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Contrasting the well-described effects of early intervention (EI) services for youth-onset psychosis, the potential benefits of the intervention for adult-onset psychosis are uncertain. This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of EI on functioning and symptomatic improvement in adult-onset psychosis, and the optimal duration of the intervention.
360 psychosis patients aged 26–55 years were randomized to receive either standard care (SC, n = 120), or case management for two (2-year EI, n = 120) or 4 years (4-year EI, n = 120) in a 4-year rater-masked, parallel-group, superiority, randomized controlled trial of treatment effectiveness (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00919620). Primary (i.e. social and occupational functioning) and secondary outcomes (i.e. positive and negative symptoms, and quality of life) were assessed at baseline, 6-month, and yearly for 4 years.
Compared with SC, patients with 4-year EI had better Role Functioning Scale (RFS) immediate [interaction estimate = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.001–0.014, p = 0.02] and extended social network (interaction estimate = 0.011, 95% CI = 0.004–0.018, p = 0.003) scores. Specifically, these improvements were observed in the first 2 years. Compared with the 2-year EI group, the 4-year EI group had better RFS total (p = 0.01), immediate (p = 0.01), and extended social network (p = 0.05) scores at the fourth year. Meanwhile, the 4-year (p = 0.02) and 2-year EI (p = 0.004) group had less severe symptoms than the SC group at the first year.
Specialized EI treatment for psychosis patients aged 26–55 should be provided for at least the initial 2 years of illness. Further treatment up to 4 years confers little benefits in this age range over the course of the study.
In clinical environments, orthopedic implants are associated with a risk of infection during implantation. However, the growth paths of bacteria on metal, which is nontransparent, are difficult to observe. In this study, we visualized the DH5-alpha Escherichia coli bacterial growth path on the surface of magnesium by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images and constructed a convolutional neural network-based artificial intelligence (AI) system to identify metal surfaces, bacteria, and its generated products to grade the growth stage of the bacteria implanted on the magnesium. The detection result of the E. coli growth stage by the AI system was close to that manually marked by experts, and it may greatly accelerate the investigation of the bacterial growth process in various types of metallic material.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This poster will demonstrate how a community issue from a CTSI Community Advisory Board member organization initiated a collaborative, community-engaged project to identify priority areas of concern and culturally appropriate mitigation strategies. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Little is known about the health and psychosocial impact of construction on older adults living near construction sites. We applied a mixed methods approach to identify evidence-based strategies to mitigate community prioritized health and psychosocial concerns related to long-term construction on older adults in NYC’s Manhattan Chinatown. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In Chinatown, where approximately 20% of its residents are seniors, many are poor, have a disability, and experience ambulatory difficulties. We used a mixed methods approach including: 1) a high level scoping review of the published literature on the health impact of long-term construction for older adults; 2) key informant interviews with stakeholders; and 3) a two-part community-engaged modified Delphi process to identify priority topic areas related to construction and older adults and evidence-informed, culturally-relevant mitigation strategies. Using priority areas identified through the modified Delphi process, we conducted a literature review on the health and psychosocial impact of construction on older adults. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified five priority topics: construction site emissions; noise; outdoor nocturnal lighting; neighborhood changes; and relocation. Long-term construction is associated with environmental and psychosocial consequences with greater negative impacts on vulnerable populations. Current NYC mitigation policies are based on general population and need revisions to consider impacts for the most vulnerable, e.g. older adults and children, to mitigate adverse health outcomes. Findings were shared with City Council members and resulted in enacting specific recommended mitigation strategies, e.g. double paned windows, etc. Seniors are highly susceptible to the effects of air pollution, noise, and environmental changes, with exposure associated with higher morbidity, mortality, and social isolation. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Long-term construction may pose serious health implications for seniors residing near construction sites. Standards and guidelines for the general population may not protect them. Community-driven coalitions, like community-academic partnerships, can successfully advance community priorities and inform strategies to protect the elderly.
Understanding the extent of aerosol-based transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is important for tailoring interventions for control of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Multiple studies have reported the detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in air samples, but only one study has successfully recovered viable virus, although it is limited by its small sample size.
We aimed to determine the extent of shedding of viable SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory aerosols from COVID-19 patients.
In this observational air sampling study, air samples from airborne-infection isolation rooms (AIIRs) and a community isolation facility (CIF) housing COVID-19 patients were collected using a water vapor condensation method into liquid collection media. Samples were tested for presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and qRT-PCR-positive samples were tested for viability using viral culture.
