To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
There is growing evidence that suggests the association of vitamin D status with the development and progression of heart failure (HF). The objective of the present study is to assess the impact of concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) on cardiac prognosis in patients with HF. Between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2016, we consecutively recruited patients with HF. Patients were followed prospectively for a median duration of 1 year. Serum concentration of 25(OH)D was measured with competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay. The endpoints were cardiac events, including CVD death and rehospitalisation for worsening HF. Univariate and multivariable adjustments were performed with Cox proportional-hazard regression analyses. The 25(OH)D concentration was obtained in 343 patients with a median value of 17·4 (interquartile range 12·6–23·4) ng/ml. There were 102 cardiac events, including forty-three deaths and fifty-nine rehospitalisations. Multivariate Cox hazard analysis found that the serum concentration 25(OH)D was independently associated with cardiac events (hazard ratio 0·93, 95 % CI 0·88, 0·97) and CVD mortality (hazard ratio 0·83; 95 % CI 0·77, 0·89) after adjustment for confounding factors. We divided the HF patients into four groups according to the 25(OH)D quartiles. Kaplan–Meier analysis found that the patients with lower serum 25(OH)D concentration had a higher risk of cardiac events or CVD mortality than those with high serum 25(OH)D concentration (log-rank test P < 0·001 and P = 0·032). Decreased serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were associated with cardiac prognosis and CVD mortality in a Chinese population with HF independent of other baseline HF markers.
This article explores the continuing linguistic impact of the Mandarin Union Version by investigating and contrasting two Chinese translations of William Paul Young's global bestseller The Shack (2007): the Traditional Chinese version Xiaowu (《小屋》, 2009) and the Simplified Chinese version Pengwu (《棚屋》, 2010). Ever since its publication, the Mandarin Union Version has served as the predominant Bible within Mandarin-speaking Protestant communities across the world. This has brought about the standardisation of terminology in Chinese Protestantism. The Shack, though widely marked as a Christian novel, is also known for its unconventional fictional representations of Christianity that some Christians think depart from orthodoxy. Both Xiaowu and Pengwu were published by non-Christian publishing houses for a general readership. However, Xiaowu, translated by a Christian, exhibits a significant number of phrases that specifically belong to Chinese Christian terminology shaped by the Mandarin Union Version. Pengwu is a contrast in this regard. By comparing extracts from these two Chinese versions, this article highlights how far the Mandarin Union Version has contributed to the formation of the linguistic repertoire of Mandarin-speaking Christian translators as well as linguistic norms for translated Christian-themed texts into Chinese.
Trace elements in oil may be determined by adsorption of the oil sample onto maguesium oxide followed by thermal degradation of the organic material. The resulting powder is easily pressed into a pellet suitable for X-ray spectrometric analysis. The lower limit of detection depends upon the trace impurities in the MgO and is a few parts per million for most elements determined.
A kind of novel Ni–P gradient coating/stannate conversion film was deposited on AZ91D magnesium alloy (AZ91D alloy) by an integrative method involved stannate conversion and electroless plating. The results indicated that using sodium hypophosphite concentrations varied as 5, 10, 22, 46, and 60 g/L in the bath, the electroless Ni–P gradient coating with typical cell morphologies was successfully prepared, and the structures transited from crystalline → microcrystalline → amorphous were obtained as increasing P content from 3.31 to 12.58 wt%. Furthermore, the corrosion morphologies, polarization curves, and the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy result indicated that the corrosion resistance of AZ91D alloy substrate was significantly improved and the corrosion resistance of Ni–P gradient coating was superior than that of stannate conversion film, which might be attributed to the gradient structure and rising P content with unique function.
