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Misdiagnosis of bacterial pneumonia increases risk of exposure to inappropriate antibiotics and adverse events. We developed a diagnosis calculator (https://calculator.testingwisely.com) to inform clinical diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia using objective indicators, including incidence of disease, risk factors, and sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests, that were identified through literature review.
Urine-culture diagnostic stewardship aims to decrease misdiagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs); however, these interventions are not widely adopted. We examined UTI diagnosis and management practices to identify barriers to and facilitators of diagnostic stewardship implementation.
Using a qualitative descriptive design, we conducted semistructured interviews at 3 Veterans’ Affairs medical centers. Interviews were conducted between November 2021 and May 2022 via Zoom videoconferencing using an interview guide and visual prototypes of proposed interventions. Interviewees were asked about current practices and thoughts on proposed interventions for urine-culture ordering, processing, and reporting. We used a rapid analysis matrix approach to summarize key interview findings and compare practices and perceptions across sites.
We interviewed 31 stakeholders and end users. All sites had an antimicrobial stewardship program but limited initiatives targeting appropriate diagnosis and management of UTIs. The majority of those interviewed identified the importance of diagnostic stewardship. Perceptions of specific interventions ranged widely by site. For urine-culture ordering, all 3 sites agreed that documentation of symptomology would improve culturing practices but did not want it to interrupt workflow. Representatives at 2 sites expressed interest in conditional urine-culture processing and 1 was opposed. All sites had similar mechanisms to report culture results but varied in perceptions of the proposed interventions. Feedback from end users was used to develop a general diagnostic stewardship implementation checklist.
Interviewees thought diagnostic stewardship was important. Qualitative assessment involving key stakeholders in the UTI diagnostic process improved understanding of site-specific beliefs and practices to better implement interventions for urine-culture ordering, processing, and reporting.
Hospital readmission is unsettling to patients and caregivers, costly to the healthcare system, and may leave patients at additional risk for hospital-acquired infections and other complications. We evaluated the association between comorbidities present during index coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization and the risk of 30-day readmission.
Design, setting, and participants:
We used the Premier Healthcare database to perform a retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 hospitalized patients discharged between April 2020 and March 2021 who were followed for 30 days after discharge to capture readmission to the same hospital.
Among the 331,136 unique patients in the index cohort, 36,827 (11.1%) had at least 1 all-cause readmission within 30 days. Of the readmitted patients, 11,382 (3.4%) were readmitted with COVID-19 as the primary diagnosis. In the multivariable model adjusted for demographics, hospital characteristics, coexisting comorbidities, and COVID-19 severity, each additional comorbidity category was associated with an 18% increase in the odds of all-cause readmission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–1.19) and a 10% increase in the odds of readmission with COVID-19 as the primary readmission diagnosis (aOR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.09–1.11). Lymphoma (aOR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.58–2.19), renal failure (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.25–1.40), and chronic lung disease (aOR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.24–1.34) were most associated with readmission for COVID-19.
Readmission within 30 days was common among COVID-19 survivors. A better understanding of comorbidities associated with readmission will aid hospital care teams in improving postdischarge care. Additionally, it will assist hospital epidemiologists and quality administrators in planning resources, allocating staff, and managing bed-flow issues to improve patient care and safety.
Evidence supporting collection of follow-up blood cultures for Gram-negative bacteremia is mixed. We sought to understand why providers order follow-up blood cultures when managing P. aeruginosa bacteremia and whether follow-up blood cultures in this context are associated with short- and long-term survival.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult inpatients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia at the University of Maryland Medical Center in 2015–2020. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression with time-varying covariates were used to evaluate the association between follow-up blood cultures and time to mortality within 30 days of first positive blood culture. Provider justifications for follow-up blood cultures were identified through chart review.
Of 159 eligible patients, 127 (80%) had follow-up blood cultures, including 9 (7%) that were positive for P. aeruginosa and 10 (8%) that were positive for other organisms. Follow-up blood cultures were typically collected “to ensure clearance” or “to guide antibiotic therapy.” Overall, 30-day mortality was 25.2%. After risk adjustment for patient characteristics, follow-up blood cultures were associated with a nonsignificant reduction in mortality risk (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.08; P = .071). In exploratory analyses, the potential mortality reduction from follow-up blood cultures was driven by their use in patients with Pitt bacteremia scores >0.
