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This paper extends the work of Thompson, Beauvais, and Lyness (1999, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 54, 392–415) on work–family culture by considering the role co-workers play. The proposed extended measure encompasses non-work spheres beyond the family as it has been established that much of the extant research does not include a large part of the workforce – those without childcare responsibilities (Kelliher, Richardson & Boiarintseva [2019, Human Resource Management Journal, 29, 101]). The extended measure constitutes Thompson et al.'s (1999) three original dimensions plus two additional dimensions: co-worker involvement (support and consequences) and gender expectations. Two quantitative studies confirmed that the extended measure is robust for different types of workers (part- and full-time, males and females). The co-worker dimensions were significantly associated with several outcome measures; however, the gender expectation dimensions added little additional variance in relation to employee outcomes. The results support the inclusion of co-workers as an important dimension of the workplace environment that supports work and life balance.
Because of rapid solidification involved in the laser or e-beam based additive manufacturing (AM) process, solution treatable metallic parts made by these methods usually possess a unique nonequilibrium microstructure which changes significantly during subsequent thermal treatment. Such evolution alters the size, morphology, length scale, and distribution of microstructural features and has a substantial impact on thermal properties and possibly on electrical properties as well. This study focuses on effects of microstructural evolution on thermal properties of an additively manufactured AlSi10Mg part. The changes of thermal properties such as thermal expansion, heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity as a function of thermal treatment are reported. The results show that the formation of supersaturated primary α aluminum and unique cellular structure imparted by fast solidification in the AM process are the major cause for the low thermal diffusivity and low thermal conductivity observed in this solution treatable, as-built part. A correlation between microstructural evolution and changes in thermal properties is established. Advantages and tailoring of the thermal properties of additively built parts are discussed. Implications of these results are important for other additively manufactured components based on popular solution treatable alloys.
The powder-bed laser additive manufacturing (AM) process is widely used in the fabrication of three-dimensional metallic parts with intricate structures, where kinetically controlled diffusion and microstructure ripening can be hindered by fast melting and rapid solidification. Therefore, the microstructure and physical properties of parts made by this process will be significantly different from their counterparts produced by conventional methods. This work investigates the microstructure evolution for an AM fabricated AlSi10Mg part from its nonequilibrium state toward equilibrium state. Special attention is placed on silicon dissolution, precipitate formation, collapsing of a divorced eutectic cellular structure, and microstructure ripening in the thermal annealing process. These events alter the size, morphology, length scale, and distribution of the beta silicon phase in the primary aluminum, and changes associated with elastic properties and microhardness are reported. The relationship between residual stress and silicon dissolution due to changes in lattice spacing is also investigated and discussed.
To directly observe healthcare workers in a nursing home setting to measure frequency and duration of resident contact and infection prevention behavior as a factor of isolation practice
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS
Healthcare workers in 8 VA nursing homes in Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Washington, and Texas
Over a 15-month period, trained research staff without clinical responsibilities on the units observed nursing home resident room activity for 15–30-minute intervals. Observers recorded time of entry and exit, isolation status, visitor type (staff, visitor, etc), hand hygiene, use of gloves and gowns, and activities performed in the room when visible.
A total of 999 hours of observation were conducted across 8 VA nursing homes during which 4,325 visits were observed. Residents in isolation received an average of 4.73 visits per hour of observation compared with 4.21 for nonisolation residents (P<.01), a 12.4% increase in visits for residents in isolation. Residents in isolation received an average of 3.53 resident care activities per hour of observation, compared with 2.46 for residents not in isolation (P<.01). For residents in isolation, compliance was 34% for gowns and 58% for gloves. Healthcare worker hand hygiene compliance was 45% versus 44% (P=.79) on entry and 66% versus 55% (P<.01) on exit for isolation and nonisolation rooms, respectively.
Healthcare workers visited residents in isolation more frequently, likely because they required greater assistance. Compliance with gowns and gloves for isolation was limited in the nursing home setting. Adherence to hand hygiene also was less than optimal, regardless of isolation status of residents.
Early career investigators have few opportunities for targeted training in supportive oncology research. To address this need, we developed, implemented, and evaluated an intensive, six-day workshop on methods in supportive oncology research for trainees and junior faculty across multiple disciplines.
A multidisciplinary team of supportive oncology researchers developed a workshop patterned after the clinical trials workshop offered jointly by the American Society of Clinical Oncology and American Association of Cancer Research. The curriculum included lectures and a mentored experience of writing a research protocol. Each year since 2015, the workshop has accepted and trained 36 early career investigators. Over the course of the workshop, participants present sections of their research protocols daily in small groups led by senior researchers, and have dedicated time to write and revise these sections. Primary outcomes for the workshop included the frequency of completed protocols by the end of the workshop, a pre- and posttest assessing participant knowledge, and follow-up surveys of the participants and their primary mentors.
