To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Calcification within breast cancer is a diagnostically significant radiological feature that generally consists of hydroxylapatite. Samples from 30 cases of breast carcinoma with calcification were investigated using optical microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, transmission-electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. Under optical microscopy, the calcifications were found to consist of either irregular aggregates with widths > 200 μm or spherical aggregates similar to psammoma bodies with an average diameter of 30 μm. Transmission-electron microscopy showed that short columnar or dumbbell-shaped crystals with widths of 10–15 nm and lengths of 20–50 nm were the most common morphology; spherical aggregates (~1 μm in diameter) with amorphous coatings of fibrous nanocrystals were also observed. Results indicated that hydroxylapatite was the dominant mineral phase in the calcifications, and both CO32– and cation substitutions (Na, Mg, Zn, Fe, Sr, Cu and Mn) were present in the hydroxylapatite structure. Fourier-transform infrared spectra show peaks at 872 and 880 cm–1 indicating that CO32– substituted both the OH– (A type) and PO43– (B type) sites of hydroxylapatite, making it an A and B mixed type. The ratio of B- to A-type substitution was estimated in the range of 1.1–18.7 from the ratio of peak intensities (I872/I880), accompanied with CO32– contents from 1.1% to 14.5%. Trace arsenic, detected in situ by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence was found to be distributed uniformly in the calcifications in the form of AsO43– substituting for PO43–. It is therefore proposed that identifying these trace elements in breast cancer calcifications may be promising for future clinical diagnostics.
Chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy (CTIN) is one of the most common kidney diseases. However, treatment for CTIN has multiple limits. Adjuvant therapy through nutritional regulation has become a hot research topic at present. Icariin (ICA), an extraction of Chinese herbal medicine epimedium, has many pharmacological functions including anti-inflammation and tonifying kidney. Selenomethionine (SeMet) possesses the effects of antioxidant and lightening nephrotoxicity. However, little is known about the combined nephroprotection of them. This study was investigated to evaluate the joint effects of ICA and SeMet on CTIN and explore the mechanism. Based on a novel CTIN model developed in our previous study, mice were randomly divided into five groups (a: control; b: model; c: model + ICA; d: model + SeMet; e: model + ICA + SeMet). Renal tubule epithelial cells were treated with cyclosporine A and ochratoxin A without/with ICA or/and SeMet. The results showed that ICA or/and SeMet ameliorated CTIN by inhibiting the uptrends of blood urine nitrogen, serum creatinine, urine protein, urine gravity, histopathological damage degree and collagen I deposition. ICA or/and SeMet also increased cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis and the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and α-smooth muscle actin. Emphatically, ICA and SeMet joint had better nephroprotection than alone in most indexes including fibrosis. Furthermore, ICA and SeMet joint decreased the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NFκB pathway induced by CTIN. TLR4 overexpression counteracted the joint protection of ICA and SeMet. Therefore, ICA and SeMet in combination could protect against CTIN through blocking TLR4/NFκB pathway. The study will provide novel insights to explore an adjuvant therapeutic orientation.
Resistance to penoxsulam among barnyardgrass populations is prevalent in rice fields in China. Seeds of penoxsulam-resistant (AXXZ-2) and -susceptible (JLGY-3) barnyardgrass populations, as well as the seeds of two rice varieties including Wuyungeng32 (WY) and Liangyou669 (LY) were planted in plastic pots and then treated with a rate titration of acetochlor, anilofos, butachlor, clomazone, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, pretilachlor, pyraclonil, or thiobencarb. The two barnyardgrass populations exhibited similar susceptibility to acetochlor, anilofos, butachlor, oxadiazon, pretilachlor, or pyraclonil. However, the susceptibility differed between the barnyardgrass populations in response to clomazone, pendimethalin, and thiobencarb. For AXXZ-2, herbicide rates that caused 50% reduction in shoot biomass from the nontreated control (GR50) were 179, >800, and 1798 g ha-1 for clomazone, pendimethalin, and thiobencarb, respectively; while JLGY-3 GR50 values were 61, 166, and 552 g ha-1, respectively. Both rice varieties demonstrated excellent tolerance to acetochlor, butachlor, oxadiazon, pretilachlor, and thiobencarb. However, substantial rice damage was observed with anilofos and clomazone. Anilofos at 352 g ha-1 and clomazone at 448 g ha-1 reduced rice shoot biomass by 41 and 50% from the nontreated, respectively. Averaged across herbicide rates, clomazone reduced rice shoot biomass from the nontreated control by 52 and 34% for WY and LY, respectively; and pendimethalin reduced rice shoot biomass from the nontreated control by 25 and 9% for WY and LY, respectively.