Samples from 6 (50%) of the 12 sampling cycles in hospital rooms were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, including aerosols ranging from <1 µm to >4 µm in diameter. Of 9 samples from the CIF, 1 was positive via qRT-PCR. Viral RNA concentrations ranged from 179 to 2,738 ORF1ab gene copies per cubic meter of air. Virus cultures were negative after 4 blind passages.
Although SARS-CoV-2 is readily captured in aerosols, virus culture remains challenging despite optimized sampling methodologies to preserve virus viability. Further studies on aerosol-based transmission and control of SARS-CoV-2 are needed.
The risk of environmental contamination by severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the intensive care unit (ICU) is unclear. We evaluated the extent of environmental contamination in the ICU and correlated this with patient and disease factors, including the impact of different ventilatory modalities.
In this observational study, surface environmental samples collected from ICU patient rooms and common areas were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Select samples from the common area were tested by cell culture. Clinical data were collected and correlated to the presence of environmental contamination. Results were compared to historical data from a previous study in general wards.
In total, 200 samples from 20 patient rooms and 75 samples from common areas and the staff pantry were tested. The results showed that 14 rooms had at least 1 site contaminated, with an overall contamination rate of 14% (28 of 200 samples). Environmental contamination was not associated with day of illness, ventilatory mode, aerosol-generating procedures, or viral load. The frequency of environmental contamination was lower in the ICU than in general ward rooms. Eight samples from the common area were positive, though all were negative on cell culture.
Environmental contamination in the ICU was lower than in the general wards. The use of mechanical ventilation or high-flow nasal oxygen was not associated with greater surface contamination, supporting their use and safety from an infection control perspective. Transmission risk via environmental surfaces in the ICUs is likely to be low. Nonetheless, infection control practices should be strictly reinforced, and transmission risk via droplet or airborne spread remains.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to significant strain on front-line healthcare workers.
In this multicentre study, we compared the psychological outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic in various countries in the Asia-Pacific region and identified factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes.
From 29 April to 4 June 2020, the study recruited healthcare workers from major healthcare institutions in five countries in the Asia-Pacific region. A self-administrated survey that collected information on prior medical conditions, presence of symptoms, and scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) relating to COVID-19 was compared, and multivariable logistic regression identified independent factors associated with adverse psychological outcomes within each country.
A total of 1146 participants from India, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia and Vietnam were studied. Despite having the lowest volume of cases, Vietnam displayed the highest prevalence of PTSD. In contrast, Singapore reported the highest case volume, but had a lower prevalence of depression and anxiety. In the multivariable analysis, we found that non-medically trained personnel, the presence of physical symptoms and presence of prior medical conditions were independent predictors across the participating countries.
This study highlights that the varied prevalence of psychological adversity among healthcare workers is independent of the burden of COVID-19 cases within each country. Early psychological interventions may be beneficial for the vulnerable groups of healthcare workers with presence of physical symptoms, prior medical conditions and those who are not medically trained.
From midlife to old age, women are influenced differently by developmental transitions compared with men. These transitions range from menopause to subjective experiences such as appearance-related changes and caregiving responsibilities. More importantly, cultural and personal factors may impact how people understand these transitions. As such, cultural differences may be reflected in the expression, subjective experiences, and consequences of these developmental transitions. Concerning menopause, cultures influence the expression of menopausal symptoms and their psychological consequences. Moreover, cultural factors also impact women’s perceptions of appearance-related changes, and their appraisals of the caregiving experiences. Future developmental studies on women might focus on the moderating role of culture in the ways women interpret and cope with developmental changes in the second half of life.
To determine the incidence and risk factors associated with Clostridium difficile colonization among residents of nursing homes and to identify the ribotypes of circulating C. difficile strains.
A prospective cohort study with a follow-up duration of 22 months.
Of the 375 residents in 8 nursing homes, 300 residents (80.0%) participated in the study. A further prospective study of 4 nursing homes involving 141 residents with a minimum of 90 days of follow-up was also performed.
Baseline and 90-day stool cultures were obtained; additional stool cultures were obtained for residents who had been discharged from hospitals. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotyping and slpA typing were performed for all C. difficile strains isolated.
Toxigenic C. difficile was isolated in 30 residents (10%) at baseline, and 9 residents (7.3%) had acquired toxigenic C. difficile in the nursing homes. The presence of nasogastric tube was an independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio, 8.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–62.53; P=.034) for C. difficile colonization. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of median carriage duration was 13 weeks. The C. difficile ribotypes most commonly identified were 002 (40.8%), 014 (16.9%), 029 (9.9%), and 053 (8.5%).
