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Rabbits play an important role in people’s lives due to their high nutritional value and high-quality hair that can be used as raw material for textiles. Furthermore, rabbits are an important animal model for human disease, as genome-edited animals are particularly valuable for studying gene functions and pathogenesis. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is an important technique for producing genome-edited animals and it has great value in saving endangered species and in clone stem cell therapy. However, the low efficiency of SCNT limits its application, with the selection of suitable rabbit oocytes being crucial to its success. In the present study, we collected oocytes from ovarian follicles and stained them with 26 μM brilliant cresyl blue (BCB). We then matured the oocytes in vitro and used them for SCNT. Comparison of the BCB-positive oocytes with BCB-negative oocytes and the control group showed that the BCB-positive group had a significantly higher maturation rate (81.4% vs. 48.9% and 65.3% for the negative and control groups, respectively), cleavage rate (86.6% vs. 67.9% and 77.9%), blastocyst rate (30.5% vs. 12.8% and 19.6%), total number of blastocysts (90±7.5 vs. 65.3±6.3 and 67.5±5.7), and inner cell mass (ICM)/ trophectoderm (TE) index (42.3±4.2 vs. 30.2±2.1 and 33.9±5.1) (P<0.05). The BCB-positive group had a significantly lower apoptosis index (2.1±0.6 vs. 8.2±0.9 and 6.7±1.1 for the negative and control groups, respectively) (P<0.05). These findings demonstrate that BCB-positive oocytes have a higher maturation ability and developmental competence in vitro, indicating that BCB staining is a reliable method for selecting oocytes to enhance the efficiency of SCNT.
In this paper, we review the status of the multifunctional experimental platform at the National Laboratory of High Power Laser and Physics (NLHPLP). The platform, including the SG-II laser facility, SG-II 9th beam, SG-II upgrade (SG-II UP) facility, and SG-II 5 PW facility, is operational and available for interested scientists studying inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and a broad range of high-energy-density physics. These facilities can provide important experimental capabilities by combining different pulse widths of nanosecond, picosecond, and femtosecond scales. In addition, the SG-II UP facility, consisting of a single petawatt system and an eight-beam nanosecond system, is introduced including several laser technologies that have been developed to ensure the performance of the facility. Recent developments of the SG-II 5 PW facility are also presented.
The aim of the research reported in this Research Communication was to identify differentially expressed proteins in dairy cows with normal and lutein diet and to elucidate the mechanisms of lutein-induced effects on bovine mammary gland metabolism using a comparative proteomic approach. Thirty-three differentially expressed proteins were identified from mammary gland of control diet-fed and lutein diet-fed dairy cows. Among these proteins, 15 were upregulated and 18 were downregulated in the lutein group. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed proteins showed that increased blood flow, depressed glycolysis, enhanced lactose anabolism, decreased fatty acid oxidation and up-regulated beta lactoglobulin expression were connected with lutein addition. These results suggested that the increased blood flow, reduced glucose catabolism, enhanced capacity for milk lactose synthesis, depressed fatty acid catabolism and increased expression of antioxidantion related protein may be the prime factors contributing to the increased milk production and enhanced immune status in lutein-fed dairy cows. This study provides molecular mechanism of dietary lutein in regulating lactation of dairy cows.
The hot deformation behavior of Nb–V–Ti microalloyed ultra-high strength steel was investigated by isothermal compression at 900–1200 °C with strain rates from 0.01 to 10 s−1. The microstructure evolution and precipitation behavior were studied using an optical microscope and a transmission electron microscope Results indicate that the peak stress of experimental steel increases with increasing the strain rate and decreasing the deformation temperature. The constitutive equation of hot deformation was developed with the activation energy Q being about 407.29 kJ/mol. The processing maps were also obtained to identify the instable regions of the flow behavior and to evaluate the efficiency of hot deformation. The size of dynamically recrystallized grains increases gradually with a decrease in the strain rate. Three types of carbides were identified, namely M3C, rich-Ti MC, and rich-Nb MC. With the increase of the deformation rate, the amounts of carbides increase, and the average sizes of the carbides decrease gradually.