Follow-up blood cultures are commonly collected for P. aeruginosa bacteremia but infrequently identify persistent bacteremia. Targeted use of follow-up blood cultures based on severity of illness may reduce unnecessary culturing.
To determine whether electronically available comorbidities and laboratory values on admission are risk factors for hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI) across multiple institutions and whether they could be used to improve risk adjustment.
All patients at least 18 years of age admitted to 3 hospitals in Maryland between January 1, 2016, and January 1, 2018.
Comorbid conditions were assigned using the Elixhauser comorbidity index. Multivariable log-binomial regression was conducted for each hospital using significant covariates (P < .10) in a bivariate analysis. Standardized infection ratios (SIRs) were computed using current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) risk adjustment methodology and with the addition of Elixhauser score and individual comorbidities.
At hospital 1, 314 of 48,057 patient admissions (0.65%) had a HO-CDI; 41 of 8,791 patient admissions (0.47%) at community hospital 2 had a HO-CDI; and 75 of 29,211 patient admissions (0.26%) at community hospital 3 had a HO-CDI. In multivariable regression, Elixhauser score was a significant risk factor for HO-CDI at all hospitals when controlling for age, antibiotic use, and antacid use. Abnormal leukocyte level at hospital admission was a significant risk factor at hospital 1 and hospital 2. When Elixhauser score was included in the risk adjustment model, it was statistically significant (P < .01). Compared with the current CDC SIR methodology, the SIR of hospital 1 decreased by 2%, whereas the SIRs of hospitals 2 and 3 increased by 2% and 6%, respectively, but the rankings did not change.
Electronically available patient comorbidities are important risk factors for HO-CDI and may improve risk-adjustment methodology.
To test the feasibility of targeted gown and glove use by healthcare personnel caring for high-risk nursing-home residents to prevent Staphylococcus aureus acquisition in short-stay residents.
Uncontrolled clinical trial.
This study was conducted in 2 community-based nursing homes in Maryland.
The study included 322 residents on mixed short- and long-stay units.
During a 2-month baseline period, all residents had nose and inguinal fold swabs taken to estimate S. aureus acquisition. The intervention was iteratively developed using a participatory human factors engineering approach. During a 2-month intervention period, healthcare personnel wore gowns and gloves for high-risk care activities while caring for residents with wounds or medical devices, and S. aureus acquisition was measured again. Whole-genome sequencing was used to assess whether the acquisition represented resident-to-resident transmission.
Among short-stay residents, the methicillin-resistant S. aureus acquisition rate decreased from 11.9% during the baseline period to 3.6% during the intervention period (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% CI, 0.08–0.92; P = .026). The methicillin-susceptible S. aureus acquisition rate went from 9.1% during the baseline period to 4.0% during the intervention period (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.12–1.42; P = .15). The S. aureus resident-to-resident transmission rate decreased from 5.9% during the baseline period to 0.8% during the intervention period.
Targeted gown and glove use by healthcare personnel for high-risk care activities while caring for residents with wounds or medical devices, regardless of their S. aureus colonization status, is feasible and potentially decreases S. aureus acquisition and transmission in short-stay community-based nursing-home residents.
