Vanadium oxide nanowires have gained increasing interest as the electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. This article presents the recent developments of vanadium oxide nanowire materials and devices in Li-ion batteries. First, we will describe synthesis and construction of vanadium oxide nanowires. Then, we mainly focus on the electrochemical performances of vanadium oxide nanowires, such as VO2, V2O5, hydrated vanadium oxides, LiV3O8, silver vanadium oxides, etc. Moreover, design and in situ characterization of the single nanowire electrochemical device are also discussed. The challenges and opportunities of vanadium oxide nanowire electrode materials will be discussed as a conclusion to push the fundamental and practical limitations of this kind of nanowire materials for Li-ion batteries.