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The South China Block is one of the largest continental blocks located on the East Asian continent. The early Palaeozoic Wuyi–Yunkai orogen of the South China Block (known as the Caledonian orogen in Europe) is a major orogenic belt in East Asia and represents the first episode of extensive crustal reworking since Neoproterozoic time. Although this orogen is key to deciphering the formation and evolution of the South China Block, details about the orogen remain poorly defined. The Songshutang and Wushitou ultramafic–mafic units in southern Jiangxi Province, South China, have 206Pb–238U ages of c. 437 Ma, suggesting a Silurian formation age. All the Songshutang and Wushitou ultramafic–mafic rocks show relatively flat chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns, depletions in Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf and Ti, and low ϵNd(t) values from −9.12 to −5.49 with negative zircon ϵHf(t) values from −10.84 to −2.58, resembling a typical arc magma affinity. Geochemical and isotopic data indicate that the newly identified ultramafic–mafic rocks, along with the reported Silurian mafic rocks in South China, possibly originated from the similar partial melting of an ancient subducted slab, fluid/sediment and metasomatized lithospheric mantle with varying degrees of fractional crystallization. In conjunction with other records of magmatism and metamorphism in South China, a late-orogenic extensional event led to the melting of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle in Silurian time and generated ultramafic–mafic rocks with a limited distribution along the Wuyi–Yunkai orogen and widespread late-orogenic granitic plutons in the South China Block.
The FNDC5 gene encodes the fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 that is a membrane protein mainly expressed in skeletal muscle and the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism may be associated with liver disease severity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the influence of the FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the relationship between sarcopenia and the histological severity of NAFLD.
370 adult individuals with biopsy-proven NAFLD were studied. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance. The association between the key exposure sarcopenia, and the outcome liver histological severity, was investigated by binary logistic regression. Stratified analyses were undertaken to examine the impact of FNDC5 rs3480 polymorphism on the association between sarcopenia and the severity of NAFLD histology.
Patients with sarcopenia had more severe histological grades of steatosis and a higher prevalence of significant fibrosis and definite NASH than those without sarcopenia. There was a significant association between sarcopenia and significant fibrosis (adjusted odds ratio 2.79, 95%CI 1.31-5.95, p=0.008), independent of established risk factors and potential confounders. Among patients with sarcopenia, significant fibrosis occurred more frequently in the rs3480 AA genotype carriers than in those carrying the FNDC5 rs3480 G genotype (43.8% vs. 17.2%, p=0.031). In the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis, there was a significant interaction between the FNDC5 genotype and sarcopenia status (p-value for interaction=0.006).
Sarcopenia is independently associated with significant liver fibrosis, and the FNDC5 rs3480 G variant influences the association between sarcopenia and liver fibrosis in patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD.
The orientation between twin boundary (TB) and loading direction may play an intriguing role in the deformation behaviors of twinned metallic materials. In this aspect, its essential effect on the high-entropy alloy (HEA) nanocrystals is elusive. Attention herein is focused on the atomic-scaled deformation mechanisms and fracture behaviors of HEA nanocrystals containing twins of even smaller spacings via a combined approach of in situ tensile tests inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate that the deformation mechanisms (especially dislocation activities) of HEA nanocrystals depend on the load orientation with respect to TBs. Because of the low activation energy and uneven local composition of HEA, the surface acts as an effective dislocation source and, together with Schmid factor, dominate the activated dislocation slip system. The load orientation-dependent TB-dislocation interactions may transform the type of fracture from semi-brittle to ductile. Our results indicate that the deformation mechanisms and the types of fracture in HEA nanocrystals can be controlled by changing the orientation.
The surface spectral albedo was measured over coastal landfast sea ice in Prydz Bay (off Zhongshan Station), East Antarctica from 5 October to 26 November of 2016. The mean albedo decreased from late-spring to early-summer, mainly responding to the change in surface conditions from dry (phase I) to wet (phase II). The evolution of the albedo was strongly influenced by the surface conditions, with alternation of frequent snowfall events and katabatic wind that induce snow blowing at the surface. The two phases and day-to-day albedo variability were more pronounced in the near-infrared albedo wavelengths than in the visible ones, as the near-infrared photons are more sensitive to snow metamorphism, and to changes in the uppermost millimeters and water content of the surface. The albedo diurnal cycle during clear sky conditions was asymmetric with respect to noon, decreasing from morning to evening over full and patchy snow cover, and decreasing more rapidly in the morning over bare ice. We conclude that snow and ice metamorphism and surface melting dominated over the solar elevation angle dependency in shaping the albedo evolution. However, we realize that more detailed surface observations are needed to clarify and quantify the role of the various surface processes.