The high incidence of C. difficile colonization and the overrepresentation of C. difficile ribotype 002 confirmed the contribution of nursing home residents to C. difficile transmission across the continuum of care. An infection control program is needed in long-term care.
Default mode network (DMN) is vulnerable to the effects of APOE genotype. Given the reduced brain volumes and APOE ε 4-related brain changes in elderly carriers, it is less known that whether these changes would influence the functional connectivity and to what extent. This study aimed to examine the functional connectivity within DMN, and its diagnostic value with age-related morphometric alterations considered.
Whole brain and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis were conducted in cognitively normal APOE ε 4 carriers and matched non-carriers (N=38). The absolute values of mean correlation coefficients (z-values) were used as a measure of functional connectivity strength (FCS) between DMN subregions, which were also used to estimate their diagnostic value by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves.
APOE ε 4 carriers demonstrated decreased interhemispheric FCS, particularly between right hippocampal formation (R.HF) and left inferior parietal lobular (L.IPL) (t=3.487, p<0.001). ROC analysis showed that the FCS of R.HF and L.IPL could differentiate APOE ε 4 carriers from healthy counterparts (AUC value=0.734, p=0.025). Moreover, after adjusting the impact of morphometry, the differentiated value of FCS of R.HF and L.IPL was markedly improved (AUC value=0.828, p=0.002).
Our findings suggest that APOE ε 4 allele affects the functional connectivity within posterior DMN, particularly the atrophy-corrected interhemispheric FCS before the clinical expression of neurodegenerative disease.
Research suggests that an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy
(MBCT) course may be effective for generalised anxiety disorder
To compare changes in anxiety levels among participants with GAD randomly
assigned to MBCT, cognitive–behavioural therapy-based psychoeducation and
In total, 182 participants with GAD were recruited (trial registration
number: CUHK_CCT00267) and assigned to the three groups and followed for
5 months after baseline assessment with the two intervention groups
followed for an additional 6 months. Primary outcomes were anxiety and
Linear mixed models demonstrated significant group × time interaction
(F(4,148) = 5.10, P = 0.001) effects
for decreased anxiety for both the intervention groups relative to usual
care. Significant group × time interaction effects were observed for
worry and depressive symptoms and mental health-related quality of life
for the psychoeducation group only.
These results suggest that both of the interventions appear to be
superior to usual care for the reduction of anxiety symptoms.
To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization at the time of admission to acute medical units and to develop a cost-effective screening strategy.
Nasal and groin screening cultures were performed for patients at admission to 15 acute medical units in all 7 catchment regions in Hong Kong. All MRSA isolates were subjected to spa typing.
The overall carriage rate of MRSA was 14.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.5–15.1). MRSA history within the past 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.60 [95% CI, 3.28–6.44]), old age home residence (adjusted OR, 3.32 [95% CI, 2.78–3.98]), and bedbound state (adjusted OR, 2.19 [95% CI, 1.75–2.74]) were risk factors selected as MRSA screening criteria that provided reasonable sensitivity (67.4%) and specificity (81.8%), with an affordable burden (25.2%). spa typing showed that 89.5% (848/948) of the isolates were clustered into the 4 spa clonal complexes (CCs): spa CC1081, spa CC032, spa CC002, and spa CC4677. Patients colonized with MRSA spa types t1081 (OR, 1.77 [95% CI, 1.49–2.09]) and t4677 (OR, 3.09 [95% CI, 1.54–6.02]) were more likely to be old age home residents.
MRSA carriage at admission to acute medical units was prevalent in Hong Kong. Our results suggest that targeted screening is a pragmatic approach to increase the detection of the MRSA reservoir. Molecular typing suggests that old age homes are epicenters in amplifying the MRSA burden in acute hospitals. Enhancement of infection control measures in old age homes is important for the control of MRSA in hospitals.