Evidence on the association between maternal Hb concentration and preterm birth (PTB) risk is inconclusive. This paper aimed to explore whether women with anaemia or high Hb level before pregnancy would be at higher risk of PTB. We conducted a population-based cohort study with 2 722 274 women aged 20–49 years, who participated in National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project between 2013 and 2015 and delivered a singleton before 2016 in rural China. Logistic models were used to estimate OR and 95 % CI after adjusting for confounding variables. Restricted cubic spline models were applied to evaluate the dose–response relationships. A total of 192 819 (7·08 %) women had preterm deliveries. Compared with women with Hb of 110–149 g/l, the multivariable-adjusted OR for PTB was 1·19 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·44) for women with Hb<70 g/l, 1·01 (95 % CI 0·97, 1·03) for 70–99 g/l, 0·96 (95 % CI 0·95, 0·98) for 100–109 g/l, 1·04 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·06) for 150–159 g/l, 1·11 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·17) for 160–169 g/l and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·11, 1·27) for ≥170 g/l, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted OR for very PTB (VPTB) was 1·07 (95 % CI 1·03, 1·12) and 1·06 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·12) for women with Hb <110 and ≥150 g/l, compared with those with Hb of 110–149 g/l, respectively. Our study identified a U-shaped relationship between maternal preconception Hb concentration and PTB risk. Both preconception anaemia and high Hb level can significantly increase VPTB risk. Appropriate intervention for women with abnormal Hb levels before pregnancy is very necessary.
Al–12.6Si was annealed at both 500 and 560 °C for different lengths of time in this study. Additionally, the effects of annealing treatment on the spheroidization of eutectic Si and the mechanical properties of the Al–Si alloy have been investigated. The morphology of these particles was described using surface shape factor (φ), and it was found that the optimal annealing time of Al–12.6Si at 500 and 560 °C is seven hours and five hours, respectively. The average size of the Si particles in the Al–Si alloy annealed at 500 °C is less than that of the particles at 560 °C. The roundness of the Si particles within the Al–Si alloy annealed at 500 °C is slightly better than that at 560 °C. The elongation of the alloy apparently increases, while the tensile strength of the Al–Si alloy decreases. The tensile strength and elongation of the eutectic Al–Si alloy annealed at 500 °C is higher than that at 560 °C.
Auto-alignment is a basic technique for high-power laser systems. Special techniques have been developed for laser systems because of their differing structures. This paper describes a new sensor for auto-alignment in a laser system, which can also serve as a reference in certain applications. The authors prove that all of the beam transfer information (position and pointing) can theoretically be monitored and recorded by the sensor. Furthermore, auto-alignment with a single lens sensor is demonstrated on a simple beam line, and the results indicate that effective auto-alignment is achieved.
To produce pulses with good flat-top quality, pulse-forming lines (PFLs) have been widely used in the field of Tesla-type pulse generators. To shorten the physical length of the PFL, a double-width PFL (DWPFL) is proposed that doubles the output pulse width while maintaining flat-top quality. A repetitively 10 GW Tesla-type long-pulse generator producing pulses with flat-top width of about 110 ns was developed with a coaxial DWPFL to produce high-current electron beams. Electron beams of about 10 GW with flat-top widths of about 110 ns were obtained on a planar vacuum diode load. With this pulse generator and a C-band high-power microwave system, microwaves of ~2.2 GW power and full-width at half-maximum of 101 ns were generated. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility and ideal output waveform quality of the DWPFL.
Dementia screening is a public health priority in Taiwan, where the prevalence of dementia is increasing because of an aging population. However, the reasons affect community-dwelling people to accept a referral to memory specialist clinic after dementia screening was still unclear. To investigate the feasibility, acceptability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ascertain dementia 8-item informant questionnaire (AD8) to screen for patients with cognitive impairments in Taiwan's primary healthcare system.
Researchers invited community-dwelling people whose age was above 50-year-old to attend the Memory Screening Project. AD8 was used to perform the informant interview with adult patients who were attending the Memory Screening Project in Taiwan. Individuals who scored ≥2 on the AD8 was suggested to accept referral for further cognitive performance evaluation tests, which included three validated dementia tests, i.e. the Mini-Mental Screening Examination (MMSE), the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI), and the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR).
Of the 102 participants who scored ≥2 on the AD8, only 25.5% attended the referral appointment. In participants who had achieved six or more years of education, AD8 scores were not significantly different between groups and could not differentiate between the non-dementia and patients with dementia in the receiver-operator characteristics curve analysis. In contrast, in those participants who had received less than six years of education, the AD8 scores significantly differentiated between non-dementia and patients with dementia (p = 0.03).
There was a low rate of attendance at a specialist memory clinic following referral after the AD8 interview. Higher levels of education facilitated individuals to make a decision to accept the recommended referral appointment, while the AD8 showed a higher rate of differentiation between individuals who had received an education of less than six years.
