881 novel related genes were predicted for HBV-associated and -non-associated HCC, respectively. By integrating the predicted genes and shortest path genes in their gene interaction network, we identified 679 common genes involved in the two types of HCC.
We identified the significantly different genetic features between two types of HCC. We also predicted related genes for the two types based on their specific features. Finally, we determined the common genes and features that were involved in both of these two types of HCC.
In this paper, for the convolution and convex combination of harmonic mappings, the radii of univalence, full convexity and starlikeness of order
are explored. All results are sharp. By way of application, the univalent radius and the Bloch constant of the convolution of two bounded harmonic mappings are obtained.
As a unique tubular nanoclay, halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) have recently attracted significant research attention. The HNTs have outer diameters of ∼50 nm, inner lumens of ∼20 nm and are 200–1000 nm long. They are biocompatible nanomaterials and widely available in nature, which makes them good candidates for application in biomedicine. Compared with other types of nanoparticles such as polymer nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, the drawbacks associated with HNTs include brittleness, difficulty with fabrication, low fracture strength, high density and inadequate biocompatibility. Preparation of polysaccharide-HNT composites offer a means to overcome these shortcomings. Halloysite nanotubes can be incorporated easily into polysaccharides via solution mixing, such as with chitosan (CS), sodium alginate, cellulose, pectin and amylose, for forming composite films, porous scaffolds or hydrogels. The interfacial interactions, such as electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonding, between HNTs and the polysaccharides are critical for improvement of the properties. Morphology results show that HNTs are dispersed uniformly in the composites. The mechanical strength and Young's modulus of the composites in both the dry and wet states are enhanced by HNTs and the HNTs can also increase the storage modulus, glass-transition temperature and thermal stability of the composites. Cytocompatibility results demonstrate that the polysaccharide-HNT composites have low cytotoxicity even for HNT loading >80%. Therefore, the polysaccharide-HNT composites show great potential for biomedical applications, e.g. as tissue engineering scaffold materials, wound-dressing materials, drug-delivery carriers, and cell-isolation surfaces.
The effects of pre-treatments on the precipitate microstructures of an Al–Zn–Mg–Cu alloy are investigated. Meanwhile, the creep-rupture behavior of the under-aged and peak-aged alloys are comparatively analyzed. Additionally, the effects of pre-treatment on the fracture mechanisms are discussed. It is found that the precipitate microstructures are sensitive to pre-treatments. The intragranular precipitates of the peak-aged alloy are larger than those of the under-aged. The precipitate free zone of the peak-aged alloy is wider than that of the under-aged. Some large intergranular precipitates appear on the grain boundaries of the under-aged alloy, and induce the nucleation of microvoids. Eventually, the creep fracture of the under-aged alloy is accelerated. Therefore, the differences in microstructures lead to the shorter creep-rupture life of the under-aged alloy, compared to the peak-aged alloy.
The microstructural evolution of spray-formed high speed steel during hot deformation was investigated as well as the effects of spray forming parameters on the porosity formation. Four distinct zones are identified in the as-deposited material, and interstitial porosity is present in the bottom and peripheral zones, while gas-related porosity is mainly found in the central zone. It can keep the porosity at a minimum value by using the optimum parameters, e.g., the average porosity of central zone is 3.7% for a superheat of 170 °C and a gas-to-metal flow rate of 0.7. During hot deformation at 1150 °C, the amount of porosity can be obviously decreased by increasing the height reduction which also plays a key role in breaking up eutectic carbides. The critical height reduction for the breakdown of the eutectic carbides is 50%, the dominant mechanism being mechanical fragmentation.
This study modified the surfaces of three kinds of TiNi-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) by dry electrical discharge machining (EDM) in nitrogen (N2) and acetylene (C2H2) gas mixture. The effects of composition of the dielectric medium and work-piece on the machining performance and surface characteristics were investigated. Increasing the ratio of acetylene gas in gas mixture was beneficial for improving the material removal rate (MRR). However, adding a large amount of acetylene gas resulted in unstable discharge. A recast layer, comprising nitrides and carbides, which well adhered on the EDMed surface exhibited high hardness. Among Ti50Ni50, Ti50Ni49.5Cr0.5, and Ti40.5Ni49.5Zr10 SMA as a work-piece, Ti40.5Ni49.5Zr10 SMA has the lowest MRR owing to it possessed the highest melting temperature and thermal conductivity. The recast layer on Ti40.5Ni49.5Zr10 SMA, comprising zirconium nitride, exhibited the highest hardness and adhesion among all the SMAs. However, the high-hardness recast layer deteriorated the shape recovery of the SMA.
The current meta-analysis evaluated the association between vitamin B12 intake and blood vitamin B12 level and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk.
The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched. A dose–response analysis was performed with generalized least squares regression, with the relative risk (RR) and 95 % CI as effect values.
The meta-analysis included seventeen studies.
A total of 10 601 patients.
The non-linear dose–response relationship between total vitamin B12 intake and CRC risk was insignificant (P=0·690), but the relationship between dietary vitamin B12 intake and CRC risk was significant (P<0·001). Every 4·5 μg/d increment in total and dietary vitamin B12 intake was inversely associated with CRC risk (total intake: RR=0·963; 95 % CI 0·928, 0·999; dietary intake: RR=0·914; 95 % CI 0·856, 0·977). The inverse association between vitamin B12 intake and CRC risk was also significant when vitamin B12 intake was over a dosage threshold, enhancing the non-linear relationship. The non-linear dose–response relationship between blood vitamin B12 level and CRC risk was insignificant (P=0·219). There was an insignificant association between every 150 pmol/l increment in blood vitamin B12 level and CRC risk (RR=1·023; 95 % CI 0·881, 1·187).
Our meta-analysis indicates that evidence supports the use of vitamin B12 for cancer prevention, especially among populations with high-dose vitamin B12 intake, and that the association between CRC risk and total vitamin B12 intake is stronger than between CRC risk and dietary vitamin B12 intake only.
Previous evidence has shown positive associations between post-traumatic
stress disorder (PTSD) and hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes
mellitus, which are all risk factors for stroke, but the role of PTSD in
the subsequent development of stroke is still unknown.
To investigate the temporal association between PTSD and the development
Identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database,
5217 individuals aged 18 years, with PTSD but with no history of stroke,
and 20 868 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled between 2002
and 2009, and followed up until the end of 2011 to identify the
development of stroke.
Individuals with PTSD had an increased risk of developing any stroke
(hazard ratio (HR) 3.37, 95% CI 2.44–4.67) and ischaemic stroke (HR =
3.47, 95% CI 2.23–5.39) after adjusting for demographic data and medical
comorbidities. Sensitivity tests showed consistent findings (any stroke
HR = 3.02, 95% CI 2.13–4.28; ischaemic stroke HR = 2.89, 95% CI
1.79–4.66) after excluding the first year of observation.
Individuals with PTSD have an increased risk of developing any stroke and
ischaemic stroke. Further studies are required to investigate the