The current study evaluated the associations between different forms and sources of Fe and breast cancer risk in Southern Chinese women.
Case–control study. We collected data on the consumption of Fe from different forms and food sources by using a validated FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression and restricted cubic spline (RCS) analysis was used to reveal potential associations between Fe intake and breast cancer risk.
A case-control study of women at three major hospitals in Guangzhou, China.
From June 2007 to March 2019, 1591 breast cancer cases and 1622 age-matched controls were recruited.
In quartile analyses, Fe from plants and Fe from white meat intake were inversely associated with breast cancer risk, with OR of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·47, 0·89, Ptrend = 0·006) and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·61, 0·96, Ptrend = 0·014), respectively, comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. No associations were observed between total dietary Fe, heme or non-heme Fe, Fe from meat or red meat and breast cancer risk. RCS analysis demonstrated J-shaped associations between total dietary Fe, non-heme Fe and breast cancer, and reverse L-shaped associations between heme Fe, Fe from meat and Fe from red meat and breast cancer.
Fe from plants and white meat were inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Significant non-linear J-shaped associations were found between total dietary Fe, non-heme Fe and breast cancer risk, and reverse L-shaped associations were found between heme Fe, Fe from meat or red meat and breast cancer risk.
Lifestyle interventions are an important and viable approach for preventing cognitive deficits. However, the results of studies on alcohol, coffee and tea consumption in relation to cognitive decline have been divergent, likely due to confounds from dose–response effects. This meta-analysis aimed to find the dose–response relationship between alcohol, coffee or tea consumption and cognitive deficits.
Prospective cohort studies or nested case-control studies in a cohort investigating the risk factors of cognitive deficits were searched in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane and Web of Science up to 4th June 2020. Two authors searched the databases and extracted the data independently. We also assessed the quality of the studies with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Stata 15.0 software was used to perform model estimation and plot the linear or nonlinear dose–response relationship graphs.
The search identified 29 prospective studies from America, Japan, China and some European countries. The dose–response relationships showed that compared to non-drinkers, low consumption (<11 g/day) of alcohol could reduce the risk of cognitive deficits or only dementias, but there was no significant effect of heavier drinking (>11 g/day). Low consumption of coffee reduced the risk of any cognitive deficit (<2.8 cups/day) or dementia (<2.3 cups/day). Green tea consumption was a significant protective factor for cognitive health (relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence intervals, 0.92–0.97), with one cup of tea per day brings a 6% reduction in risk of cognitive deficits.
Light consumption of alcohol (<11 g/day) and coffee (<2.8 cups/day) was associated with reduced risk of cognitive deficits. Cognitive benefits of green tea consumption increased with the daily consumption.
Potential secondary influences on titanium distribution should be evaluated when using ash beds as volcanic source indicators and for correlation purposes. In this study, well-correlated altered ash beds in Permian–Triassic boundary (PTB) successions of various facies in South China were investigated to better understand their use in source discrimination and stratigraphic correlation. The ash beds deposited in lacustrine and paludal facies contain significantly more Ti relative to deposits in marine facies. Neoformed anatase grains nanometres to micrometres in size are associated closely with clay minerals, whereas detrital anatase was observed in the remnants of altered ash beds of terrestrial facies. Extraction of the clay fraction of altered ash beds may exclude significantly detrital accessory minerals such as anatase and rutile added during sediment reworking, and the concentrations of immobile elements in the clay fraction may therefore be used to interpret more effectively their source igneous rocks.
Supported by (1) medical research grants CMRPG3C0041/42 from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and NRRPG2H0031 from Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan to Chemin Lin (2) NMRPG3G6031/32 from Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan to Shwu-Hua, Lee (3) the KKHo International Charitable Foundation to Tatia Lee.