Life expectancy in China has increased. This paper explores the age when older adults (aged 60 and above) consider themselves to be an ‘older person’ and how age-related loss of resources (five dimensions: early cumulative factors, decline and loss of health resources, reduction and loss of economic resources, weakening and loss of social support resources, and personal role transition and experiences of losing family members) could impact their perceived old age. Using two waves of data from the China Longitudinal Ageing Social Survey (CLASS) in 2014 and 2016 (6,244 participants in 2014 and 2,989 participants in both 2014 and 2016), we found that the mean perceived old age is around 70 years at baseline (2014). Higher level of educational attainment and occupational types (early cumulative factors), better health condition, receiving support from friends and taking care of grandchildren are significantly associated with the perception that old age begins at an older age at baseline, while being Han-Chinese, being an urban resident (early cumulative factors) and reporting better health condition have significant positive effects on the perception that old age begins at an older age in the later wave. Our findings suggest that the age standard of older adults should be adjusted dynamically in response to social development and longevity, and also highlight the importance of early cumulative factors in shaping the ageing process besides age-related factors.
To evaluate the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) intake and Ca supplementation during pregnancy on low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA) infants.
A birth cohort study was conducted in 2010–2012 at the Gansu Provincial Maternity & Child Care Hospital in Lanzhou, China.
A birth cohort study.
9595 pregnant women who came to the hospital for delivery at 20 weeks of gestation or more, and who were 18 years of age or older.
Compared to non-users, Ca supplement users had a reduced risk of LBW infants (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.63–0.95) and a reduced risk of nulliparous women giving birth to LBW infants (OR= 0.75, 95% CI: 0.58–0.98) (P<0.05). More specific, both use of Ca supplement before conception and during pregnancy (OR=0.44, 95% CI: 0.19-0.99) and during pregnancy only (OR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.65-0.99) had the main effect of reducing risk of nulliparous women giving birth to LBW infants (P<0.05). There was no association between Ca supplementation and SGA (OR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75–1.01) (P>0.05). However, higher dietary Ca intake during pregnancy decreases the risk of both LBW (quartile 2: OR=0.72, 95%CI: 0.55-0.94; quartile 3: OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.50-0.62) and SGA infants (quartile 2: OR=0.77, 95%CI: 0.63-0.95; quartile 3: OR=0.71, 95%CI: 0.57-0.88, quartile 4: OR=0.71, 95%CI: 0.57-0.88) (P<0.05).
Calcium supplementation and adequate dietary intake of calcium during pregnancy are associated with a decreased risk of LBW infants born to nulliparous women.
The present study aimed to investigate the association of the Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) and its 6-year change with hypertension risk and compare the ability of CVAI and other obesity indices to predict hypertension based on the Rural Chinese Cohort Study. Study participants were randomly recruited by a cluster sampling procedure, and 10 304 participants ≥18 years were included. Modified Poisson regression was used to derive adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. We identified 2072 hypertension cases during a median of 6·03 years of follow-up. The RR for the highest v. lowest CVAI quartile were 1·29 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·59) for men and 1·53 (95 % CI 1·22, 1·91) for women. Per-sd increase in CVAI was associated with hypertension for both men (RR 1·09, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·16) and women (RR 1·14, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·22). Also, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value for hypertension was higher for CVAI than the four other obesity indices for both sexes (all P < 0·05). Finally, per-sd increase in CVAI change was associated with hypertension for both men (RR 1·26, 95 % CI 1·16, 1·36) and women (RR 1·23, 95 % CI 1·15, 1·30). Similar results were observed in sensitivity analyses. CVAI and its 6-year change are positively associated with hypertension risk. CVAI has better performance in predicting hypertension than other visceral obesity indices for both sexes. The current findings suggest CVAI as a reliable and applicable predictor of hypertension in rural Chinese adults.