Colistin, a peptide antibiotic belonging to the polymyxin family, is one of the last effective drugs for the treatment of multidrug resistant Gram-negative infections. Recent discovery of a novel mobile colistin resistance gene, mcr-1, from people and food animals has caused a significant public health concern and drawn worldwide attention. Extensive usage of colistin in food animals has been proposed as a major driving force for the emergence and transmission of mcr-1; thus, there is a worldwide trend to limit colistin usage in animal production. However, despite lack of colistin usage in food animals in the USA, mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli isolates were still isolated from swine. In this paper, we provided an overview of colistin usage and epidemiology of mcr-1 in food animals, and summarized the current status of mechanistic and evolutionary studies of the plasmid-mediated colistin resistance. Based on published information, we further discussed several non-colistin usage risk factors that may contribute to the persistence, transmission, and emergence of colistin resistance in an animal production system. Filling the knowledge gaps identified in this review is critical for risk assessment and risk management of colistin resistance, which will facilitate proactive and effective strategies to mitigate colistin resistance in future animal production systems.
With the improvement of the bias instability of Micro-Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) gyroscopes, the g-sensitivity error is gradually becoming one of the more important factors that affects the dynamic accuracy of a MEMS gyroscope. Hence there is a need for correcting the g-sensitivity error. However, the traditional calibration of g-sensitivity error uses a centrifuge. The calibration conditions are harsh, the process is complex and the cost is relatively high. In this paper, a fast and simple method of g-sensitivity error calibration for MEMS gyroscopes is proposed. With respect to the bias and random noise of a MEMS gyroscope, the g-sensitivity error magnitude is relatively small and it is simultaneously coupled with the Earth's rotation rate. Therefore, in order to correct the g-sensitivity error, this work models the calibration for g-sensitivity error coefficients, designs an (8+N)-position calibration scheme, and then proposes a fitting method for g-sensitivity error coefficients based on the Newton iteration and least squares methods. Multi-group calibration experiments designed on a MEMS Inertial Measurement Unit (MEMS IMU) product demonstrate that the proposed method can calibrate g-sensitivity error coefficients and correct the g-sensitivity error effectively and simply.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To further elucidate the role of estrogen receptor β (ER-β) in the early endometriotic lesion attachment. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: EECs were immortalized using a telomerase vector. Immortalized cells and parental cells were characterized by genotyping, and expression of ER-β as well as other epithelial cell markers. ER-β was knocked-down in immortalized EECs using lentivirus-mediated shRNA transduction. ER-β knockdown was confirmed by RT-qPCR and Western analysis. EEC cells with or without ER-β knockdown were used to assess their attachment to PMCs in an established in vitro assay (Lucidi, 2005). Results were analyzed with Student t-test. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Genotyping using karyotype assay confirmed a normal chromosomal profile. Also positive staining for cytokeratin and lack of any staining with vimentin confirms the epithelial origin of these cells. ER-β knockdown has a significant decrease in attachment compared to control (p=0.02). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Primary and immortalized cells were 46XX, cytokeratin positive, and vimentin negative confirming their epithelial origin. ER-β knockdown has a significant decrease in attachment compared with control.
One of the most important non-destructive methods for on-site analysis of bronze artifacts is portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). However, bronze artifacts are usually heterogeneous in composition due to, among other things, the segregation of lead, which is hard to be eliminated through annealing treatments. In the present work, Cu-Sn-Pb alloys with homogenous composition and microstructure is fabricated by powder metallurgy technique. The suitability of the standard curve using Cu-Sn-Pb alloys by powder metallurgy as the standard samples for XRF on the analysis of bronze artifacts is evaluated. It is shown that this proposed method can be transferred to portable XRF to acquire accurate on-site composition information of bronze artifacts.
In semiconductor system for solar-energy utilization by photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, the effective absorption of visible light and the efficient separation and transfer of photogenerated charge carriers are still of key importance. In this manuscript, composite photoanodes of PbO sensitized ZnO nanorod arrays were prepared by a two-step hydrothermal process and used as anodes for PEC test under visible-light irradiation. The photocurrent achieved the highest value of 94 μA cm−2 at 0.8 V (versus Ag/AgCl electrode) when the amount of Pb source was optimized to form only a thin layer (a few nanometers) of PbO nanoparticles on the surfaces of ZnO nanorods. Such a nanostructure enabled the visible-light absorption, and also ensured the sufficient contact of PbO with ZnO to form junction with a type II band alignment and the sufficient contact with aqueous solution to form interfaces, thus facilitating the excitation, separation, and transfer of charge carriers to generate photocurrent and finally enhancing the PEC activity.
