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This review aimed to compare the clinical features and CT imaging features between patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and lung cancer and patients with PTB alone. That would help to analyse the differences between the two and consequently providing a theoretical basis for the clinical diagnosis and treatment for the patients. Relevant case-control studies focusing on the clinical and CT imaging characteristics between PTB with lung cancer and PTB alone were systematically searched from five electronic databases. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for comparison. As of 2021-07-06, a total of 1735 articles were retrieved. But only 15 articles were finally included for meta-analysis. The results showed a higher proportion of irritable cough, haemorrhagic pleural effusion and lower proportion of night sweating in PTB patients with lung cancer than in PTB patients, and the differences were statistically significant (irritable cough: OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.43–4.11; haemorrhagic pleural effusion: OR 5.73, 95% CI 1.63–20.12; night sweating: OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.36–0.87). In addition, there are many differences in the imaging characteristics of the two types of patients. In conclusion, this review summarises the similarities and differences in clinical symptoms and imaging features between patients with PTB and lung cancer and patients with PTB alone, suggesting that we should be alert to the occurrence of lung cancer in patients with obsolete PTB relapse.
Few studies have investigated the association between maternal dietary patterns (DP) during pregnancy, derived from reduced-rank regression (RRR), and fetal growth. This study aims to identify DP during pregnancy associated with macro- and micronutrient intakes, using the RRR method, and to examine their relationship with birth weight (BW). We used data of 7194 women from a large-scale cross-sectional survey in Northwest China. Dietary protein, carbohydrate, haem Fe density and the ratio of PUFA and MUFA:SFA were used as the intermediate variables in the RRR model to extract DP. Generalised estimating equation models were applied to evaluate the associations between DP and BW and related outcomes (including BW z-score, low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA)). Four DP during pregnancy were identified. Socio-demographically disadvantaged pregnant women were more likely to have lower BW and lower adherence to DP1 (high legumes, soyabean products, vegetables and animal-source foods, with relative low wheat and oils). Women with medium and high adherence to DP1 had significantly increased BW (medium 28·6 (95 % CI 7·1, 50·1); high 25·2 (95 % CI 2·7, 47·6)) and BW z-score and had significantly reduced risks of LBW and SGA. The associations were stronger among women with babies <3100 g. There is no association between other DP and outcomes. Higher adherence to the DP that was high in legumes, soyabean products, vegetables and animal-source foods was associated with improved BW in the Chinese pregnant women, particularly among those with disadvantageous socio-demographic conditions.
We report on Ni-modified TiO2 nanotubes with improved photocatalytic properties. Using the as-anodized TiO2 nanotubes as templates, Ni was electrodeposited using pulsed current waveforms. It was found that the Ni deposition was first initiated at the bottoms of the intertubular voids and then grew upward, resulting in a Ni/TiO2 coaxial nanostructure with Ni wrapping around the TiO2 nanotubes. Moreover, the tube inside was kept empty and tube openings unclogged for the fabricated Ni/TiO2 nanocomposites. Further photodegradation tests using methyl red revealed that the fabricated Ni/TiO2 nanocomposites possess higher photocatalytic efficiency than the counterparts of pristine TiO2 nanotubes. The observed improved photocatalytic efficiency is ascribed to the Schottky barriers formed between Ni and TiO2.
High quality factor and near-zero temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) are the two key issues for a certain microwave dielectric material system used in microstrip patch antennas. ZnTiO3-based ceramics is a promising candidate for microstrip patch antennas. On inhibiting the decomposition of ZnTiO3 by adding sufficient amount of MgO, high quality factor microwave dielectric material (Zn0.7Mg0.3)TiO3 was obtained. The deviations between theoretical and observed dielectric polarizabilites, the packing fraction, and bond valence were calculated to analyze correlation between structure and properties of (Zn0.7Mg0.3)TiO3. TiO2 was added to adjust τf of (Zn0.7Mg0.3)TiO3, and 0.82(Zn0.7Mg0.3)TiO3–0.18TiO2 with an εr of 28.5, a Qf of 125,050 GHz, and a near-zero τf which satisfied the requirement as a substrate material for microstrip patch antenna was obtained at 1100 °C. In addition, a dielectric microstrip antenna was designed and fabricated using the proposed dielectric materials. The microstrip patch antenna exhibited a −34.96 dB return loss and a 1.05 voltage standing wave ratio at 2.5 GHz.
Three different strategies, wet impregnation, in situ reduction, and grafting with silane coupling agents, have been used to introduce CoNi nanoparticles with different existing forms into mesoporous silica. These composites were used as catalysts to grow nanostructured carbons by catalytic chemical vapor deposition using ethene. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with different inner diameters can grow out of mesoporous silica particles incorporated with CoNi nanoclusters. Many fewer CNTs could be found in the pore channels of the sample prepared by using silane coupling agents than in those of the sample synthesized via wet impregnation. No CNTs formed in the pore channels of the sample prepared by in situ reduction. After the removal of silica, different carbon nanostructures have been obtained in the pore channels. Ordered graphite carbon mesostructure was obtained from the sample prepared by in situ reduction. Highly dispersed metal catalysts inside mesopore channels are favorable for the formation of graphite carbons with ordered mesostructures.
Well-structured and monodisperse nanocomposite spheres with a magnetic core/mesoporous silica shell structure (MCMS) were obtained. The effects on the structure and morphology of the MCMS spheres were investigated under various synthesis conditions, including reaction time, quantity of silicate sources of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and n-octadecyltrimethoxysilane (C18TMS), ratio of TEOS/C18TMS, and ratio of H2O/EtOH in the starting solution. The particle size of the MCMS spheres and pore diameter are tunable in a certain range with 100% yield. A synthesis mechanism of the mesoporous silica shell was proposed that proceeds via three main stages. The silica shell proved to be effective on protecting the cores from leaching out in acidic conditions.
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