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This is the first issue of Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice (IOP) under a new editorial team. In light of this, now is a good opportunity to recognize the work of those who have helped build the journal into its current state and to describe the goals for the next few years.
Animal models of early postnatal mother–infant interactions have highlighted the importance of tactile contact for biobehavioral outcomes via the modification of DNA methylation (DNAm). The role of normative variation in contact in early human development has yet to be explored. In an effort to translate the animal work on tactile contact to humans, we applied a naturalistic daily diary strategy to assess the link between maternal contact with infants and epigenetic signatures in children 4–5 years later, with respect to multiple levels of child-level factors, including genetic variation and infant distress. We first investigated DNAm at four candidate genes: the glucocorticoid receptor gene, nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (NR3C1), μ-opioid receptor M1 (OPRM1) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR; related to the neurobiology of social bonds), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; involved in postnatal plasticity). Although no candidate gene DNAm sites significantly associated with early postnatal contact, when we next examined DNAm across the genome, differentially methylated regions were identified between high and low contact groups. Using a different application of epigenomic information, we also quantified epigenetic age, and report that for infants who received low contact from caregivers, greater infant distress was associated with younger epigenetic age. These results suggested that early postnatal contact has lasting associations with child biology.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Evaluate the effect of multijoint functional electrical stimulation (FES) on energy consumption during post-stroke walking. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A 67-year-old male with chronic stroke was implanted with an 8-channel implanted pulse generator to stimulate flexor and extensor muscles of the hip, knee, and ankle. Oxygen consumption was measured with a k2b4 portable pulmonary gas analyzer during walking with and without FES assistance. Data were analyzed during steady state oxygen consumption within the last 2 minutes of a 5 minute walk. Distance and walking speed were also measured. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Electrical stimulation increased walking speed from 0.29 to 0.64 minute/second. Faster walking corresponded with increased oxygen consumption from 10.1 to 14.4 mL O2/kg per minute. Energy cost, consumption as a function of distance, decreased from 3.7 to 2.9 mL O2/kg per minute walking with stimulation compared with without. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These preliminary data suggest improvements in walking speed with FES are accompanied by increased energy consumption and decreased energy cost. Oxygen consumption during FES assisted walking was <50% of the peak for able bodied individuals of similar age; patients may successfully use the system for community ambulation.
Behaviours of concern (e.g. aggression) are often present in residents of long-term care (LTC) facilities diagnosed with dementia and may impact quality of life. Prior uncontrolled research has shown that an intervention involving sharing resident life histories may be effective in reducing aggressive behaviours and improving quality of life, perhaps by increasing staff empathy. We used a randomised controlled design, involving a considerably larger sample than previous investigations. We also examined staff perceptions of LTC resident personhood in relation to aggressive behaviour. Seventy-three residents were randomised to either a life history intervention (N = 38) or a control condition (N = 35). Ninety-nine nurses and care aides answered questionnaires about their own attitudes and the residents' behaviours and quality of life at baseline, post-intervention and at follow-up. Results of mixed-effects modelling indicated significant differences between groups in personhood perception and resident quality of life. Personhood perception mediated the relationship between the intervention and improved quality of life. We identified significant negative correlations between resident cognitive impairment and staff perceptions of resident personhood. Qualitative findings suggested that staff primarily changed their verbal interactions with residents following the intervention, which may be particularly helpful for residents with the most severe dementia. Our results indicate that LTC residents benefit when life histories are constructed with their families and shared with nursing staff.
The current study examined the influence of phonological structure and language experience on the nonword repetition performance of bilingual children. Twenty-six Spanish-dominant and 26 English-dominant Spanish–English bilingual five-year-old children were matched on current exposure to the dominant language and year of first exposure to English. Participants repeated non-wordlike nonwords in English and Spanish. The Spanish-dominant group performed better than the English-dominant group for both Spanish and English nonwords. In addition, there was a main effect for test language, where Spanish nonwords were produced more accurately than English nonwords overall. The Spanish-dominant group advantage for nonwords is interpreted as emerging from the extra practice the dominant Spanish speakers had producing multisyllabic words.
This study used administrative health data to describe emergency department (ED) visits by residents from assisted living and nursing home facilities in the Vancouver Coastal Health region, British Columbia. We compared ED visit rates, the distribution of visits per resident, and ED dispositions of the assisted living and nursing home populations over a 3-year period (2005–2008). There were 13,051 individuals in our study population. Visit rates (95% confidence interval) were 124.8 (118.1–131.7) and 64.1 (62.9–65.3) visits per 100 resident years in assisted living and nursing home facilities respectively. A smaller proportion of ED visits by assisted living residents resulted in hospital admission compared to nursing home residents (45% vs. 48%, p < .01). The ED visit rate among assisted living residents is significantly higher compared to that among nursing home residents. Future research is needed into the underlying causes for this finding.