Early reperfusion therapy in the treatment of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients can improve outcomes. Silent myocardial infarction is associated with poor prognosis, but little is known about its effect on treatment delays. We aimed to characterize STEMI patients presenting without complaints of pain to the emergency departments (EDs) in Singapore.
Retrospective data were requested from the Singapore Myocardial Infarction Registry (SMIR), a national level registry in Singapore. Painless STEMI was defined as the absence of pain (chest, back, shoulder, jaw, and epigastric pain) during ED presentation. The primary outcome was door-to-balloon (D2B) time, defined as the earliest time a patient arrived in the ED to balloon inflation. Secondary outcomes were 1-month and 1-year mortality and occurrence of adverse events.
From January 2010 to December 2012, the SMIR collected 6412 cases; 10.9% of patients presented without any pain. These patients were older (median age =75 v. 58 years old), more likely to be females (39.9% v. 16.1%), Chinese (74.9% v. 62.7%), obese (median body mass index [BMI] =24.5 v. 22.1), and with history of hypertension (71.1% v. 54.6%), diabetes mellitus (48.6% v. 37.0%), and acute myocardial infarction (20.0% v. 12.3%). They had a longer median D2B (80.5 v. 63 minutes, p<0.001) and a higher occurrence of 30-day (38.4% v. 5.7%) and 1-year mortality rates (47.3% v. 8.5%).
A small proportion of STEMI patients presented without any pain to the ED. They tended to have a higher D2B and risks of mortality. Targeted effort is required to improve diagnostic and treatment efficiency in this group.
In the paper, we focus on atom diffusion behavior in Ni-based superalloys, which have important applications in the aero-industry. Specifically, the expressions of the key physical parameter – transition rate (jump rate) in the diffusion can be given from the diffusion theory in solids and the kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method, respectively. The transition rate controls the diffusion process and is directly related to the energy of vacancy formation and the energy of migration of atom from density functional theory (DFT). Moreover, from the KMC calculations, the diffusion coefficients for Ni and Al atoms in the γ phase (Ni matrix) and the γʹ phase (intermetallic compound Ni3Al) of the superalloy have been obtained. We propose a strategy of time stepping to deal with the multi-time scale issues. In addition, the influence of temperature and Al concentration on diffusion in dilute alloys is also reported.
To investigate the effects of cold rolling on the microstructure, the precipitation behavior and the morphology of δ-phase, Inconel 718 alloy samples with different cold rolling reductions were aged for different periods at temperatures range from 850 °C to 1000 °C. Detailed microstructural observations and quantitative measurements were conducted to characterize the evolution of the δ-phase during aging. The results show that the microstructure consists of large deformed grains as a result of a slow static recovery at the low aging temperatures (850 and 900 °C); whereas the austenite matrix is fully recrystallized at the high aging temperatures (950 and 1000 °C). It is also found that the amount of δ-phase and the number density of spherical δ-phase particles increase with the increase in the degree of cold rolling both at low and high aging temperatures. With respect to different microstructural changes for the cold-rolled samples at the low or the high aging temperatures, two distinct mechanisms have been, respectively, introduced to interpret the changes in the precipitation behavior and the appearance of δ-phase.
Three epidemic waves of human influenza A(H7N9) were documented in several different provinces in China between 2013 and 2015. With limited understanding of the potential for human-to-human transmission, it was difficult to implement control measures efficiently or to inform the public adequately about the application of interventions. In this study, the human-to-human transmission rate for the epidemics that occurred between 2013 and 2015 in Zhejiang Province, China, was analysed. The reproduction number (R), a key indicator of transmission intensity, was estimated by fitting the number of infections from poultry to humans and from humans to humans into a mathematical model. The posterior mean R for human-to-human transmission was estimated to be 0·27, with a 95% credible interval of 0·14–0·44 for the first wave, whereas the posterior mean Rs decreased to 0·15 in the second and third waves. Overall, these estimates indicate that a human H7N9 pandemic is unlikely to occur in Zhejiang. The reductions in the viral transmissibility and the number of poultry-transmitted infections after the first epidemic may be attributable to the various intervention measures taken, including changes in the extent of closures of live poultry markets.