The Virtue Existential Career Model (VEC) is a Chinese career development model based on the Classic of Changes. It is designed to supplement the person-environment fit paradigm of Taiwan's 12-Year Basic Education for junior high school students. We adopted an action research approach with two parts, reflection-on-action and critical-emancipatory. An easy-to-use VEC career curriculum and a career information system (Career Genesis; CG) were developed by a team of staff members from government agencies (Tainan Department of Education and Student Counseling Centers), junior high schools, and the Chinese Career Research Center of National Changhua University of Education, Taiwan. The outcome of this project was strong on fostering interconnectedness. Implementing our VEC curriculum and CG to 30 junior high school students received statistically significant immediate increases in resilience, adaptation, and liking of career decision. The feedback and reflections suggest that mandating, attracting, and simplifying are useful strategies to promote our VEC model as well as to facilitate social change and create a multiple-win situation for all parties involved. This approach also follows the tao (道) of the Classic of Changes to provide new knowledge.
A quake is rumbling through the core of physics. Suddenly apparently unrelated areas appear to have a common ground, showing an eerie capacity to fertilise each other. In physics such occasions are invariably propelled by novel mathematical machinery and the present case is no exception. This new mathematical contraption is “holographic duality” (or “anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence”), which was originally discovered in string theory in the 1990s. Until recently its use was limited to the historic scope of string theory – particle physics and quantum gravity. At a breathtaking pace it has since rolled out over many of the subject areas of modern fundamental physics, even yielding new insights into old subjects such as the nineteenth-century theory of hydrodynamics.
Several books of this kind could be written, and are being written, highlighting how anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) impacts on various fields in physics. This book will focus on a prominent area where the developments have been particularly stunning. This is the application to equilibrium condensed matter physics. This started in 2007, and in a matter of a few years condensed matter theory was rewritten in a different mathematical language. This language is the one that one would perhaps least expect: general relativity. On its own a rewriting of condensed matter might not sound like a great advance, no matter how unconventional the language. However, the correspondence makes it possible to explore regimes of quantum many-body physics that are completely inaccessible with conventional techniques. In particular we refer to non-Fermi-liquid states of matter formed in finite-density systems of strongly interacting fermion systems. The holographic mathematics here becomes particularly expressive, suggesting that a general principle of a new kind is at work. It appears that this principle relates to the physics of compressible quantum matter: the notion that the nature of this state of matter is governed by a macroscopic quantum entanglement involving allof its constituents. This discovery is not just remarkable on its own. “Holographic strange matter” also has tantalisingly suggestive resemblances to the mysterious phenomena observed experimentally in strongly interacting electron systems that have been realised in special materials such as the high-Tc superconductors. First seen around thirty years ago, these have defied any reasonable explanation despite countless attempts resting on the available mathematical techniques.
The material systems studied in condensed matter laboratories are formed from a finite density of conserved entities such as the number of electrons or (cold) atoms. This is a priori quite distinct from the vacuum states which have been discussed in the previous two chapters. These purely scaleless critical states can be mimicked in the laboratory, but this involves meticulous fine tuning to the critical point. The famous example is the cold-atom superfluid Bose Mott-insulator system . As we discussed in chapter 2, according to the established wisdom of condensed matter physics the zero-temperature states of matter which are understood, are generically stable or “cohesive” states. These typically break symmetry spontaneously, with a vacuum that is a short-range entangled product state. In addition, the Fermi liquid and the incompressible topologically ordered states are at present understood as stable states that are “enriched” by the long-range entanglement in their ground states. Finally, by fine tuning of parameters one can encounter special unstable states associated with continuous quantum phase transitions, but these are understood within the limitations of “bosonic” field theory, which relies on the statistical physics (in Euclidean space-time) paradigm.