Suicide rate tends to peak in old age, and major depression is the most salient risk factor for late-life suicide. However, few studies have focused on the neuroscientific facet of suicide in the context of late-life depression (LLD).
We recruited 114 participants of LLD (28 with history of suicide attempt and 86 without) and 47 elderly controls. They received MRI scanning and behavioral assessment. White matter hyperintensity (WMH) was quantified by an automated segmentation algorithm and graph theoretical analysis was applied to resting-state fMRI. We used ANCOVA to compare group difference in WMH loading and multivariate generalized linear model to compare global and local topological parameters in fMRI signals, controlling for demographics. Partial correlation was conducted between imaging parameters and behavioral data in group of suicide attempters.
We found significant higher WMH in suicide attempters than those of LLD without suicide attempts and elderly controls (F =7.091; p = 0.001). Suicide attempters also had increased betweenness centrality (BC) in right superior occipital gyrus (SOG) (Bonferroni corrected), right precuneus (False positive corrected) and right superior temporal gyrus (uncorrected) and decreased BC in left hippocampus (uncorrected). In suicide attempters, higher BC in right SOG correlated with higher WMH, higher depression severity, higher illness awareness and insight, and lower cognitive function (digit backward), while higher BC in right precuneus correlated with higher decrease awareness and insight and higher cognitive function (digit backward).
Resonating with the vascular hypothesis in LLD, higher WMH was found in those having history of suicide attempts. However, the re-organized brain topology changes are related with divergent cognitive function and convergent heightened disease insight.
The outbreak of COVID-19 generated severe emotional reactions, and restricted mobility was a crucial measure to reduce the spread of the virus. This study describes the changes in public emotional reactions and mobility patterns in the Chinese population during the COVID-19 outbreak.
We collected data on public emotional reactions in response to the outbreak through Weibo, the Chinese Twitter, between 1st January and 31st March 2020. Using anonymized location-tracking information, we analyzed the daily mobility patterns of approximately 90% of Sichuan residents.
There were three distinct phases of the emotional and behavioral reactions to the COVID-19 outbreak. The alarm phase (19th–26th January) was a restriction-free period, characterized by few new daily cases, but a large amount public negative emotions [the number of negative comments per Weibo post increased by 246.9 per day, 95% confidence interval (CI) 122.5–371.3], and a substantial increase in self-limiting mobility (from 45.6% to 54.5%, changing by 1.5% per day, 95% CI 0.7%–2.3%). The epidemic phase (27th January–15th February) exhibited rapidly increasing numbers of new daily cases, decreasing expression of negative emotions (a decrease of 27.3 negative comments per post per day, 95% CI −40.4 to −14.2), and a stabilized level of self-limiting mobility. The relief phase (16th February–31st March) had a steady decline in new daily cases and decreasing levels of negative emotion and self-limiting mobility.
During the COVID-19 outbreak in China, the public's emotional reaction was strongest before the actual peak of the outbreak and declined thereafter. The change in human mobility patterns occurred before the implementation of restriction orders, suggesting a possible link between emotion and behavior.
Not all plant-based and animal foods exert the same health effects due to their various nutrient compositions. We aimed to assess the quality of plant-based v. animal foods in relation to mortality in a prospective cohort study. Using data collected from a nationally representative sample of 36 825 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2014, we developed a de novo Comprehensive Diet Quality Index (cDQI) that assesses the quality of seventeen foods based on the healthfulness and separately scored the quality of eleven plant-based foods in a plant-based Diet Quality Index (pDQI) and six animal foods in an animal-based Diet Quality Index (aDQI). Mortality from all causes, heart disease and cancer were obtained from linkage to the National Death Index up to 31 December 2015. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI after multivariable adjustments. During a median follow-up of 8·3 years, 4669 all-cause deaths occurred, including 798 deaths due to heart disease and 1021 due to cancer. Compared with individuals in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile of cDQI had a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR 0·75, 95 % CI 0·65, 0·86; Ptrend < 0·001), which largely reflected the inverse relationship between quality of plant-based foods (pDQI) and all-cause mortality (HR 0·66, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·74; Ptrend < 0·001). No independent association was found for the quality of animal foods (aDQI) and mortality. Our results suggest that consuming healthy plant-based foods is associated with lower all-cause mortality among US adults.
