Infant nutrition may influence eating behaviour and food preferences in later life. The present study explores whether exclusive breast-feeding duration and age at introduction of solid foods are associated with children's eating behaviour and fruit and vegetable intake at age 5 years. Data were derived from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study, a prospective birth cohort in the Netherlands, and included 3624 children. During infancy, data on infant nutrition were collected. Child eating behaviour (satiety responsiveness, enjoyment of food, slowness in eating and food responsiveness) was assessed with the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire; and fruit and vegetable intake was calculated from a validated child FFQ. Both questionnaires were filled in by the mothers after their child turned 5 years. Exclusive breast-feeding duration was not associated with later eating behaviour, although longer exclusive breast-feeding was significantly associated with a higher vegetable intake at age 5 years. Compared with the introduction of solid foods at age 6 months, introduction before the age of 4 months was associated with less satiety responsiveness at age 5 years (β − 0·09; 95 % CI − 0·16, − 0·02). Introducing solid foods after 6 months was associated with less enjoyment of food (β − 0·07; 95 % CI − 0·12, − 0·01) and food responsiveness (β − 0·04; 95 % CI − 0·07, − 0·01). Introducing solid foods before the age of 4 months was associated with a higher fruit intake compared with introduction at 6 months. These findings suggest that prolonged breast-feeding and introduction of solid foods between 4 and 6 months may lead to healthier eating behaviour and food preferences at age 5 years.