This study examined how nursing home facility ownership and organizational characteristics relate to emergency department (ED) transfer rates. The sample included a retrospective cohort of nursing home residents in the Vancouver Coastal Health region (n = 13,140). Rates of ED transfers were compared between nursing home ownership types. Administrative data were further linked to survey-derived data of facility organizational characteristics for exploratory analysis. Crude ED transfer rates (transfers/100 resident years) were 69, 70, and 51, respectively, in for-profit, non-profit, and publicly owned facilities. Controlling for sex and age, public ownership was associated with lower ED transfer rates compared to for-profit and non-profit ownership. Results showed that higher total direct-care nursing hours per resident day, and presence of allied health staff – disproportionately present in publicly owned facilities – were associated with lower transfer rates. A number of other facility organizational characteristics – unrelated to ownership – were also associated with transfer rates.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
The purpose of this study was to determine if different language measures resulted in the same classifications of language dominance and proficiency for a group of bilingual pre-kindergarteners and kindergarteners. Data were analyzed for 1029 Spanish–English bilingual pre-kindergarteners who spanned the full range of bilingual language proficiency. Parent questionnaires were used to quantify age of first exposure and current language use. Scores from a short test of semantic and morphosyntactic development in Spanish and English were used to quantify children's performance. Some children who were in the functionally monolingual range based on interview data demonstrated minimal knowledge of their other languages when tested. Current use accounted for more of the variance in language dominance than did age of first exposure. Results indicate that at different levels of language exposure children differed in their performance on semantic and morphosyntax tasks. These patterns suggest that it may be difficult to compare the results of studies that employ different measures of language dominance and proficiency. Current use is likely to be a useful metric of bilingual development that can be used to build a comprehensive picture of child bilingualism.
Hospitalization of nursing home residents can be futile as well as costly, and now evidence indicates that treating nursing home residents in place produces better outcomes for some conditions. We examined facility organizational characteristics that previous research showed are associated with potentially avoidable hospital transfers and with better care quality. Accordingly, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of nursing home directors of care in Vancouver Coastal Health, a large health region in British Columbia. The survey addressed staffing levels and organization, physician access, end-of-life care, and factors influencing facility-to-hospital transfers. Many of the modifiable organizational characteristics associated in the literature with potentially avoidable hospital transfers and better care quality are present in nursing homes in British Columbia. However, their presence is not universal, and some features, especially the organization of physician care and end-of-life planning and services, are particularly lacking.
The cultural and political changes that happened in Anatolia after the collapse of the Hittite Empire have only recently been recognised as a significant, but as yet unexplained, phenomenon. Here we present the results of analyses of ceramics from three sites south and southwest of the present-day town of Sorgun – Çadır Höyük, Kerkenes Dağ and Tilkigediği Tepe – to identity how regional groups within the Hittite core area regrouped in the aftermath of the collapse. Ceramic analyses provide a means to assess both cultural continuity and the scale and nature of interaction in a region. Results suggest some evidence of cultural continuity at Çadır Höyük from the Late Bronze Age into the Middle Iron Age, and highlight the variable local responses in the aftermath of Hittite collapse.
Background: The use of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) self-help materials for depression is increasingly recommended as part of stepped care service models. Such resources can be delivered by both new specialist workers (such as the IAPT services in England), or by introducing this style of working into an existing workforce as described in the current paper. The Structured Psychosocial InteRventions in Teams (SPIRIT) course consists of 38.5 hours of workshops, and 5 hours of clinical supervision in the use of CBT self-help (CBSH). Method: This study describes an evaluation of the effectiveness of the course when offered to community and inpatient mental health staff from a wide range of adult and older adult mental health teams in NHS Greater Glasgow Mental Health Division. Results: Training resulted in both subjective and objective knowledge and skills gains at the end of training that were largely sustained 3 months later. At that time point, 40% of staff still reported use of CBSH in the last week. Satisfaction with the training is high, using validated rating scales. Conclusions: The SPIRIT training has gone some way to increasing access to CBSH for use in everyday clinical practice.
The overall use of acute care services by nursing home (NH) residents in Canada has not been well documented. Our objectives were to identify the major causes of hospitalization among NH facility residents and to compare rates to those of community-dwelling seniors. A retrospective cohort was defined using population-level health administrative data, including all individuals aged 65 years and older living in a British Columbia NH facility between April 1996 and March 1999. Hospitalization rates of NH residents were compared to estimated rates for community-dwelling seniors, using age- and sex-adjusted standardized incidence ratios (SIRs): SIR = 2.81 (95%CI: 2.71, 2.91) for femoral fractures, 1.96 (1.88, 2.04) for pneumonia, 0.73 (0.70, 0.76) for other heart disease, and 1.01 (0.99, 1.02) for all causes. NH residents have disproportionately higher rates of hospitalization for femoral fractures and pneumonia, with NH residents accounting for approximately one quarter of all femoral fracture hospitalizations of BC seniors.