Malaysia is divided into thirteen states and three federal territories. Sarawak, located on the island of Borneo, is the largest state in Malaysia. It covers 124,450 square kilometres. Sarawak is richly endowed with natural resources, especially liquefied natural gas, petroleum, and rainforest. Its economy has historically been dominated by the primary sectors (agriculture, forestry, mining, and quarrying), mostly agriculture. But in line with the federal government's policy of economic growth through industrialization, the state government began promoting secondary and tertiary sectors in the 1970s (Kasim 1990). Sarawak was transformed from a poor backwater to a vibrant and industrializing state. By international standards, the level of poverty in Sarawak is now quite low. In 2009, 5.3 per cent (27,100 households) in Sarawak were found living in poverty and 1.0 per cent in extreme poverty. The national overall incidence of poverty and extreme poverty were 3.8 per cent and 0.7 per cent, respectively (EPU 2013). The incidence of poverty is higher in the rural areas.
Parts of the transformative process, such as the Bakun hydroelectric dam, commercial agriculture, and logging, have required clearing parts of the rainforest (Ichikawa 2007). Development projects not only caused a dwindling of the rainforest, but also the degrading of what remains. The primary economic value of Sarawak's rainforest has been as a source of income for the state through the exports of timber and its timberbased products. Timber industries have brought substantial earnings to Sarawak. In 2008, timber products constituted 9 per cent (RM7.9 billion) of the total export earnings of the major commodities in Sarawak though there was a slight drop in the total export earnings of timber products to RM6,698,067 in 2009, followed by a marginal increase to RM7,354,341 in 2010 (Sarawak Timber Industry Development Corporation 2011). The rainforest is a source of raw material for the residents of many of the rural communities of the interior (for rattan baskets and mats, and wooden furniture), and a source of wild boar and wild vegetables for food.
The primary objective of this study was to validate a novel method of assessing hand hygiene compliance using ultrasound transmitters in patient zones and staff tagged with receivers. The secondary objective was to assess the impact of audio reminders and quantified individual feedback.
An observational comparison against manual assessment followed by assessment using an open-label randomized control method.
Patient zones were established in 3 wards of 2 large teaching hospitals, including 88 general and 18 intensive care unit ward beds.
Consented regular ward nursing, medical, and allied health staff.
Concordance between 40 hours of manual observation using trained hand hygiene auditors and automated measures of opportunities and compliance. Subsequent measured interventions were reminder beeps and written individual feedback.
When compared with manual observations, ultrasound monitoring underestimated percentage compliances by a nonsignificant mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) difference of 5.2% (−20.1% to 9.8%; P = .491). After the intervention, adjusted multivariate analysis showed mean (95% CI) overall compliance in the intervention arm was 6.8% (2.5%−11.1%; P = .002) higher than in the control arm. Results stratified by compliance at entry and exit showed that the effect of intervention was stronger for compliance at exit than at entry.
Our automated measure of hand hygiene compliance is valid when compared with the traditional gold standard of manual observations. As an interventional tool, ultrasound-based automated hand hygiene audits have significant benefit that can be built upon with enhancements and find increasing acceptance with time.
This chapter provides a brief introduction to the modern science of memory and presents some significant issues in the field. The contributions of Hermann Ebbinghaus, Frederick Bartlett, and Brenda Milner reveals important insights into how memory works, and the chapter draws upon each approach in characterizing the functional organization of human memory. One of the most significant questions in memory research has been whether there is a fundamental difference between the retention of information across short delays versus long delays. Working memory (WM) model proposes a separation between short-term storage (or maintenance) and the manipulation of information in the service of task goals. Successful memory performance depends not only on how information is encoded, but also on interactions between encoding and retrieval processes. Forgetting can occur even for information that was adequately processed at encoding. Consolidation theory and interference theory are the most popular accounts of forgetting.
Tracheobronchial compression of cardiovascular origin is an uncommon and frequently unrecognised cause of respiratory distress in children. The compression may be due to encircling vessels or dilated neighbouring cardiovascular structures. Bronchoscopy and detailed radiography, especially computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are among the most powerful diagnostic tools. Few previous reports have addressed the relationship between bronchoscopic findings and underlying cardiovascular anomalies. The objective of this study was to correlate bronchoscopic and radiographic findings in children with cardiovascular-associated airway obstruction. A total of 41 patients were recruited for the study. Patients with airway obstruction were stratified on the basis of the aetiology of the cardiovascular structures and haemodynamics into an anatomy-associated group and a haemodynamics-associated group. In the anatomy-associated group, stenosis and malacia were found with comparable frequency on bronchoscopy, and the airway obstructions were mostly found in the trachea (71% of patients). In the haemodynamics-associated group, malacia was the most common bronchoscopic finding (85% of patients), and nearly all locations of airway involvement were in the airway below the carina (90% of patients). The tracheal compression was usually caused by aberrant systemic branching arteries in the anatomy-associated group. In the haemodynamics-associated group, the causal relationships varied. Tracheal compression was often caused by lesions of the main pulmonary artery and aorta, whereas obstruction of the right main bronchus was caused by lesions of the main pulmonary artery and right pulmonary artery. The causes of left main bronchus compression were more diverse. In summary, the bronchoscopic presentations and locations are quite different between these two groups.
