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This study explores parliamentary reforms related to the financial accountability of banks following the 1825–6 and 1836–7 financial crises in England. An appraisal of nineteenth-century parliamentary Hansard transcripts reveals early banking legislative pursuits. The study observes the laissez-faire and interventionist approaches towards the banking enactments of 1826, 1833 and 1844 that underpin the transformation of financial accountability during this era. The Bank Notes Act 1826 imposed financial accountability on the Bank of England by requiring the mandatory disclosure of notes issued. The Bank Notes Act 1833 extended this requirement to all other banks. The Bank Charter Act 1833 increased the financial accountability of the Bank of England by requiring it to provide an account of bullion and securities belonging to the governor and company, as well as deposits held by the bank. Thereafter, the Joint Stock Banks Act 1844 pioneered the regular publication of assets and liabilities and communication of the balance sheet and profit and loss account to shareholders. State intervention in the financial accountability of banks during the period from 1825 to 1845 appears to have been cumulative.
ALKS 3831, a combination of olanzapine and samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) in development for schizophrenia, is intended to mitigate olanzapine-associated weight gain. This thorough QT (tQT) study evaluated OLZ/SAM effects on electrocardiogram parameters.
In this randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, 100 patients with stable schizophrenia were randomized 3:2 to either receive OLZ/SAM 10/10 mg (therapeutic dose) on days 2–4, 20/20 mg on days 5–8, and 30/30 mg (supratherapeutic dose) on days 9–13 with moxifloxacin-matching placebo on days 1 and 14, or a single dose of moxifloxacin 400 mg and matching placebo on days 1 and 14 (nested crossover design). Drug concentration relation to change from baseline in Fridericia-corrected QTc (ΔQTcF) was evaluated using a linear mixed-effect concentration-QTc (C-QTc) model. Adverse events were assessed.
The slope (90% CI) of the C-QTc was not significant for olanzapine or samidorphan (0.03 [−0.01, 0.08] and 0.01 [−0.01, 0.04] msec per ng/mL, respectively). Predicted placebo-corrected ΔQTcF (90% CI) was 2.33 (−2.72, 7.38) and 1.38 (−3.37, 6.12) msec at the observed geometric mean maximal concentration of olanzapine (62.6 ng/mL) and samidorphan (75.1 ng/mL), respectively, on day 13. A clinically relevant QT effect (ie, placebo-corrected ΔQTcF ≥10 msec) can be excluded for olanzapine and samidorphan concentrations up to ≈110 and ≈160 ng/mL, respectively. Assay sensitivity was confirmed by the C-QTc relationship of moxifloxacin. OLZ/SAM was well tolerated.
OLZ/SAM, in doses and plasma concentrations up to supratherapeutic levels, was well tolerated and had no clinically relevant effects on electrocardiogram parameters, including QT interval, in patients with schizophrenia.
The Genomics Used to Improve DEpresssion Decisions (GUIDED) trial assessed outcomes associated with combinatorial pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Analyses used the 17-item Hamilton Depression (HAM-D17) rating scale; however, studies demonstrate that the abbreviated, core depression symptom-focused, HAM-D6 rating scale may have greater sensitivity toward detecting differences between treatment and placebo. However, the sensitivity of HAM-D6 has not been tested for two active treatment arms. Here, we evaluated the sensitivity of the HAM-D6 scale, relative to the HAM-D17 scale, when assessing outcomes for actively treated patients in the GUIDED trial.
Outpatients (N=1,298) diagnosed with MDD and an inadequate treatment response to >1 psychotropic medication were randomized into treatment as usual (TAU) or combinatorial PGx-guided (guided-care) arms. Combinatorial PGx testing was performed on all patients, though test reports were only available to the guided-care arm. All patients and raters were blinded to study arm until after week 8. Medications on the combinatorial PGx test report were categorized based on the level of predicted gene-drug interactions: ‘use as directed’, ‘moderate gene-drug interactions’, or ‘significant gene-drug interactions.’ Patient outcomes were assessed by arm at week 8 using HAM-D6 and HAM-D17 rating scales, including symptom improvement (percent change in scale), response (≥50% decrease in scale), and remission (HAM-D6 ≤4 and HAM-D17 ≤7).