There is growing interest globally in using real-world data (RWD) and real-world evidence (RWE) for health technology assessment (HTA). Optimal collection, analysis, and use of RWD/RWE to inform HTA requires a conceptual framework to standardize processes and ensure consistency. However, such framework is currently lacking in Asia, a region that is likely to benefit from RWD/RWE for at least two reasons. First, there is often limited Asian representation in clinical trials unless specifically conducted in Asian populations, and RWD may help to fill the evidence gap. Second, in a few Asian health systems, reimbursement decisions are not made at market entry; thus, allowing RWD/RWE to be collected to give more certainty about the effectiveness of technologies in the local setting and inform their appropriate use. Furthermore, an alignment of RWD/RWE policies across Asia would equip decision makers with context-relevant evidence, and improve timely patient access to new technologies. Using data collected from eleven health systems in Asia, this paper provides a review of the current landscape of RWD/RWE in Asia to inform HTA and explores a way forward to align policies within the region. This paper concludes with a proposal to establish an international collaboration among academics and HTA agencies in the region: the REAL World Data In ASia for HEalth Technology Assessment in Reimbursement (REALISE) working group, which seeks to develop a non-binding guidance document on the use of RWD/RWE to inform HTA for decision making in Asia.
A control volume based analytical method for calculating the efficiency
of flapping foil power generators was developed for single and tandem foil configurations. Ignoring unsteady effects and non-uniform pressures resulted in theoretical limits identical to the Betz (
for a single turbine) and Newman (
for tandem turbines) limits. Inclusion of unsteady flow and non-uniform pressure distributions produced theoretical efficiency maxima in excess of these limits. Simulation of single and tandem foil cases to determine the magnitude of these effects showed that the Betz limit would not be exceeded by a single foil system in practice, but that it is conceivable that a tandem foil system could exceed the Newman limit due to the strong unsteady vortex wake of the upstream turbine entraining additional energy into the path of the downstream turbine and maintaining pressures in the wake below ambient.
A novel ionic liquid/α-ZrP (C16MIM/α-ZrP) lamellar nanocomposite was fabricated via the electrostatic self-assembly deposition technique by using exfoliated α-ZrP nanosheets and guest molecules (1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide) as building blocks under mild conditions. C16MIM/α-ZrP nanocomposite was characterized by various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and synchronous thermal analyzer. The net interlayer spacing of α-ZrP determined by XRD confirmed that the C16MIM cations formed a monolayer arrangement between the α-ZrP nanosheets. The morphology and microstructure of C16MIM/α-ZrP composite were observed using SEM and TEM. The C16MIM/α-ZrP modified glass carbon electrode exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of nitrite in weak base media. The results obtained with differential pulse voltammetry demonstrated that the C16MIM/α-ZrP hybrid detected nitrite linearly in the concentration range from 7.3 μM to 1.25 mM with the detection limit of 1.26 μM (S/N = 3). Additionally, the prepared sensor showed outstanding reproducibility, high stability, and anti-interference capability.
In the current research, a 60-day experiment was conducted with the purpose of exploring the impacts of methionine on growth performance, muscle nutritive deposition, muscle fibre growth and type I collagen synthesis as well as related signaling pathway. Six diets (iso-nitrogenous) differing in methionine concentrations (2.54, 4.85, 7.43, 10.12, 12.40 and 15.11 g kg-1 diets) were fed to 540 grass carp (178.47 ± 0.36 g). Results showed (P < 0.05) that, compared with methionine deficiency, optimal level of dietary methionine (1) increased feed intake (FI), feed efficiency (FE), specific growth rate (SGR) and percentage weight gain (PWG); (2) increased fish muscle protein, lipid and free amino acid contents, and improved fish muscle fatty acid profile as well as increased protein content in part associated with TORC1/S6K1 signaling pathway; (3) increased the frequency distribution of muscle fibre with >50 µm of diameter; (4) increased type I collagen synthesis partly related to TGF-β1/Smads and CK2/TORC1 signaling pathways. In conclusion, dietary methionine improved muscle growth, which might be due to the regulation of muscle nutritive deposition, and muscle fibre growth and type I collagen synthesis related signal molecules. Finally, according to PWG and muscle collagen content, the methionine requirements for on-growing grass carp (178-626 g) were estimated to be 9.56 g kg-1 diet (33.26 g kg-1 protein of diet) and 9.28 g kg-1 diet (32.29 g kg-1 of dietary protein), respectively.