The microstructural evolution of type 347H heat-resistant austenitic steel during long-term aging at 700–900 °C was investigated by using a transmission microscope, a scanning electron microscope, and electron energy spectrum technology. The microstructural examination showed the typical micrographs of MX carbonitrides and M23C6 carbides after aging. The existence of the Z phase (NbCrN) at the grain boundaries during aging was identified. Meanwhile, the possible precipitation sequence of these particles was also confirmed. In the beginning of aging, fine Nb(C,N) precipitates first, then, M23C6 carbides precipitate along the grain boundaries. Finally, the Z phase is also observed at the grain boundaries. Moreover, the influence of isothermal holding temperature on the precipitation of MX carbonitrides and M23C6 carbides was discussed. The various microstructural characterizations showed that the M23C6 carbides and MX carbonitrides precipitate more easily with the increase of aging temperature. Furthermore, the number and the size of MX particles and M23C6 carbides increase when the isothermal holding time is prolonged.
To study the thermal deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of the type 347H austenitic steel, compression experiments were conducted at the temperatures of 800–1100 °C with strain rates of 0.01–10 s−1. The activation energy and constitutive equation of the type 347H steel during thermal deformation process were determined according to the flow stress curves. Both the hot processing maps and microstructure characteristics under different deformation conditions were investigated. Based on the thermal processing maps, two unstable regions under 800 °C/0.01–10 s−1 and 1100 °C/0.01 s−1 were identified. The processing maps were in favor of optimizing thermal processing parameters and improving thermal processing properties of the type 347H austenitic steel. After thermal deformation, the dislocation in the austenite matrix increases significantly. Besides, in the stable regions, the precipitation of carbides is facilitated by thermal deformation.
The recent development of in-situ liquid stages for (scanning) transmission electron microscopes now makes it possible for us to study the details of electrochemical processes under operando conditions. As electrochemical processes are complex, care must be taken to calibrate the system before any in-situ/operando observations. In addition, as the electron beam can cause effects that look similar to electrochemical processes at the electrolyte/electrode interface, an understanding of the role of the electron beam in modifying the operando observations must also be understood. In this paper we describe the design, assembly, and operation of an in-situ electrochemical cell, paying particular attention to the method for controlling and quantifying the experimental parameters. The use of this system is then demonstrated for the lithiation/delithiation of silicon nanowires.
The shapes of the interfacial delamination crack and stress states during wedge indentation in a soft-film-on-hard-substrate system were investigated systematically using the three-dimensional (3D) finite element simulation and wedge indentation experiment. In the simulation, a traction–separation law was used to characterize the failure behaviors of the interface. The effects of the wedge indenter tip length and the film thickness on the onset and growth of interfacial delamination were analyzed. It was shown that a two-dimensional (2D) to 3D transition of stress states occurred depending on the ratio of indenter length to film thickness. Furthermore, the interfacial delamination process by wedge indentation was conducted experimentally, and comparisons between the computational and experimental results yielded quantitative good agreement. Finally, a straightforward criterion based on the curvature of the delamination crack front was proposed to indicate the transition of stress states during the interfacial delamination. A guideline was therefore proposed to classify the 2D and 3D stress states for extracting the interface adhesion properties.
Laser micromachining technology with 150 femtosecond pulses is developed to fabricate glass microfluidic devices. A short theoretical analysis of femtosecond laser ablation is reported to characterize the femtosecond laser micromachining. The ablated crater diameter is measured as a function of the number of laser pulses as well as laser fluence. Two different ablation regimes are observed and the transition between the regimes is dependent on both the laser fluence and the number of laser shots. Based on the ablation phenomena described, microfluidic devices are fabricated with commercially available soda lime glasses (76 mm × 26 mm × 1 mm, Knittel Glaser, Germany). In addition to a microchannel for microfluidics, the capillary as well as optical fiber for detecting is integrated on the same substrate. The substrate is successively packaged with a lid slide glass by a thermal direct bonding. The presented developments are suitable for fast turn-around design cycle and inexpensive procedure, which provide rapid prototyping of MEMS devices.
