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Improvement of environmental cleaning in hospitals has been shown to decrease in-hospital cross transmission of pathogens. Several objective methods, including aerobic colony counts (ACCs), the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence assay, and the fluorescent marker method have been developed to assess cleanliness. However, the standard interpretation of cleanliness using the fluorescent marker method remains uncertain.
To assess the fluorescent marker method as a tool for determining the effectiveness of hospital cleaning.
A prospective survey study.
An academic medical center.
The same 10 high-touch surfaces were tested after each terminal cleaning using (1) the fluorescent marker method, (2) the ATP assay, and (3) the ACC method. Using the fluorescent marker method under study, surfaces were classified as totally clean, partially clean, or not clean. The ACC method was used as the standard for comparison.
According to the fluorescent marker method, of the 830 high-touch surfaces, 321 surfaces (38.7%) were totally clean (TC group), 84 surfaces (10.1%) were partially clean (PC group), and 425 surfaces (51.2%) were not clean (NC group). The TC group had significantly lower ATP and ACC values (mean ± SD, 428.7 ± 1,180.0 relative light units [RLU] and 15.6 ± 77.3 colony forming units [CFU]/100 cm2) than the PC group (1,386.8 ± 2,434.0 RLU and 34.9 ± 87.2 CFU/100 cm2) and the NC group (1,132.9 ± 2,976.1 RLU and 46.8 ± 119.2 CFU/100 cm2).
The fluorescent marker method provided a simple, reliable, and real-time assessment of environmental cleaning in hospitals. Our results indicate that only a surface determined to be totally clean using the fluorescent marker method could be considered clean.
We report a novel tip-type field emission (FE) emitter by synthesizing the few-layer graphene (FLG) flakes on tip of nichrome (8020) wire (ϕ≈80 μm) by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition(PECVD). These resultant random arrays of free-standing FLG flakes are aligned vertically to the substrate surface in a high-density and stacked to each other to form several larger “flower-like” agglomerates in spherical shapes. The FE performance of the tip-type FLG flakes emitter shows a low threshold field of 0.55 V/μm, a large field enhancement factor of 9455 ± 46, a large field emission current density of 22.18 A/cm2 at 2.70 V/μm, and an excellent field emission stability at high emission current densities (6.93 A/cm2). It can be used in variety of applications that include cathode-ray tube monitors, X-ray sources, electron microscopes, and other vacuum electronic applications.
Apathy is a condition characterized by a lack of motivation that manifests in emotional, behavioral, and cognitive domains. Although previous studies have indicated that apathy is associated with frontal lesions, few studies have focused on the different subdomains of apathy, and no in vivo human biochemical data have been obtained to examine the neurochemical changes related to apathy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, we investigated the frontal neurochemical alterations related to apathy among patients with AD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS).
Apathy was assessed through the Apathy Evaluation Scale (AES). 1H MRS was performed to measure neurochemical metabolite levels in the anterior cingulate region and right orbitofrontal region. Associations between neurochemical metabolites and the total score and subscores of each domain of the AES were analyzed.
Altogether, 36 patients completed the study. Patients with lower N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratios (NAA/Cr) in the anterior cingulate region demonstrated higher total apathy scores (β = −0.56, p = 0.003) with adjustments for age, gender, educational level, dementia severity, and depression severity. In a further analysis, a lower NAA/Cr in the anterior cingulate region was associated with all subdomains of apathy, including cognition (β = −0.43, p = 0.028), behavior (β = −0.55, p = 0.002), and emotion (β = −0.50, p = 0.005). No statistically significant associations were discovered in the right orbitofrontal region.
Our results suggest that apathy, in each of its cognitive, behavioral, or emotional subdomains is associated with brain neurochemical alterations in the anterior cingulate region. Abnormal neuronal integrity over the anterior cingulate cortex may exhibit a central role in causing all aspects of apathy in patients with AD.
