Kidney function affects amino acid metabolism and vitamin status. The aims of the present study were to investigate urine and plasma concentrations of amino acids as well as plasma vitamin status in rats with impaired renal function (Zucker fa/fa rats) and in rats with normal kidney function (Long-Evans rats), and to explore the effects of salmon intake on these parameters and potential biomarkers of salmon intake in both rat strains. Male rats were fed diets with casein as sole protein source (control diet) or 25 % protein from baked salmon and 75 % casein for 4 weeks. Urine concentrations of markers of renal function and most amino acids and plasma concentrations of most vitamins were higher, and plasma concentrations of several amino acids including arginine, total glutathione and most tryptophan metabolites were lower in Zucker fa/fa rats compared with Long-Evans rats fed the control diet. Concentrations of kidney function markers were lower after salmon intake only in Zucker fa/fa rats. A trend towards lower urine concentrations of amino acids was seen in both rat strains fed the salmon diet, but this was more pronounced in Long-Evans rats and did not reflect the dietary amino acid content. Urine 1-methylhistidine, 3-methylhistidine, trimethylamineoxide and creatine concentrations, and plasma 1-methylhistidine and creatine concentrations were higher after salmon intake in both rat strains. To conclude, concentrations of amino acids in urine and plasma as well as vitamin status were different in Zucker fa/fa and Long-Evans rats, and the effects of salmon intake differed by rat strain for some of these parameters.