At week 8, the guided-care arm demonstrated statistically significant symptom improvement over TAU using HAM-D6 scale (Δ=4.4%, p=0.023), but not using the HAM-D17 scale (Δ=3.2%, p=0.069). The response rate increased significantly for guided-care compared with TAU using both HAM-D6 (Δ=7.0%, p=0.004) and HAM-D17 (Δ=6.3%, p=0.007). Remission rates were also significantly greater for guided-care versus TAU using both scales (HAM-D6 Δ=4.6%, p=0.031; HAM-D17 Δ=5.5%, p=0.005). Patients taking medication(s) predicted to have gene-drug interactions at baseline showed further increased benefit over TAU at week 8 using HAM-D6 for symptom improvement (Δ=7.3%, p=0.004) response (Δ=10.0%, p=0.001) and remission (Δ=7.9%, p=0.005). Comparatively, the magnitude of the differences in outcomes between arms at week 8 was lower using HAM-D17 (symptom improvement Δ=5.0%, p=0.029; response Δ=8.0%, p=0.008; remission Δ=7.5%, p=0.003).
Combinatorial PGx-guided care achieved significantly better patient outcomes compared with TAU when assessed using the HAM-D6 scale. These findings suggest that the HAM-D6 scale is better suited than is the HAM-D17 for evaluating change in randomized, controlled trials comparing active treatment arms.
A simple Steinberg algebra associated to an ample Hausdorff groupoid G is algebraically purely infinite if and only if the characteristic functions of compact open subsets of the unit space are infinite idempotents. If a simple Steinberg algebra is algebraically purely infinite, then the reduced groupoid
is simple and purely infinite. But the Steinberg algebra seems too small for the converse to hold. For this purpose we introduce an intermediate *-algebra B(G) constructed using corners
$1_U C^*_r(G) 1_U$
for all compact open subsets U of the unit space of the groupoid. We then show that if G is minimal and effective, then B(G) is algebraically properly infinite if and only if
is purely infinite simple. We apply our results to the algebras of higher-rank graphs.
The present study describes the energy content of primary-school children’s lunchboxes and the proportion of lunchbox foods considered discretionary. Subgroup analyses by sex, socio-economic status, age and weight status were undertaken.
A cross-sectional study was conducted. Mean kilojoule content, number of items and categorisation of foods and drinks in lunchboxes as ‘everyday’ (healthy) or discretionary (sometimes) foods were assessed via a valid and reliable lunchbox observational audit.
Twelve Catholic primary schools (Kindergarten–Grade 6) located in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia.
Kindergarten to Grade 6 primary-school students.
In total, 2143 children (57 %) had parental consent to have their lunchboxes observed. School lunchboxes contained a mean of 2748 kJ, of which 61·2 % of energy was from foods consistent with the Australian Dietary Guidelines and 38·8 % of energy was discretionary foods. The proportion of lunchboxes containing only healthy foods was 12 %. Children in Kindergarten–Grade 2 packed more servings of ‘everyday’ foods (3·32 v. 2·98, P < 0·01) compared with children in Grades 3–6. Children in Grades 3–6 had a higher percentage of energy from discretionary foods (39·1 v. 33·8 %, P < 0·01) compared with children in Kindergarten–Grade 2 and children from the most socio-economically disadvantaged areas had significantly higher total kilojoules in the school lunchbox compared with the least disadvantaged students (2842 v. 2544 kJ, P = 0·03).
Foods packed within school lunchboxes may contribute to energy imbalance. The development of school policies and population-based strategies to support parents overcome barriers to packing healthy lunchboxes are warranted.
The rich and innovative ideas of quantum physicist and feminist theorist Karen Barad have much to offer environmental educators in terms of practical theories for teaching and learning. This article shares insights gained from a facilitated conversation at the Australian Association for Environmental Education (AAEE) Conference Research Symposium, and offers an introduction to Barad’s theories for environmental educators. At this time of challenging planetary imperatives, environmental education is increasingly called upon to contribute to students’ understanding of connectedness, and Barad’s theory of agential realism provides a way to think about, articulate and engage with connectedness as inherent within the world rather than something we need to create. By considering entanglement as a fundamental state, we understand that separateness is not the original state of being. This shift in perspective supports a subtle yet powerful approach to knowledge, communication and collaboration, understanding difference as integral within the world’s entangled becoming. The convened conversation sought to explore Barad’s thinking by defining and discussing the concepts of agential realism, intra-action, material-discursivity, phenomena and diffraction. Barad’s ideas were used to collectively explore what it means to be intraconnected and entangled in today’s world, and specifically how these concepts and experiences relate to our work and lives as environmental educators and researchers.