In this work, the reduction mechanism of potassium chromate (K2CrO4) was investigated via in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. During the hydrogen reduction of K2CrO4, the formation of K3CrO4, KCrO2, and KxCrO2 were detected for the first time. The study discovered that K2CrO4 was firstly reduced to K3CrO4 and an amorphous Cr(III) intermediate product at low temperature (400–500 °C). Moreover, the K3CrO4 was the only crystalline material at this stage. As the temperature increased, a stabilized amorphous CrOOH was formed. At a high temperature (550–700 °C), KCrO2 was generated. Interestingly, a portion of KCrO2 was spontaneously decomposed during the hydrogen reduction, accompanying by the formation of K0.7CrO2. Finally, the results clearly illustrated the reduction mechanism of K2CrO4: K2CrO4 → K3CrO4 → amorphous intermediate → KCrO2.
Objective: Hyperfamiliarity is a phenomenon where new stimuli are perceived as familiar. Previous studies have demonstrated familiarity disorder in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but mostly from the perspective of a neuropsychological approach, and the exact correlation of MCI aetiologies with the phenomenon remains uncertain. Based on current evidence suggesting a frontal-subcortical pathway contributing to familiarity processing, we hypothesize that individuals with a vascular aetiology of MCI will likely suffer more familiarity deficits. This study aims to examine the real-life hyperfamiliarity symptoms in amnestic versus vascular MCI. Methods: Informants of 11 amnestic and 9 vascular cognitive impairment patients were interviewed about the frequency of hyperfamiliarity symptoms in the previous month. MRI brain images of vascular cognitive impairment patients were analysed as well. Results: Patients with vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND) showed a significantly higher frequency of hyperfamiliarity for people but not places or objects. Within VCIND patients, overall basal ganglia hyperintensities, particularly in the putamen, were found to significantly correlate to hyperfamiliarity. Conclusions: Patients with VCIND suffer more real-life hyperfamiliarity during people recognition compared to patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), despite a comparative global decline in cognitive. This is likely due to impaired memory retrieval and matching processes resulting from subcortical ischaemic lesions.
Research suggests that an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy
(MBCT) course may be effective for generalised anxiety disorder
To compare changes in anxiety levels among participants with GAD randomly
assigned to MBCT, cognitive–behavioural therapy-based psychoeducation and
In total, 182 participants with GAD were recruited (trial registration
number: CUHK_CCT00267) and assigned to the three groups and followed for
5 months after baseline assessment with the two intervention groups
followed for an additional 6 months. Primary outcomes were anxiety and
Linear mixed models demonstrated significant group × time interaction
(F(4,148) = 5.10, P = 0.001) effects
for decreased anxiety for both the intervention groups relative to usual
care. Significant group × time interaction effects were observed for
worry and depressive symptoms and mental health-related quality of life
for the psychoeducation group only.
These results suggest that both of the interventions appear to be
superior to usual care for the reduction of anxiety symptoms.
Background: Self-determination theory (SDT) has increasingly been used as a theoretical framework for evaluating key elements of the recovery paradigm in rehabilitation and mental health services research and policy-making for people living with severe mental illnesses. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to validate the Behavioral Regulation in Work Questionnaire (BRWQ), an adaptation of the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2, as a measure of self-determined work motivation for use in psychiatric rehabilitation settings. Methods: One hundred and twenty-four individuals with severe mental illness were recruited from eight Clubhouse programmes in Hawaii. Factorial validity of the BRWQ was evaluated using exploratory factor analysis. Findings: Principal components analysis of the BRWQ yielded four factors (amotivation, external regulation, introjection and autonomous motivation). The autonomous motivation factor was found to be significantly related to other SDT constructs, including competency, relatedness, outcome expectancy and vocational rehabilitation engagement. Conclusions: The BRWQ is a psychometrically sound SDT measure for assessing self-determined work motivation and could contribute to the use of self-determination as a paradigm for improving recovery and employment outcomes of people with severe mental illness in rehabilitation settings.