Background: As carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) prevalence increases in the United States, the risk of cocolonization with multiple CRE may also be increasing, with unknown clinical and epidemiological significance. In this study, we aimed to describe the epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics of inpatients cocolonized with multiple CRE. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of a large, multicenter prospective cohort study evaluating risk factors for CRE transmission to healthcare personnel gown and gloves. Patients were identified between January 2016 and June 2019 from 4 states. Patients enrolled in the study had a clinical or surveillance culture positive for CRE within 7 days of enrollment. We collected and cultured samples from the following sites from each CRE-colonized patient: stool, perianal area, and skin. A modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM) was used to detect the presence or absence of carbapenemase(s). EDTA-modified CIM (eCIM) was used to differentiate between serine and metal-dependent carbapenemases. Results: Of the 313 CRE-colonized patients enrolled in the study, 28 (8.9%) were cocolonized with at least 2 different CRE. Additionally, 3 patients were cocolonized with >2 different CRE (1.0%). Of the 28 patients, 19 (67.6%) were enrolled with positive clinical cultures. Table 1 summarizes the demographic and clinical characteristics of these patients. The most frequently used antibiotic prior to positive culture was vancomycin (n = 33, 18.3%). Among the 62 isolates from 59 samples from 28 patients cocolonized patients, the most common CRE species were Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 18, 29.0%), Escherichia coli (n = 10, 16.1%), and Enterobacter cloacae (n = 9, 14.5%). Of the 62 isolates, 38 (61.3%) were mCIM positive and 8 (12.9%) were eCIM positive. Of the 38 mCIM-positive isolates, 33 (86.8%) were KPC positive, 4 (10.5%) were NDM positive, and 1 (2.6%) was negative for both KPC and NDM. Also, 2 E. coli, 1 K. pneumoniae, and 1 E. cloacae were NDM-producing CRE. Conclusion: Cocolonization with multiple CRE occurs frequently in the acute-care setting. Characterizing patients with CRE cocolonization may be important to informing infection control practices and interventions to limit the spread of these organisms, but further study is needed.
Background: Inappropriate antibiotic prescription leads to increased Clostridiodes difficile infections, adverse effects including organ toxicity, and generation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Despite efforts to improve antibiotic use in acute-care settings, unnecessary and inappropriate prescription still occur in 30%–50% of patients. Objectives: We assessed factors associated with inappropriate antibiotic prescription at 2 time points: (1) initial, empiric therapy and (2) 3–5 days after therapy initiation. Methods: As part of a multicenter study investigating strategies to reduce antibiotic therapy after 3–5 days of use, antibiotic prescription data were collected from 11 adult and pediatric intensive care and general medical units at 6 hospitals in Maryland in 2014 and 2015. We performed a retrospective cohort study of all hospitalized patients who received any of 23 common antibiotics for at least 3 days. Each medical record was reviewed for demographics, admission and discharge dates, patient comorbidities, and antibiotic regimen by at least 1 infectious disease physician or pharmacist. Classification of antibiotic inappropriateness was based on each institution’s guidelines and standards. Bivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression for both initial therapy and therapy at days 3–5. Multivariable logistic regression was performed using covariates meeting the significance level of P < .05. Results: In total, 3,436 antibiotic courses were assessed at time of initial therapy, and 1541 regimens were continued and reviewed again at days 3–5 of therapy. For the initial therapy, 1,255 regimens (37%) were inappropriate; 45% of these were considered unnecessary and 41% were too broad in spectrum. In the multivariable regression, older age and antibiotic prescription during the summer were associated with the receipt of inappropriate antibiotics (Table 1). Having end-stage renal disease as a comorbid condition was protective against inappropriate use. At days 3–5 of therapy, 688 (45%) of the antibiotic courses were inappropriate. Reasons regimens were considered inappropriate included unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions (49%) and antibiotics being too broad (38%). Older age and receiving cefepime or piperacillin-tazobactam on day 3 of therapy were factors associated with inappropriate use (Table 2). Having undergone a transplant or a surgical procedure was protective of inappropriate antimicrobial use at days 3–5 of therapy. Conclusions: Older patients are more likely to receive inappropriate antibiotics at both initial regimen and 3–5 days later. Patients receiving cefepime or piperacillin-tazobactam are at greater risk of receiving inappropriate antibiotics at days 3–5 due to failure to de-escalate. Antibiotic stewardship strategies targeting these patient populations may limit inappropriate use.
