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In clinical environments, orthopedic implants are associated with a risk of infection during implantation. However, the growth paths of bacteria on metal, which is nontransparent, are difficult to observe. In this study, we visualized the DH5-alpha Escherichia coli bacterial growth path on the surface of magnesium by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and constructed a convolutional neural network-based artificial intelligence (AI) system to identify metal surfaces, bacteria, and its generated products to grade the growth stage of the bacteria implanted on the magnesium. The detection result of the E. coli growth stage by the AI system was close to that manually marked by experts, and it may greatly accelerate the investigation of the bacterial growth process in various types of metallic material.
The mutualism between fig trees and their wasp pollinators is a model system for many ecological and evolutionary studies. However, the immature stages of pollinating fig wasps have rarely been studied. We monitored developing fig wasps of known ages and performed a series of dissections at 24 h intervals to identify key developmental traits of Ceratosolen solmsi marchali Mayr (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae), a pollinator of Ficus hispida L. (Moraceae). We identified where in the Ficus ovary eggs were deposited and time to hatch. We were also able to identify the timing and key underlying characters of five larval instars, three sub-pupal stages, and a single prepupal stage. We provide detailed morphological descriptions for the key stages and report some behavioral observations of the wasps in the several developmental stages we recorded. Scanning electron microscope images were taken.
During diabetes, structural and functional changes in the alimentary tract are known to take place resulting in an increased absorption of intestinal glucose and alterations in the activities of brush-border disaccharidases. To elucidate the effect of administrating polysaccharide from Gynura divaricata (PGD) on disaccharidase activities, the specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases, namely sucrase, maltase and lactase, were measured in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Normal control and diabetic rats were treated by oral administration with PGD. Specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases were increased significantly during diabetes, and amelioration of the activities of sucrase and maltase during diabetes was clearly visible by the treatment with PGD. However, the increased activity of lactase during diabetes mellitus was remarkably alleviated by the administration of PGD only in the duodenum. Meanwhile, oral sucrose tolerance tests demonstrated that PGD alleviated the hyperglycaemia during diabetes mellitus, resulting from the amelioration in the activities of intestinal disaccharidases. The present investigation suggests that PGD exerted an anti-diabetic effect partly via inhibiting the increased intestinal disaccharidase activities of diabetic rats. This beneficial influence of administration of PGD on intestinal disaccharidases clearly indicates their helpful role in the management of diabetes.
Research into, and the environmental release of, transgenic rapeseed in China are overviewed and the environmental risks are assessed, focusing on competitive survival ability, gene dispersal and biodiversity impact of transgenic rapeseed. It is concluded that transgenic rapeseed has a higher probability of gene dispersal when compared with other major crops. Brassica napus may transfer genes through pollen and seeds to vegetables and wild species of B. rapa and B. juncea, for which China is the biodiversity centre and also the country of highest consumption. It is considered that the risk of gene dispersal is present, but can be reduced to an acceptable limit. Commercialization of transgenic rapeseed should not be stopped, but should be built on a safe and sound basis by building a reasonable management system. Awarenes of biosafety considerations for transgenic rapeseed should be strengthened, and a technical platform of genetically modified organism (GMO) detection and monitoring should be properly established. Countermeasures against environmental risks are also discussed.
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