The AdS/CMT pursuit was kickstarted in the period 2008–2009, inspired by this finite-density perspective underlying condensed matter physics. The first shot was aimed at spontaneous symmetry breaking: the holographic superconductor.We shall discuss this at length in chapter 10. We will find out there that much of the physics of this iconic zero-temperature state of matter is impeccably reproduced by holography, with the results acting thereby as a powerful confidence builder. However, in the development that followed it became increasingly clear that holography insists on the existence of an entirely new class of “non-cohesive” finite-density states at zero temperature. These emergent quantum critical phases are best called “strange metals” [159, 320]. This quantum criticality is not tied to the conformal invariance and supersymmetry of the zero-density CFT inherent in the AdS/CFT name.
If this book ever makes it to a second edition, this is most likely to be the chapter that will have to be most thoroughly rewritten. Is there a need in condensed matter physics for a theory that goes beyond the paradigm which we sketched in rough outline in the previous chapter? If so, would the lessons of AdS/CMT which are found in the later chapters be of any relevance for this purpose?
At present the fog of war is still obscuring the battlefield. This war started some thirty years ago with the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity. Before this event, there was a sense that insofar as metals and superconductors are involved the fundamentals could be understood in terms of the “fifties paradigm” of the previous chapter. In the frenzy that followed the high-Tc discovery, experiments showed that strange things were happening. The reaction of the mainstream was to try to tamper with the established paradigm, to accommodate the anomalies. However, Philip W. Anderson, who was very influential back then, took the lead in insisting that new physics is at work in the copper oxide electron systems . This in turn had a great impact on the research agenda. During the subsequent thirty years the field diversified to other materials, while the repertoire of experimental methods employed to study the electrons in solids greatly expanded. Literally millions of papers were written on the subject. But some of the most basic questions formulated in the late 1980s are still awaiting a definitive answer. It is just impossible to do justice to this large and confusing literature in the present context (see e.g. ). We will therefore present here a small selection of subjects, which is intended to form a minimal background for the holographist to communicate with the condensed matter community.
Back in the late 1980s the great puzzle was why the superconducting transition temperature could be as high as 150 K, given that the conventional phonon mechanism runs out of steam at 40 K or so. It was also realised early on that the electron systems in cuprates are characterised by unusually strong inter-electron repulsions. An aspect that is well understood in these systems is the microscopic physics.
In chapter 9 we introduced the holographic description of single-fermion propagators in the finite-density Reissner–Nordström metals. We discussed in particular how sharp Fermi surfaces can arise due to the approximate confinement of fermionic excitations in the potential well created by the geometrical domain wall. The interaction of these fermionic quasi-bound states with the strongly coupled AdS2 IR gives these a finite lifetime. Eventually it decays into the quantum critical horizon, and this imbues the state with its non-Fermi-liquid properties. For particular parameter choices these fermionic responses can closely resemble the “marginal-Fermi-liquid” spectral functions suggested by photoemission experiments in the cuprate strange metals. However, these computations involved an approximation in the form of the probe limit, which assumed that the bulk fermions do not influence the bulk physics.
But the reader is now familiar with holographic superconductivity, a context where the limitations of the probe limit become very explicit: the violation of the BF bound by the fluctuations of a scalar field in the bulk signals an instability of the vacuum, and one has to recompute the response after the backreaction of the scalar field has been fully accounted for. Ignoring this amounts to computing the physics of an unstable, false vacuum. We emphasised in chapter 9 that a similar issue arises in the parameter regime of the fermion scaling dimension and charge where the holographic Fermi surface is formed. Invariably the fermion propagators show in this regime a log-oscillatory behaviour at small momenta, which is caused by a BF-bound violation of the bulk fermions. The physics in the bulk behind this log-oscillatory behaviour is Schwinger pair production in the background of the charged black hole. Although the physics is less straightforward than for the bosonic fields, it does indicate that the system is unstable – the Fermi surfaces of chapter 9 are properties of a false vacuum. To stabilise the bulk it has to be that the fermionic states in the bulk get occupied. In the true ground state the bulk fermions have to have a macroscopic effect themselves, and the only way this can be accomplished is by forming finite-density fermionic matter. The bulk fermions are non-interacting to leading order in 1/N, but they are still subject to Fermi–Dirac statistics. Thus a finite-density Fermi gas has to form in the bulk with a charge and energy density that will modify the gauge fields and the geometry.