Many studies have suggested that folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients may play a role in certain cancer risks, but few studies have assessed their associations with the risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we investigated the association between four folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients (folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine) and NPC risk in Chinese adults. A total of 600 patients newly diagnosed (within 3 months) with NPC were individually matched with 600 hospital-based controls by age, sex and household type (urban v. rural). Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine intakes were measured using a validated seventy-eight-item FFQ. A higher dietary folate or vitamin B6 intake was associated with a lower NPC risk after adjusting for potential confounders. The adjusted OR of NPC for quartiles 2–4 (v. 1) were 0·66 (95 % CI 0·48, 0·91), 0·52 (95 % CI 0·37, 0·74) and 0·34 (95 % CI 0·23, 0·50) (Ptrend<0·001) for folate and 0·72 (95 % CI 0·52, 1·00), 0·55 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·78) and 0·44 (95 % CI 0·30, 0·63) (Ptrend<0·001) for vitamin B6. No significant association with NPC risk was observed for dietary vitamin B12 or methionine intake. The risk for NPC with dietary folate intake was more evident in the participants who were not exposed to toxic substances than in those who were exposed (Pinteraction=0·014). This study suggests that dietary folate and vitamin B6 may be protective for NPC in a high-risk population.
Unawareness of deficits is common and is associated with poor outcomes in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, little is known about correlated neurobiochemical changes.
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to examine neurobiochemical correlates of unawareness of deficits as assessed by the Dementia Deficit Scale in 36 patients with AD. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy spectra were acquired from the anterior cingulate area and right orbitofrontal area. Concentrations of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), total creatine, and other neurometabolites were calculated.
Nineteen (52.8%) participants had relative unawareness of deficits. This condition was negatively correlated with NAA/creatine in the anterior cingulate area (β = −0.36, p = 0.025) and positively correlated with NAA/creatine in the right orbitofrontal area (β = 0.41, p = 0.009) after controlling for dementia severity.
These findings suggest unawareness of deficits in AD was associated with the altered neurochemical metabolites in the anterior cingulate area and right orbitofrontal area. However, the two areas might have opposite neuronal functions in unawareness of deficits.
NaGd(WO4)2:Eu3+ nanotubes have been successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as removable templates. X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and photoluminescence were used to characterize the product. It is demonstrated that CNTs are fully coated with an amorphous NaGd(WO4)2:Eu3+ layer, which is about 7 nm thick and almost continuous and uniform. After the NaGd(WO4)2:Eu3+/CNTs composites have been calcined at 500 or 600 °C, NaGd(WO4)2:Eu3+ nanotubes are obtained by removing the CNTs templates, and the outer diameter of that is about 40 nm. The luminescence properties of the NaGd(WO4)2:Eu3+ nanotubes calcined at various temperatures have been investigated. The results indicate that the products exhibit a characteristic red emission peak of Eu3+ ions at 615 nm. The emission intensity decreases with the increasing of annealing temperature, which is probably because a few residual carbons doped in NaGd(WO4)2:Eu3+ nanotubes and many oxygen vacancies could promote the intensity of red emission of Eu3+.
A new direction for high-power microwave (HPM) development is to investigate devices capable of producing HPMs with a complicated spectrum. In recent years, some HPM sources with two stable and separate frequencies have been investigated theoretically and experimentally. However, many short-comings still exist in these devices. Especially, the beam-wave interaction efficiency and the output microwave power are low in such devices. This paper proposes a novel dual-frequency HPM generator based on transition radiation. In the device, the electromagnetic fields are localized near the resonator cavities in the form of standing waves, and thus the interference between the different HPM components with different frequencies is weak. Compared with the existing dual-frequency devices, the new structure allows high beam-wave interaction efficiency and high output microwave power. As indicated in particle-in-cell simulation, with an electron beam of 500 kV voltage and 15.0 kA current guided by a magnetic field of 0.8 Tesla, an average power of 1.60 GW with a total power conversion efficiency of 21.3% is obtained, and the frequencies are 1.53 GHz and 3.29 GHz, respectively. Power level between two HPMs is comparable. The simulation results verify the feasibility of the dual-frequency HPM generator.
To determine the association between major dietary patterns characterized by factor analysis and risk of depression and anxiety symptoms among adolescents.
Diet and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in a cross-sectional survey among students attending junior high school. Dietary patterns were derived from a self-reported FFQ, which consisted of thirty-eight items. Anthropometric measurements were also performed.
Four junior high schools in Bengbu city, China.
A random sample of 5003 adolescents, 11–16 years of age (mean 13·21 years).