A series of new synthetic armored cables were developed and tested to ensure that they were suitable for use with the RECoverable Autonomous Sonde (RECAS), which is a newly designed freezing-in thermal ice probe. The final version of the cable consists of two concentric conductors that can be used as the power and signal lines. Two polyfluoroalkoxy jackets are used for electrical insulation (one for insulation between conductors, and the other for insulation of the outer conductor). The outer insulation layer is coated by polyurethane jacket to seal the connections between the cable and electrical units. The 0.65 mm thick strength member is made from aramid fibers woven together. To hold these aramid fibers in place, a sheathing layer was produced from a polyamide fabric cover net. The outer diameter of the final version of the cable is ~6.1 mm. The permissible bending radius is as low as 17–20 mm. The maximal breaking force under straight tension is ~12.2 kN. The cable weight is only ~0.061 kg m−1. The mechanical and electrical properties and environmental suitability of the cable were determined through laboratory testing and joint testing with the probe.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common debilitating disorder characterized by impaired spontaneous brain activity, yet little is known about its alterations in dynamic properties and the molecular mechanisms associated with these changes.
Based on the resting-state functional MRI data of 65 first-episode, treatment-naïve patients with MDD and 66 healthy controls, we compared dynamic regional homogeneity (dReHo) of spontaneous brain activity between the two groups, and we investigated gene expression profiles associated with dReHo alterations in MDD by leveraging transcriptional data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas and weighted gene co-expression network analysis.
Compared with healthy controls, patients with MDD consistently showed reduced dReHo in both fusiform gyri and in the right temporal pole and hippocampus. The expression profiles of 16 gene modules were correlated with dReHo alterations in MDD. These gene modules were enriched for various biological process terms, including immune, synaptic signalling, ion channels, mitochondrial function and protein metabolism, and were preferentially expressed in different cell types.
Patients with MDD have reduced dReHo in brain areas associated with emotional and cognitive regulation, and these changes may be related to complex polygenetic and polypathway mechanisms.
Since the photocatalytic effect of a single conventional photocatalyst is often not ideal, it is particularly important to design and construct an efficient and stable photocatalyst in a compound way. In this study, we exploited the sol–gel method to combine BiOCl and TiO2 and gave full play to their respective advantages to prepare BiOCl/TiO2 composite materials. Then, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization techniques were utilized to study important indicators of composites—composition, morphology, and structure. In the photodegradation experiment of methyl orange (MO), it was found that the photocatalytic performance of 10BTO (the molar ratio of TiO2 to BiOCl is 10:1) was the best among all the composite photocatalysts, and almost complete degradation of MO was realized. Besides, repeated experiments and recyclability tests on composite materials display favorable stability. Through ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis DRS), photoluminescence (PL), transient photocurrent response, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and electron spin resonance (ESR), a possible degradation mechanism is proposed. Given that there are serious environmental pollution problems in our country, we sincerely hope this research will do its best to degrade organic pollutants in wastewater.
Little is known about the trend and predictors of 21-year mortality and suicide patterns in persons with schizophrenia.
To explore the trend and predictors of 21-year mortality and suicide in persons with schizophrenia in rural China.
This longitudinal follow-up study included 510 persons with schizophrenia who were identified in a mental health survey of individuals (≥15 years old) in 1994 in six townships of Xinjin County, Chengdu, China, and followed up in three waves until 2015. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and Cox hazard regressions were conducted.
Of the 510 participants, 196 died (38.4% mortality) between 1994 and 2015; 13.8% of the deaths (n = 27) were due to suicide. Life expectancy was lower for men than for women (50.6 v. 58.5 years). Males consistently showed higher rates of mortality and suicide than females. Older participants had higher mortality (hazard ratio HR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01–1.05) but lower suicide rates (HR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.93–0.98) than their younger counterparts. Poor family attitudes were associated with all-cause mortality and death due to other causes; no previous hospital admission and a history of suicide attempts independently predicted death by suicide.
Our findings suggest there is a high mortality and suicide rate in persons with schizophrenia in rural China, with different predictive factors for mortality and suicide. It is important to develop culture-specific, demographically tailored and community-based mental healthcare and to strengthen family intervention to improve the long-term outcome of persons with schizophrenia.
Nanocrystalline metals possess high strength and outstanding resistance to irradiation damage. However, the high-density grain boundaries in nanocrystalline metals lead to low plasticity and poor thermal stability. In recent years, interface engineering has gradually become an important way to improve the comprehensive properties of nanocrystalline metals. In this paper, the interface structure, deformation mechanism, and physical properties of Cu–Nb nanolayered composites fabricated by physical vapor deposition and accumulative roll bonding are reviewed. Both Cu–Nb nanolayered composites possess semi-coherent interfaces. The nanolayered composites could achieve excellent resistance to irradiation damage since the interfaces are good sinks for the irradiation point defects. In addition, nanolayered metallic composites with abundant heterogeneous interfaces have better thermal stability compared to nanocrystalline metallic materials. Moreover, the interactions between dislocations and interfaces can be adjusted effectively through controlling the atomistic interface structure and alignment of slip systems across the interface, so as to achieve high strength and high plastic deformation ability simultaneously.