Background: Reducing inappropriate antibiotic use is critical for fighting antibiotic resistance. Quantifying the amount and diversity of antibiotic use in US hospitals is foundational to these efforts but hampered by limited national surveillance. The current study aims to address this knowledge gap by examining adult inpatient antibiotic usage, including regional, facility, and case-mix differences, across 576 hospitals and nearly 12 million encounters in 2016–2017. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients aged ≥18 years discharged from hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database, a repository of nearly 1 of every 4 annual US hospitalizations, between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2017. Detailed hospital- and patient-level data were extracted for each admission. Facilities were classified geographically by census division. Using daily antibiotic charge data, we mapped antibiotics to 18 mutually exclusive classes and to categories based upon spectrum of activity. Patient-level data were transformed into hospital case-mix variables (eg, hospital mean patient age), and relationships between antibiotic days of therapy (DOTs), and these and other facility-level variables were evaluated in negative binomial regression models. Results: The study included 11,701,326 adult admissions, totaling 64,064,632 patient days across 576 US hospitals. Overall, antibiotics were used in 65% of all hospitalizations, at a rate of 870 DOTs per 1,000 patient days. The most commonly used classes per patient days were
β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (206 DOTs), third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins (128 DOTs), and glycopeptides (113 DOTs) (Fig. 1). By spectrum of activity, antipseudomonal agents (245 DOTs) were the most common. Crude usage rates varied by geographic region (Fig. 2). In multivariable analyses, teaching hospitals, and/or larger bed sizes were independently associated with lower use across a range of antibiotic classes (adjusted IRR ranges, 0.90–0.94 and 0.96–0.98, respectively). Significant regional differences also persisted. Compared to the South Atlantic region (chosen as the reference category because it had the largest representation in the cohort), rates of total antibiotic use were 6%, 15%, and 18% lower on average in the Pacific, New England, and the Middle Atlantic regions, respectively. By class, carbapenems reflected the most geographic variability. Conclusions: In a large, diverse cohort of US hospitals, adult inpatients received antibiotics at a rate similar to, but higher than, previously published estimates. In adjusted models, lower antibiotic use was frequently associated with facilities likely to have robust antibiotic stewardship programs—those with teaching status and larger bed size. Further research to understand other reasons for regional differences in antibiotic use such as different rates of resistance is needed.
Funding: This work was supported by Funding: from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) (R01-HS026205 to A.D.H.).
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a serious threat to public health due to high associated morbidity and mortality. Healthcare personnel (HCP) gloves and gowns are frequently contaminated with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including CRE. We aimed to identify patients more likely to transmit CRE to HCP gloves or gowns and HCP types and interactions more likely to lead to glove or gown contamination. Methods:Between January 2016 and August 2018, patients with a clinical or surveillance culture positive for CRE in the preceding 7 days were enrolled at 5 hospitals in California, Maryland, New York, and Pennsylvania. Ten HCP–patient interactions were observed for each patient and were recorded by research staff. Following patient care, but prior to doffing, the gloves and gown of each HCP were sampled for the presence of CRE. Results: We enrolled 313 CRE-colonized patients, and we observed 3,070 HCP interactions. CRE was transmitted to HCP gloves in 242 of 3,070 observations (7.9%) and to gowns in 132 of 3,070 observations (4.3%). Transmission to either gloves or gown occurred in 308 of 3,070 interactions observed (10%). The most frequently identified organism was Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 171, 53.2%), followed by Enterobacter cloacae (n = 36, 11.2%), and Escherichia coli (n = 33, 10.3%). Patients in the intensive care unit (n = 177, 56.5%) were more likely to transmit CRE to HCP gloves or gown (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.03–2.64) compared to those not in an ICU and adjusted for HCP type. The odds of CRE transmission increased with the number of different items touched near the patient (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.21–1.44) and with the number of different items touched in the environment (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06–1.21). Respiratory therapists had the highest rates of transmission to gloves and gown (OR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.61–8.94), followed by physical therapists and occupational therapists (OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.01–8.32) when compared to HCP in the “other” category. Manipulating the rectal tube (OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.53–6.04), providing wound care (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.73–4.59), and touching the endotracheal tube (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.86–4.19) were the interactions most strongly associated with CRE transmission compared to not touching these items and adjusted for HCP type. Conclusions: Transmission of CRE to HCP gloves and gowns occurs frequently. We identified interactions and HCP types that were particularly high risk for transmission. Infection control programs may wish to target infection prevention resources and education toward these high-risk professions and interactions.
Funding: This work was supported by the CDC Prevention Epicenter Program (U43CK000450-01) and the NIH National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (R01 AI121146-01).
