Aplastic anaemia (AA) is a disease characterised by bone marrow hypocellularity and peripheral blood pancytopenia. AA is also associated with mitochondrial aberrations. The present study was undertaken primarily to test the hypothesis that a nutrient mixture could affect the nutritional rehabilitation of mitochondrial aberrations in AA mice. BALB/c AA mice were induced by a combination of hypodermic injections of acetylphenylhydrazine (100 mg/kg), X-rays (2·0 Gy) and intraperitoneal injections of cyclophosphamide (80 mg/kg). We treated these mice with nutrient mixture-supplemented diets in a dose-dependent manner (1445·55, 963·7, 674·59 mg/kg per d), and the effects of the nutrient mixture for mitochondrial rehabilitation were analysed in AA mice. Transmission electron microscopy showed that mitochondrial ultrastructural abnormalities in bone marrow cells, splenocytes and hepatocytes of the nutrient mixture groups were restored markedly, compared with the AA group. Mitochondrial membrane potentials of the nutrient mixture groups were increased remarkably. Western blot analysis also revealed that the nutrient mixture significantly inhibited cytochrome c release of mitochondria in the AA group. Furthermore, the mitochondrial DNA content of the nutrient mixture groups was also increased. Our data suggest that the nutrient mixture may promote the rehabilitation of mitochondrial aberrations, and consequently protects against mitochondrial dysfunction in AA mice.