A recently developed pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 has quickly spread across the world. Unfortunately, a simplified risk score that could easily be used in primary care or general practice settings has not been developed. The objective of this study is to identify a simplified risk score that could easily be used to quickly triage severe COVID-19 patients. All severe and critical adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 on the West campus of Union Hospital, Wuhan, China, from 28 January 2020 to 29 February 2020 were included in this study. Clinical data and laboratory results were obtained. CURB-65 pneumonia score was calculated. Univariate logistic regressions were applied to explore risk factors associated with in-hospital death. We used the receiver operating characteristic curve and multivariate COX-PH model to analyse risk factors for in-hospital death. A total of 74 patients (31 died, 43 survived) were finally included in the study. We observed that compared with survivors, non-survivors were older and illustrated higher respiratory rate, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but lower SpO2 as well as impaired liver function, especially synthesis function. CURB-65 showed good performance for predicting in-hospital death (area under curve 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71–0.91). CURB-65 ⩾ 2 may serve as a cut-off value for prediction of in-hospital death in severe patients with COVID-19 (sensitivity 68%, specificity 81%, F1 score 0.7). CURB-65 (hazard ratio (HR) 1.61; 95% CI 1.05–2.46), LDH (HR 1.003; 95% CI 1.001–1.004) and albumin (HR 0.9; 95% CI 0.81–1) were risk factors for in-hospital death in severe patients with COVID-19. Our study indicates CURB-65 may serve as a useful prognostic marker in COVID-19 patients, which could be used to quickly triage severe patients in primary care or general practice settings.
To reveal the thermal shock resistance of double-layer thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), two types of TBCs were prepared via atmospheric plasma spraying, i.e., Gd2Zr2O7/yttria-stabilized zirconia (GZ/YSZ) TBCs and La2Zr2O7 (LZ)/YSZ TBCs, respectively. Subsequently, thermal cycling tests of the two TBCs were conducted at 1100 °C and their thermal shock resistance and failure mechanism were comparatively investigated through experiments and the finite element method. The results showed that the thermal shock failure of the two TBCs occurred inside the top ceramic coating. However, the GZ/YSZ TBCs had longer thermal cycling life. It was the mechanical properties of the top ceramic coating, and the thermal stresses arising from the thermal mismatch between the top ceramic coating and the substrate that determined the thermal cycling life of the two TBCs together. Compared with the LZ layer in the LZ/YSZ TBCs, the GZ layer in the GZ/YSZ TBCs had smaller elastic modulus, larger fracture toughness, and smaller thermal stresses, which led to the higher crack propagation resistance and less spallation tendency of the GZ/YSZ TBCs. Therefore, the GZ/YSZ TBCs exhibited superior thermal shock resistance to the LZ/YSZ TBCs.
Early life stress has been associated with emotional dysregulations and altered architecture of limbic-prefrontal brain systems engaged in emotional processing. Serotonin regulates both, developmental and experience-dependent neuroplasticity in these circuits. Central serotonergic biosynthesis rates are regulated by Tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) and transgenic animal models suggest that TPH2-gene associated differences in serotonergic signaling mediate the impact of aversive early life experiences on a phenotype characterized by anxious avoidance.
The present study employed an imaging genetics approach that capitalized on individual differences in a TPH2 polymorphism (703G/T; rs4570625) to determine whether differences in serotonergic signaling modulate the effects of early life stress on brain structure and function and punishment sensitivity in humans (n = 252).
Higher maltreatment exposure before the age of 16 was associated with increased gray matter volumes in a circuitry spanning thalamic-limbic-prefrontal regions and decreased intrinsic communication in limbic-prefrontal circuits selectively in TT carriers. In an independent replication sample, associations between higher early life stress and increased frontal volumes in TT carriers were confirmed. On the phenotype level, the genotype moderated the association between higher early life stress exposure and higher punishment sensitivity. In TT carriers, the association between higher early life stress exposure and punishment sensitivity was critically mediated by increased thalamic-limbic-prefrontal volumes.
The present findings suggest that early life stress shapes the neural organization of the limbic-prefrontal circuits in interaction with individual variations in the TPH2 gene to promote a phenotype characterized by facilitated threat avoidance, thus promoting early adaptation to an adverse environment.