Nudging is a strategy used in behavioral economics to influence consumer decision-making through subtle changes in the choice environment. Recently, behavioral economists have been testing the use of nudge techniques to encourage healthier foods for high risk individuals. Food insecure individuals have an elevated risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases and would benefit from eating more nutrients dense foods for prevention and treatment. To promote more nutrient dense foods for food insecure individuals, Feeding America created a list of Foods to Encourage (F2E). This study evaluated the efficacy of nudge interventions in promoting two selected F2E at client-choice food pantries in Massachusetts. The objective of this study was to determine if the nudge interventions increased the take-rate of the targeted F2E: carrots and brown rice. Nudge interventions were implemented at three client-choice food pantries. Carrots were subjected to a “recipe nudge” in which recipe cards were placed next to the product. Brown rice underwent a placement nudge, which entailed moving the product to the proximal end of the display at waist height within easy reach and line of sight. Data was collected three times pre-intervention and three times post-intervention at each site to determine if the nudge had an impact on take rate. This study took place at three suburban food pantries in the Greater Boston area. The total number of shoppers observed before intervention was 402 and after intervention was 417. The main outcome was the take-rate of the products determined by the number of shoppers who selected the foods before and after intervention. Analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Version 24 (Armonk, NY). Odds ratios were calculated to determine the effect of the intervention with a logistic regression controlling for the site. The take-rate of brown rice increased significantly post-placement intervention. The odds ratio for brown rice was 1.940 (95% CI = 1.318 to 2.857). The take rate of other types of rice did not change post-intervention. The take rate for fresh carrots also increased significantly post recipe card intervention. The odds ratio for carrots was 1.519 (95% CI = 1.129 to 2.044). The results of this study indicate a favorable effect of nudges on the take rate of nutrient dense products and could support the use of nudges as a strategy to promote the distribution of healthy food in client-choice food pantries.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Engaging patients and consumers in research is a complex process where innovative strategies are needed to effectively translate scientific discoveries into improvements in the public’s health (Wilkins et. al., 2013; Terry et. al., 2013). The Clinical Translational Science Awards (CTSA)—supported by the National Institute of Health (NIH) under the auspices of the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS)—aim to provide resources and support needed to strengthen our nation’s clinical and translational research (CTR) enterprise. In 2008, Stanford University was awarded a CTSA from the NIH, establishing Spectrum (Stanford Center for Clinical and Translational Research and Education) and its Community Engagement (CE) Program aimed at building long-standing community-academic research partnerships for translational research in the local area surrounding Stanford University. To date, the CE Pilot Program has funded 38 pilot projects from the 2009-2017 calendar year. The purpose of this study was to understand, through a unique pilot program, the barriers, challenges, and facilitators to community-engaged research targeting health disparities as well as community-academic partnerships. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Investigators conducted a qualitative study of the community engagement pilot program. Previous pilot awardees were recruited via email and phone to participate in a one-hour focus group to discuss their pilot project experience—describing any barriers, challenges, and facilitators to implementing their pilot project. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The focus group revealed that community engage research through the pilot program was not only appreciated by faculty, but projects were successful, and partnerships developed were sustained after funding. Specifically, the pilot program has seen success in both traditional and capacity building metrics: the initial investment of $652,250.00 to fund 38 projects has led to over $11 million dollars in additional grant funding. In addition, pilot funding has led to peer-reviewed publications, data resources for theses and dissertations, local and national presentations/news articles, programmatic innovation, and community-level impact. Challenges and barriers were mainly related to timing, grant constraints, and university administrative processes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The Community Engagement Pilot Program demonstrates an innovative collaborative approach to support community-academic partnerships. This assessment highlights the value and importance of pilot program to increase community engaged research targeting health disparities. Challenges are mainly administrative in nature: pilot awardees mentioned difficulties working on university quarterly timelines, challenges of subcontracting or sharing money with community partners, onerous NIH prior approval process, and limitations to carryover funding. However, pilot grants administered through the program strengthen the capacity to develop larger scale community-based research initiatives.