Compound semiconductors belong to the most important materials for optoelectronic applications. Many of them exhibit favorable optical properties, such as a direct energy band gap (in contrast to silicon) and high-absorption coefficients over a wide spectral range. Moreover, varying the composition of the compound or substituting some of its elements often allows for controlled band gap engineering and optimization for specific applications. Because many compound semiconductors enable efficient conversion of light into electricity and vice versa, they are commonly used materials for optoelectronic devices.
Steady economic growth in the last four decades in Malaysia has successfully resulted in a decline of poverty incidence from 52.4 per cent in 1970 to 6.1 per cent in 1997 (Nair 2005), though regional, ethnic and rural-urban disparities remained. However, due to the impact of the 1997 Asian financial crisis, poverty incidence rose for the first time to 8.5 per cent in 1998 (EPU 2001). Nevertheless, the government managed to restore the economy by introducing strict fiscal policy, stimulating the market, and stabilizing the financial market (JBIC 2001). Consequently, the incidence of poverty was reduced to 5.7 per cent in 2004 and then to 3.6 per cent in 2007 (EPU 2009a).
However, the recent spike of inflation threatens to push low-income families in Malaysia below the poverty line. Based on a Bank Negara Malaysia (2008) report, the inflation rate in Malaysia as measured by consumer price index peaked in the third quarter of 2008. The inflation rate moderated to 3.9 per cent in January 2009 from its elevated level due mainly to the series of downward fuel price adjustments by the government and the more moderate increase in food prices (Bank Negara Malaysia 2009). However, declining inflation only means a declining rate of increase of price level. The price level of goods and services remains very high and rising, implying a continuously higher cost of living, even during recession. On the other hand, the GDP growth rate in Malaysia in 2008 (at 2000 constant price) was 4.6 per cent. Due to the recent global recession, the growth rate dropped drastically to –6.2 per cent in the first quarter of 2009 and improved slightly to –3.9 per cent in the second quarter of 2009 (Department of Statistics 2009).
With this rising cost of living and declining growth rate, it is surmised that low-income groups, particularly those with large families in urban areas, feel the pinch. According to studies conducted by Ragayah (2002, 2004), urban households were more affected by the rising commodity prices compared to those in rural areas as the latter were more able to diversify their income sources and to turn to local food production to cushion the effects of rising costs.
A previous study reported preliminary results of enhanced processing of simple visual information in the form of faster reaction times, in female fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs). In this study, we assessed manual and oral motor reaction times in 30 female fXPCs and 20 neurotypical (NT) controls. Participants completed two versions of the reaction time task; one version required a manual motor response and the other version required an oral motor response. Results revealed that the female fXPCs displayed faster reaction times for both manual and oral motor responses relative to NT controls. Molecular measures including CGG repeat length, FMR1 mRNA levels, and age were not associated with performance in either group. Given previously reported age and CGG repeat modulated performance on a magnitude comparison task in this same group of premutation carriers, results from the current study seem to suggest that female fXPCs may have spared basic psychomotor functionality. (JINS, 2011, 17, 746–750)
Vitamin E is divided into two subgroups; tocopherols and tocotrienols. Both have protective roles in biological systems. The present study was conducted to compare the effect of short-term supplementation at 200 mg/d of either α-tocopherol or a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) from palm oil on immune modulation and plasma vitamin E levels in normal healthy Asian volunteers. In a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted, fifty-three healthy volunteers aged 20–50 years were recruited based on the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were randomly assigned into three groups, i.e. two experimental groups that received daily supplementation at 200 mg of either α-tocopherol or the TRF, and the control group that received a placebo. Blood was drawn on days 0, 28 and 56 for several laboratory analyses. Differences in the production of IL-4 or interferon-γ by concanavalin A-stimulated lymphocytes isolated from these volunteers were not significant (P>0·05). There were no significant differences observed in immune parameters between the healthy volunteers who received daily supplementation with either α-tocopherol or the TRF. As these observations were made in the absence of any immunogenic challenge, we feel it would be of benefit to study if there would be any differences observed when an immunogenic challenge such as vaccination were introduced.