To improve the endurance performance of long-endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), a smart morphing method to adjust the UAV and flight mode continuously during flight is proposed. Using this method as a starting point, a smart morphing long-endurance UAV design is conducted and the resulting improvement in the endurance performance studied. Firstly, the initial overall design of the smart morphing long-endurance UAV is carried out, then the morphing form is designed and various control parameters are selected. Secondly, based on multi-agent theory, an architecture for the smart morphing control system is built and the workflow of the smart morphing control system is planned. The morphing decision method is designed in detail based on the particle swarm optimisation algorithm. Finally, a simulation of the smart morphing approach in the climb and cruise stages is carried out to quantitatively verify the improvement in the endurance performance. The simulation results show that the smart morphing method can improve the cruise time by 4.1% with the same fuel consumption.
The outbreak of COVID-19 generated severe emotional reactions, and restricted mobility was a crucial measure to reduce the spread of the virus. This study describes the changes in public emotional reactions and mobility patterns in the Chinese population during the COVID-19 outbreak.
We collected data on public emotional reactions in response to the outbreak through Weibo, the Chinese Twitter, between 1st January and 31st March 2020. Using anonymized location-tracking information, we analyzed the daily mobility patterns of approximately 90% of Sichuan residents.
There were three distinct phases of the emotional and behavioral reactions to the COVID-19 outbreak. The alarm phase (19th–26th January) was a restriction-free period, characterized by few new daily cases, but a large amount public negative emotions [the number of negative comments per Weibo post increased by 246.9 per day, 95% confidence interval (CI) 122.5–371.3], and a substantial increase in self-limiting mobility (from 45.6% to 54.5%, changing by 1.5% per day, 95% CI 0.7%–2.3%). The epidemic phase (27th January–15th February) exhibited rapidly increasing numbers of new daily cases, decreasing expression of negative emotions (a decrease of 27.3 negative comments per post per day, 95% CI −40.4 to −14.2), and a stabilized level of self-limiting mobility. The relief phase (16th February–31st March) had a steady decline in new daily cases and decreasing levels of negative emotion and self-limiting mobility.
During the COVID-19 outbreak in China, the public's emotional reaction was strongest before the actual peak of the outbreak and declined thereafter. The change in human mobility patterns occurred before the implementation of restriction orders, suggesting a possible link between emotion and behavior.
We explored the genetic architecture of metabolic risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and their clustering in Chinese boys and girls. Seven metabolic traits (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], total cholesterol [TC], triglyceride [TG], and uric acid [UA]) were measured in a sample of 1016 twins between 8 and 17 years of age, recruited from the Qingdao Twin Registry. Cholesky, independent pathway, and common pathway models were used to identify the latent genetic structure behind the clustering of these metabolic traits. Genetic architecture of these metabolic traits was largely similar in boys and girls. The highest heritability was found for BMI (a2 = 0.63) in boys and TC (a2 = .69) in girls. Three heritable factors, adiposity (BMI and WC), blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and metabolite factors (TC, TG, and UA), which formed one higher-order latent phenotype, were identified. Latent genetic, common environmental, and unique environmental factors indirectly impacted the three factors through one single latent factor. Our results suggest that there is one latent factor influencing several metabolic traits, which are known risk factors of CVDs in young Chinese twins. Latent genetic, common environmental, and unique environmental factors indirectly imposed on them. These results inform strategies for gene pleiotropic discovery and intervening of CVD risk factors during childhood and adolescence.
Little is known about poverty trends in people with severe mental illness (SMI) over a long time span, especially under conditions of fast socioeconomic development.
This study aims to unravel changes in household poverty levels among people with SMI in a fast-changing rural community in China.
Two mental health surveys, using ICD-10, were conducted in the same six townships of Xinjin county, Chengdu, China. A total of 711 and 1042 people with SMI identified in 1994 and 2015, respectively, participated in the study. The Foster-Greer-Thorbecke poverty index was adopted to measure the changes in household poverty. These changes were decomposed into effects of growth and equity using a static decomposition method. Factors associated with household poverty in 1994 and 2015 were examined and compared by regression analyses.
The proportion of poor households, as measured by the headcount ratio, increased significantly from 29.8% in 1994 to 39.5% in 2015. Decomposition showed that poverty in households containing people with SMI had worsened because of a redistribution effect. Factors associated with household poverty had also changed during the study period. The patient's age, ability to work and family size were of paramount significance in 2015.
This study shows that the levels of poverty faced by households containing people with SMI has become more pressing with China's fast socioeconomic development. It calls for further integration of mental health recovery and targeted antipoverty interventions for people with SMI as a development priority.