Three major dietary patterns were identified in the study based on factor analysis: ‘snack’, ‘animal food’ and ‘traditional’. The prevalence of depression symptoms, anxiety disorders and the coexistence of both were 11·2 % (560/5003), 14·6 % (732/5003) and 12·6 % (629/5003), respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, adolescents in the highest tertile of snack dietary pattern scores had a higher odds for ‘pure’ psychological symptoms (‘depression without anxiety’, OR = 1·64; 95 % CI 1·30, 2·06; and ‘anxiety without depression’, OR = 1·87; 95 % CI 1·51, 2·31) compared with coexisting depression and anxiety (OR = 1·93; 95 % CI 1·54, 2·43). Similar to snacks, high consumption of animal foods was associated with a higher risk of psychological symptoms. Compared with low consumption, adolescents in the highest tertile of traditional dietary pattern scores had lower odds for ‘pure’ depression (OR = 0·38; 95 % CI 0·30, 0·49), ‘pure’ anxiety (OR = 0·85; 95 % CI 0·69, 1·04) and coexisting anxiety and depression (OR = 0·50; 95 % CI 0·39, 0·63).
Data from Chinese secondary-school adolescents validated findings from adult populations. Dietary patterns should be considered as important predictors of depression and anxiety among adolescents in further studies.
We have demonstrated and studied polymeric solid-state dye lasers (SSDLs) fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) polystyrene colloidal crystals and tert-butyl roadamine B (t-Bu RhB) doped Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films with different film thickness. The sandwich-typed resonator cavities with different active layer thickness display single-mode lasing oscillations in the reflection bandgap of the colloidal crystals. The lasing thresholds could be optimized by changing the thickness of t-Bu RhB doped PMMA films, which is as low as 7.43 W/cm2. Adjusting active layer thickness would provide an opportunity to accelerate the development of fabricating polymeric SSDLs with low threshold.
Low dielectric constant polymers offer many advantages in circuit performance, such as power dissipation, crosstalk and RC delay, when used as inter-layer dielectrics (ILDs). Silicon dioxide, a material commonly used as an ILD has a dielectric constant of 4.0. Organic polymers that have dielectric constant values ranging from 2.0 to 3.0 offer attractive alternatives to SiO2. However, it has been a great challenge to find organic polymers with thermal stability up to 450 °C. We have characterized thermal properties of polymers using thermal desorption analysis. isothermal TGA and FTIR to identify weak functional groups. In addition, we have measured the hardnesses and moduli of these polymers and found that the values are much lower than those of SiO2.Stress distributions in the interconnect system were analyzed using finite element modeling in order to understand potential reliability problems.
The interfacial regimes of cobalt/pentacene/cobalt (Co/Pc/Co) trilayers were emulated through the ultrathin pentacene/cobalt (Pc/Co) and cobalt/pentacene (Co/Pc) bilayers. Employing the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) measurement, we found the coercivity of Co bottom film in a thickness of 3.4 nm experienced a slight reduction upon the adsorption of Pc molecules. For the bilayers prepared with reversed order of deposition, the Co film deposited on a 6.4 nm Pc layer showed no observable ferromagnetic order at room temperature until its thickness reached 3 nm. After the onset of magnetic order, the x-ray images acquired on Pc/Co revealed a complicated magnetization patterns comparing to those observed on Co/Pc bilayers. Because the spin-polarized carriers will interact with the environment along their transport path, the presence of a non-magnetic layer and the occurrence of complicated domain structures suggested the spin-polarized carriers would experience a greater disturbance on their spin coherence when crossing the Pc/Co interface.
Episodic memory tasks are one of the most sensitive tools to discriminate Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study aimed to validate a shorter version verbal memory test that will efficiently assess Chinese elderly with memory complaints. One hundred and eighty-five elderly with normal cognition (NC) and 217 AD patients were evaluated. Each participant received the Chinese Version Verbal Learning Test (CVVLT) consisting of 9 two-character nouns with 4 learning trials, 2 delayed recalls in 30 seconds and 10 minutes, and a word recognition test. In the NC elderly, age and sex had significant effects on recall scores in CVVLT, while education level showed an inverse correlation with 3 different patterns of errors made during the learning, recall, and recognition trials. AD patients had lower scores across all recall tests. In those with lower educational level, NC elderly had higher perseveration errors than AD patients. The cutoff value between the AD and NC groups in the 10-minute recall was 4/5 for those aged >75 years and 5/6 for those aged <75 years. This study has good validity in discriminating AD participants and the data here can help in diagnosing AD and mild cognitive impairment using the CVVLT. (JINS, 2010, 16, 244–251.)