Over three years, the workshop received 195 applications; 109 early career researchers were competitively selected to participate. All participants (109/109, 100%) completed writing a protocol by the end of their workshop. Participants and their primary mentors reported significant improvements in their research knowledge and skills. Each year, participants rated the workshop highly in terms of satisfaction, value, and likelihood of recommending it to a colleague. One year after the first workshop, most respondents (29/30, 96.7%) had either submitted their protocol or written at least one other protocol.
Significance of results
We developed a workshop on research methods in supportive oncology. More early career investigators applied for the workshop than capacity, and the workshop was fully attended each year. Both the workshop participants and their primary mentors reported improvement in research skills and knowledge.
Research on the cities of the Classical Greek world has traditionally focused on mapping the organisation of urban space and studying major civic or religious buildings. More recently, newer techniques such as field survey and geophysical survey have facilitated exploration of the extent and character of larger areas within urban settlements, raising questions about economic processes. At the same time, detailed analysis of residential buildings has also supported a change of emphasis towards understanding some of the functional and social aspects of the built environment as well as purely formal ones. This article argues for the advantages of analysing Greek cities using a multidisciplinary, multi-scalar framework which encompasses all of these various approaches and adds to them other analytical techniques (particularly micro-archaeology). We suggest that this strategy can lead towards a more holistic view of a city, not only as a physical place, but also as a dynamic community, revealing its origins, development and patterns of social and economic activity. Our argument is made with reference to the research design, methodology and results of the first three seasons of fieldwork at the city of Olynthos, carried out by the Olynthos Project.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Islands of the West Indies are among the most historically impacted by agriculture, yet agricultural influences on forests there have been little studied. This research compared tree species richness and vegetation structure between farmed lands, post-agriculture secondary forests and mature remnant forests in two watersheds in Saint Lucia, and sought to understand the current distribution of these habitats in terms of land use and watershed topography. Farms devoted to annual crops had few trees and much exposed soil. By contrast, agroforests had abundant (mostly planted) trees and vegetation structure comparable to secondary forests. Secondary forests had highest overall species richness, but mature forests had the most developed vegetation structure. Variations in habitat distribution reflected different land use histories, with the more rugged west coast long dominated by tree crop farming and the east coast experiencing a recent boom-bust cycle in bananas. Mature and secondary forests were more likely found at higher altitude, further from roads and at sites more difficult to access, the combined result of government protection of key forest and watershed reserves and farmers’ preferential abandonment of marginal lands. For conservationists, this return of forests is reason for optimism and it presents strategic opportunities for public land acquisition or collaborative management to further forest and watershed protection objectives.
Late-life depression is a common and heterogeneous illness, associated with structural abnormalities in both grey and white matter.
To examine the relationship between age at onset and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of grey and white matter to establish whether they support particular hypotheses regarding the anatomy and aetiology of network disruption in late-life depression.
We studied 36 participants with late-life depression. Grey matter was examined using T1-weighted MRI and analysed using voxel-based morphometry. The hippocampus was automatically segmented and volume and shape analysis performed. White matter was examined using diffusion tensor imaging and analysed using tract-based spatial statistics.
Later age at onset was significantly associated with reduced fractional anisotropy of widespread tracts, in particular the anterior thalamic radiation and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Earlier age at onset was associated with reduced hippocampal volume normalised to whole brain size bilaterally. However, no significant correlations were detected using hippocampal shape analysis or voxel-based morphometry.
Overall, the results were compatible with the vascular hypothesis, and provided some support for the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis.
Copper (I) chloride (CuCl) is a potential candidate for ultra violet optoelectronics due to the fact that it is closely lattice matched with silicon, which makes it readily integrable with silicon device technology. The structural and optoelectronic properties of CuCl thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering are investigated. The crystallinity is studied using X-ray diffraction which confirms the growth of CuCl thin films with cubic zinc blende structure predominantly orientated in <111> direction. Excitonic transitions in the thin films were thoroughly investigated using optical absorbance and luminescence spectroscopies. Room temperature absorption spectroscopic analysis confirms the existence of two exciton peaks namely Z12 and Z3 at 372 and 380 nm respectively. A strong UV emission is observed at room temperature in cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence spectra due to the recombination of Z3 exciton at approximately 384 nm. In the low temperature photoluminescence spectrum, a free exciton (Z3) and a bound exciton (I1) are observed. A variation of 1.3 nm to 10 nm was observed in the Z3 exciton line width from 10 K to 300 K.
The technology of intravenous catheter access ports has evolved from open ports covered by removable caps to more-sophisticated, closed versions containing mechanical valves. We report a significant increase in catheter-related bloodstream infections after the introduction of a new needle-free positive-pressure mechanical valve intravenous access port at our institution.
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