A new kind of TiO2 film catalyst was prepared by the Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The surface photovoltaic spectroscopy (SPS) results showed that its photoresponse was extended into the visible region. Photooxidation experiments showed that this kind of TiO2 film had high photocatalytic activity on degradation of phenol in aqueous solution. The influence of the thickness of TiO2 film on its photocatalytic activity was also discussed.
This present study was designed to investigate the combined modulatory effect of garlic oil (GO) and fish oil (FO) on the antioxidant and drug metabolism systems. Rats were fed either a low-maize oil (MO) diet (50 g MO/kg), high-MO diet (235 g MO/kg) or high-FO diet (205 g FO+30 g MO/kg) and received different doses of GO (0–200 mg/kg body weight) three times per week for 6 weeks. Fatty acid analysis showed that 20: 5n−3 and 22: 6n−3 were incorporated into serum lipid at the expense of 18: 2n−6 and 20: 4n−6 in rats fed the high-FO diet. GO dose-dependently increased hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities, but decreased glutathione peroxidase and N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase (NDMAD) activities (P<0·05). With the exception of glutathione peroxidase, the activities of glutathione reductase, SOD, GST, EROD and NDMAD were modulated by the dietary fat. The high-FO group had greater SOD and EROD activity than either MO-fed group; it also had greater NDMAD activity than the low-MO group (P<0·05). GST activity was higher in rats fed high-FO or high-MO diets than rats fed the low-MO diet. Change in erythromycin demethylase activity, however, was not caused by either dietary fat or GO. Immunoblot assay showed that GO dose-dependently enhanced the protein level of the Ya, Yb1, Yc isoenzymes of GST and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 3A1, but GO suppressed CYP2E1 expression. Regardless of the dosage of GO, the high-FO diet increased CYP1A1, CYP3A1 and CYP2E1 levels compared with the high- and low-MO diets. Accompanying the changes observed in immunoblots, CYP1A1 and CYP3A1 mRNA levels were increased by GO in a dose-dependent manner and also increased additively in combination with FO feeding. These present results indicate that co-administration of GO and FO modulates the antioxidant and drug-metabolizing capacity of animals and that the effect of GO and FO on drug-metabolizing enzymes is additive.
Two compounds have been studied by means of powder diffraction and their unit cell parameters are reported. The monoclinic cell parameters for dimethylgermanyl-bridged bis cyclopentadienyl tetracarbonyl diruthenium are a=11.03(2) Å, b=13.65(2) Å, c=11.609(2) Å, β=105.81(1)°, Z=4, space group P21/n (No. 14), Dx=2.135 mg/m3. The monoclinic cell parameters for λ-dimethylsilyl-dicyclopentadienyl-π, π′-tetracarbonyl diruthenium, are a=11.113(3) Å, b=13.60(1) Å, c=11.674(7) Å, and β=106.00(3)°, Z=4, space group P21/n (No. 14), and Dx=1.946 mg/m3. The cells found for the two compounds are in good agreement with those obtained from single crystal X-ray diffractometry.
Our recent applications of the atom-probe field ion microscope to the study of physics and chemistry of materials at the atomic level are summarized. The materials applicability of field ion microscopy has recently been extended to silicon, silicide, graphite, high Tc superconductors, and other materials. Atom-probe field ion microscopy has been used for atomic layer by atomic layer chemical analysis of surfaces in alloy and impurity segregations, for analyzing the compositional changes across metal-semiconductor interfaces, and for studying formation of cluster ions in laser stimulated field desorption. The energetics of atoms in solids and on surfaces can be studied by a direct kinetic energy analysis of field desorbed ions using a high resolution pulsed-laser time-of-flight atom-probe and by other field ion microscope measurements. The site specific binding energy of surface atoms can be measured at low temperature, where the atomic structure of the surface is still perfectly defined, to an accuracy of about 0.1 to 0.3 eV.
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