To assess whether overweight Asians, assessed on the basis of WHO criteria, are at greater mortality risk than overweight Caucasians, and to determine whether alternative cut-off points (BMI = 23·0–24·9 kg/m2 for overweight and BMI ≥ 25·0 kg/m2 for obesity) suggested by the WHO Western Pacific Regional Office are appropriate.
The cohort was followed prospectively until the end of 2001. All-cause and CVD mortality risks of the overweight and obese group, relative to the reference group (BMI = 18·5–24·9 or 18·5–22·9 kg/m2), were assessed using Cox regression analysis, adjusting for age, smoking and gender. Excess deaths were estimated with a method proposed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS 2001) and a middle-aged perspective cohort in Taiwan.
Subjects comprised 36 386 civil servants and school teachers, aged 40 years and older, who underwent a medical examination during 1989–1992.
In the WHO-defined overweight group, Asians showed a significant increase in all-cause mortality risk compared with Caucasians. Asians showed risks equivalent to Caucasians’ at lower BMI (around 5 units). Every unit of BMI increase, at 25·0 kg/m2 or above, was associated with a 9 % increase in relative mortality risk from all causes. Applying a cut-off point of 25·0 kg/m2 for obesity would result a prevalence of 27·1 %, while the traditional WHO cut-off point of 30·0 kg/m2 yielded obesity prevalence of 4·1 %. Excess deaths due to obesity accounted for 8·6 % of all deaths and 21·1 % of CVD deaths, based on the alternative cut-offs.
In this Asian population, significant mortality risks started at BMI ≥ 25·0 kg/m2, rather than at BMI ≥ 30·0 kg/m2. The study supports the use of BMI ≥ 25·0 kg/m2 as a new cut-off point for obesity and BMI = 23·0–24·9 kg/m2 for overweight. The magnitude of obesity-attributable deaths has been hitherto under-appreciated among Asians.
Six silver birch (Betula platyphylla) parents of diverse provenances were crossed according to Griffing 4 diallel design, and the plant height and diameter at ground level (DGL) of their F1 progeny were observed. The analysis of general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) showed that two phenotypes were simultaneously controlled by additive and non-additive effects. The GCA between two phenotypes in a parent, and GCA of the same phenotype among different parents displayed significant differences: Q2 from Qingyuan was the best of the parents, followed by M2 from Maoer-mountain. On the other hand, the SCA of two phenotypes in a cross and the SCA of a phenotype among different crosses also varied considerably: the cross between E8 from Finland and Q1 from Qingyuan showed the highest SCA of plant height and DGL. The heritability of plant height and diameter at ground level was strong (over 60%), suggesting that these phenotypes can be used for early selection.
Oxidised frying oil (OFO) and fish oil have been shown to be peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α activators and their ingestion results in pleotropic peroxisome proliferator responses in rats. To examine the effect of dietary OFO on adiposity, four groups of weanling Sprague–Dawley rats were fed isoenergetically with, respectively, a low fat basal diet containing 5 g/100 g of fresh soybean oil (LSB) or a high fat diet containing 20 g/100 g of fresh soybean oil (HSB), OFO (HO) or fish oil (HF). The tissue mass, cell size and lipid/DNA ratio in the retroperitoneal fat pad and serum leptin levels were lowest in the HO group (P < 0·05), indicating that dietary OFO has a greater anti-adipogenic action than dietary fish oil. However, a tendency to hyperglycaemia was observed in the HO group (P = 0·0528). To examine the effect of dietary OFO on glucose tolerance, three groups of rats and three groups of mice were fed, respectively, the LSB, HSB or HO diet, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. After oral glucose load, the area under the curve for blood glucose (AUCglu) over 2 h was significantly higher, and that for serum insulin (AUCins) over 90 min was significantly lower, in the HO group than in the other two groups (P < 0·05). These results demonstrate that, in rats and mice, a high OFO diet is less adipogenic, but induces glucose intolerance.