Background: Estimates of contamination of healthcare personnel (HCP) gloves and gowns with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) following interactions with colonized or infected patients range from 17% to 20%. Most studies were conducted in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting where patients had a recent positive clinical culture. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of MRSA transmission to HCP gloves and gown in non-ICU acute-care hospital units and to identify associated risk factors. Methods: Patients on contact precautions with history of MRSA colonization or infection admitted to non-ICU settings were randomly selected from electronic health records. We observed patient care activities and cultured the gloves and gowns of 10 HCP interactions per patient prior to doffing. Cultures from patients’ anterior nares, chest, antecubital fossa and perianal area were collected to quantify bacterial bioburden. Bacterial counts were log transformed. Results: We observed 55 patients (Fig. 1), and 517 HCP–patient interactions. Of the HCP–patient interactions, 16 (3.1%) led to MRSA contamination of HCP gloves, 18 (3.5%) led to contamination of HCP gown, and 28 (5.4%) led to contamination of either gloves or gown. In addition, 5 (12.8%) patients had a positive clinical or surveillance culture for MRSA in the prior 7 days. Nurses, physicians and technicians were grouped in “direct patient care”, and rest of the HCPs were included in “no direct care group.” Of 404 interactions, 26 (6.4%) of providers in the “direct patient care” group showed transmission of MRSA to gloves or gown in comparison to 2 of 113 (1.8%) interactions involving providers in the “no direct patient care” group (P = .05) (Fig. 2). The median MRSA bioburden was 0 log 10CFU/mL in the nares (range, 0–3.6), perianal region (range, 0–3.5), the arm skin (range, 0-0.3), and the chest skin (range, 0–6.2). Detectable bioburden on patients was negatively correlated with the time since placed on contact precautions (rs= −0.06; P < .001). Of 97 observations with detectable bacterial bioburden at any site, 9 (9.3%) resulted in transmission of MRSA to HCP in comparison to 11 (3.6%) of 310 observations with no detectable bioburden at all sites (P = .03). Conclusions: Transmission of MRSA to gloves or gowns of HCP caring for patients on contact precautions for MRSA in non-ICU settings was lower than in the ICU setting. More evidence is needed to help guide the optimal use of contact precautions for the right patient, in the right setting, for the right type of encounter.
In the absence of pyuria, positive urine cultures are unlikely to represent infection. Conditional urine reflex culture policies have the potential to limit unnecessary urine culturing. We evaluated the impact of this diagnostic stewardship intervention.
We conducted a retrospective, quasi-experimental (nonrandomized) study, with interrupted time series, from August 2013 to January 2018 to examine rates of urine cultures before versus after the policy intervention. We compared 3 intervention sites to 3 control sites in an aggregated series using segmented negative binomial regression.
The study included 6 acute-care hospitals within the Veterans’ Health Administration across the United States.
Adult patients with at least 1 urinalysis ordered during acute-care admission, excluding pregnant patients or those undergoing urological procedures, were included.
At the intervention sites, urine cultures were performed if a preceding urinalysis met prespecified criteria. No such restrictions occurred at the control sites. The primary outcome was the rate of urine cultures performed per 1,000 patient days. The safety outcome was the rate of gram-negative bloodstream infection per 1,000 patient days.
The study included 224,573 urine cultures from 50,901 admissions in 24,759 unique patients. Among the intervention sites, the overall average number of urine cultures performed did not significantly decrease relative to the preintervention period (5.9% decrease; P = 0.8) but did decrease by 21% relative to control sites (P < .01). We detected no significant difference in the rates of gram-negative bloodstream infection among intervention or control sites (P = .49).
Conditional urine reflex culture policies were associated with a decrease in urine culturing without a change in the incidence of gram-negative bloodstream infection.
The transmission rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to gloves or gowns of healthcare personnel (HCP) caring for MRSA patients in a non–intensive care unit setting was 5.4%. Contamination rates were higher among HCP performing direct patient care and when patients had detectable MRSA on their body. These findings may inform risk-based contact precautions.
We studied the association between chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) concentration on skin and resistant bacterial bioburden. CHG was almost always detected on the skin, and detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus on skin sites was infrequent. However, we found no correlation between CHG concentration and bacterial bioburden.
To directly observe healthcare workers in a nursing home setting to measure frequency and duration of resident contact and infection prevention behavior as a factor of isolation practice
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS
Healthcare workers in 8 VA nursing homes in Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Washington, and Texas
Over a 15-month period, trained research staff without clinical responsibilities on the units observed nursing home resident room activity for 15–30-minute intervals. Observers recorded time of entry and exit, isolation status, visitor type (staff, visitor, etc), hand hygiene, use of gloves and gowns, and activities performed in the room when visible.