The COVID-19 outbreak required the significantly increased working time and intensity for health professionals in China, which may cause stress signs.
From March 2–13 of 2020, 4,618 health professionals in China were included in an anonymous, self-rated online survey regarding their concerns on exposure to the COVID-19 outbreak. The questionnaires consisted of five parts: basic demographic information and epidemiological exposure; occupational and psychological impact; concerns during the episode; coping strategies; and the Huaxi Emotional-Distress Index (HEI).
About 24.2% of respondents experienced high levels of anxiety or/and depressive symptoms since the COVID-19 outbreak. Respondents who worried about their physical health and those who had COVID-19 infected friends or close relatives were more likely to have high HEI levels, than those without these characteristics. Further, family relationship was found to have an independent protective effect against high HEI levels. Their main concerns were that their families would not be cared for and that they would not be able to work properly. Compared to respondents with clear emotional problems, those with somewhat hidden emotional issues adopted more positive coping measures.
About a quarter of medical staff experienced psychological problems during the pandemic of COVID-19. The psychological impact of stressful events was related to worrying about their physical health, having close COVID-19 infected acquaintances and family relationship issues. Therefore, the psychological supprot for medical staff fighting in the COVID-19 pandemic may be needed.
Ketosis is a metabolic disease of dairy cows often characterized by high concentrations of ketone bodies and fatty acids, but low milk protein and milk production. The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways are central for the regulation of milk protein synthesis. The effect of high levels of fatty acids on these pathways and β-casein synthesis are unknown in dairy cows with clinical ketosis. Mammary gland tissue and blood samples were collected from healthy (n = 15) and clinically-ketotic (n = 15) cows. In addition, bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) were treated with fatty acids, methionine (Met) or prolactin (PRL), respectively. In vivo, the serum concentration of fatty acids was greater (P > 0.05) and the percentage of milk protein (P > 0.05) was lower in cows with clinical ketosis. The JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways were inhibited and the abundance of β-casein was lower in mammary tissue of cows with clinical ketosis (P > 0.05). In vitro, high levels of fatty acids inhibited the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways (P > 0.05) and further decreased the β-casein synthesis (P > 0.05) in BMEC. Methionine or PRL treatment, as positive regulators, activated the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways to increase the β-casein synthesis. Importantly, the high concentration of fatty acids attenuated the positive effect of Met or PRL on mTOR, JAK2-STAT5 pathways and the abundance of β-casein (P > 0.05). Overall, these data indicate that the high concentrations of fatty acids that reach the mammary cells during clinical ketosis inhibit mTOR and JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathways, and further suppress β-casein synthesis.
To investigate the executive function and learning ability of the patients with first-episode schizophrenia, and its relationship with the patients’ clinical symptoms.
50 schizophrenia patients and 50 healthy controls were tested by the Tower of London (TOL). All the subjects received two phases of the test of TOL continuously, with a break of 1 minute. And Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) was used to assess the clinical symptoms of the patients.
Compared with the control group, the number of reply during the 1st phase (x1) and the 2nd phase (x2)of the patients group, was lower (P<0.01); the reaction time during the 1st phase (t1) and the 2nd phase (t2) was longer (P<0.01); while the rate of correct answer during the 1st phase (p1) and the 2nd phase (p2) do not differ. For the control group, x2 was higher than x1 (P<0.01), and t2 was shorter than t1 (P<0.01). However, for the schizophrenia group, there were no difference between x1 and x2, t1 and t2. The value of x1, p1, x2 of the patients were correlated negatively with the PANSS negative subscale score (P< 0.05), and t1 and t2 were correlated positively with the the negative subscale score (P< 0.01). The performance of the TOL did not correlated with the PANSS positive subscale score and general psychopathology subscale score.
The executive function and learning ability of the schizophrenics are impaired and the impairment of the cognitive function is significantly correlated with the negative symptoms of schizophrenia patients.