The aim of this study was to compare satisfaction with residence, wellbeing and physical health of continuing care retirement community (CCRC) residents with people who considered enrolling in the same CCRCs but elected not to move. A total of 101 participants were recruited from 13 CCRCs located in multiple cities in the United States of America. A phone interview was conducted with participants three months or less from enrolment and one year later. Compared with those who chose not to move, CCRC residents reported lower satisfaction at baseline, but higher satisfaction at one year. Wellbeing declined from baseline to follow-up for both groups, but was higher in CCRC residents both at baseline and at one year. CCRCs might consider giving new residents a longer cancellation period in order to allow sufficient time for the adjustment process. This, in turn, might both prevent an early departure and affect the decision of potential CCRC residents to move into the community.
This study determines the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes consumed by long-term care (LTC) residents. This cross-sectional study was completed in thirty-two LTC homes in four Canadian provinces. Weighed and estimated food and beverage intake were collected over 3 non-consecutive days from 632 randomly selected residents. Nutrient intakes were adjusted for intra-individual variation and compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes. Proportion of participants, stratified by sex and use of modified (MTF) or regular texture foods, with intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI), were identified. Numbers of participants that met these adequacy values with use of micronutrient supplements was determined. Mean age of males (n 197) was 85·2 (sd 7·6) years and females (n 435) was 87·4 (sd 7·8) years. In all, 33 % consumed MTF; 78·2 % (males) and 76·1 % (females) took at least one micronutrient pill. Participants on a MTF had lower intake for some nutrients (males=4; females=8), but also consumed a few nutrients in larger amounts than regular texture consumers (males=4; females =1). More than 50 % of participants in both sexes and texture groups consumed inadequate amounts of folate, vitamins B6, Ca, Mg and Zn (males only), with >90 % consuming amounts below the EAR/AI for vitamin D, E, K, Mg (males only) and K. Vitamin D supplements resolved inadequate intakes for 50–70 % of participants. High proportions of LTC residents have intakes for nine of twenty nutrients examined below the EAR or AI. Strategies to improve intake specific to these nutrients are needed.
Mental illness is one of the leading causes of disability, with direct and indirect costs posing a significant financial burden. Previously, a large prospective economic utility study (n>13,000) showed that the GeneSight® test, a psychiatric pharmacogenomic decision support tool powered by CPGx® technology, reduced medication costs, increased adherence, andreduced polypharmacy for patients who had failed monotherapy for psychiatric disorders. The current study, which is a sub-analysis of this larger study, assessed cost savings associated with combinatorial pharmacogenomic testing in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Medication costs were extracted using pharmacy claims data provided by Medco, a large pharmacy benefits manager, for patients with GAD (n=318) and MDD (n=459). Medication cost savings per member per year (PMPY) for 1 year following the test were compared between patients whose medication regimens were congruent with the test recommendations and those whose medication regimens were incongruent with these recommendations. When healthcare providers’ decisions were congruent with combinatorial pharmacogenomic testing, PMPY savings was $6,747 (p<0.004) for GAD patients and $3,738 (p<0.004) for MDD patients versus incongruent decisions within these disease states. Among the congruent group, GAD patients experienced greater savings in central nervous system (CNS) medications (2-fold) compared to MDD patients. Additionally, analysis of a subset of patients prescribed at least one benzodiazepine six months prior to testing (n=660) demonstrated a significant decrease in benzodiazepine drug counts (p<0.001) and refills (p<0.001) after testing. Using the GeneSight test as a treatment decision support tool for patients with GAD or MDD resulted in significant medication cost savings when HCPs made congruent decisions with the combinatorialpharmacogenomic results. Furthermore, use of the GeneSight test decreased the use of benzodiazepines.
As older persons make up an ever greater proportion of the world’s population, a range of concerns are being voiced by policy-makers, program managers, and care providers about best or optimal practices for serving this population’s needs during all stages of disasters. Given that age-related vulnerabilities are common in late life, this article describes existing systems of care in the United States for the provision of disaster mental health services. Second, it evaluates the evidence for disaster treatment interventions with this subgroup of the population. Third, it synthesizes the findings of recent studies focusing on screening, assessment, and treatment approaches. To advance our current system of care and to adequately respond to the mental health needs of older persons, it is advantageous to periodically review progress, identify current gaps and unmet needs, and describe opportunities for improvement. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018; 12: 366–372)
In 2013, New York State mandated that, during influenza season, unvaccinated healthcare personnel (HCP) wear a surgical mask in areas where patients are typically present. We found that this mandate was associated with increased HCP vaccination and decreased HCP visits to the hospital Workforce Health and Safety Department with respiratory illnesses and laboratory-confirmed influenza.