A total of 999 hours of observation were conducted across 8 VA nursing homes during which 4,325 visits were observed. Residents in isolation received an average of 4.73 visits per hour of observation compared with 4.21 for nonisolation residents (P<.01), a 12.4% increase in visits for residents in isolation. Residents in isolation received an average of 3.53 resident care activities per hour of observation, compared with 2.46 for residents not in isolation (P<.01). For residents in isolation, compliance was 34% for gowns and 58% for gloves. Healthcare worker hand hygiene compliance was 45% versus 44% (P=.79) on entry and 66% versus 55% (P<.01) on exit for isolation and nonisolation rooms, respectively.
Healthcare workers visited residents in isolation more frequently, likely because they required greater assistance. Compliance with gowns and gloves for isolation was limited in the nursing home setting. Adherence to hand hygiene also was less than optimal, regardless of isolation status of residents.
To analyze whether electronically available comorbid conditions are risk factors for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-defined, hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) after controlling for antibiotic and gastric acid suppression therapy use.
Patients aged ≥18 years admitted to the University of Maryland Medical Center between November 7, 2015, and May 31, 2017.
Comorbid conditions were assessed using the Elixhauser comorbidity index. The Elixhauser comorbidity index and the comorbid condition components were calculated using the International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes extracted from electronic medical records. Bivariate associations between CDI and potential covariates for multivariable regression, including antibiotic use, gastric acid suppression therapy use, as well as comorbid conditions, were estimated using log binomial multivariable regression.
After controlling for antibiotic use, age, proton-pump inhibitor use, and histamine-blocker use, the Elixhauser comorbidity index was a significant risk factor for predicting CDI. There was an increased risk of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.19–1.32) of having CDI for each additional Elixhauser point added to the total Elixhauser score.
An increase in Elixhauser score is associated with CDI. Our study and other studies have shown that comorbid conditions are important risk factors for CDI. Electronically available comorbid conditions and scores like the Elixhauser index should be considered for risk-adjustment of CDC CDI rates.
Documentation of antibiotic indication provides helpful information for antimicrobial stewardship, but accuracy is not understood. Review of 396 antibiotic orders in a pediatric ICU and adult medicine step-down unit found 90% agreement between provider-selected indication and independent review. Prompts to enter antibiotic indication during order entry provide largely accurate information.
Peer comparison has potential as an effective antimicrobial stewardship intervention in the inpatient setting. We report a new metric, days of therapy per 100 service days, for comparing antibiotic utilization. Among 14 prescribers on the primary infectious diseases service during a 6-month period, we identified 1 outlier for each anti-MRSA agent.
Risk adjustment is needed to fairly compare central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates between hospitals. Until 2017, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) methodology adjusted CLABSI rates only by type of intensive care unit (ICU). The 2017 CDC models also adjust for hospital size and medical school affiliation. We hypothesized that risk adjustment would be improved by including patient demographics and comorbidities from electronically available hospital discharge codes.
Using a cohort design across 22 hospitals, we analyzed data from ICU patients admitted between January 2012 and December 2013. Demographics and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) discharge codes were obtained for each patient, and CLABSIs were identified by trained infection preventionists. Models adjusting only for ICU type and for ICU type plus patient case mix were built and compared using discrimination and standardized infection ratio (SIR). Hospitals were ranked by SIR for each model to examine and compare the changes in rank.
Overall, 85,849 ICU patients were analyzed and 162 (0.2%) developed CLABSI. The significant variables added to the ICU model were coagulopathy, paralysis, renal failure, malnutrition, and age. The C statistics were 0.55 (95% CI, 0.51–0.59) for the ICU-type model and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.60–0.69) for the ICU-type plus patient case-mix model. When the hospitals were ranked by adjusted SIRs, 10 hospitals (45%) changed rank when comorbidity was added to the ICU-type model.
Our risk-adjustment model for CLABSI using electronically available comorbidities demonstrated better discrimination than did the CDC model. The CDC should strongly consider comorbidity-based risk adjustment to more accurately compare CLABSI rates across hospitals.