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To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the Takeaway Masterclass, a three-hour training session delivered to staff of independent takeaway food outlets that promoted healthy cooking practices and menu options.
A mixed-methods study design. All participating food outlets provided progress feedback at 6 weeks post-intervention. Baseline and 6-week post-intervention observational and self-reported data were collected in half of participating takeaway food outlets.
North East England.
Independent takeaway food outlet owners and managers.
Staff from eighteen (10 % of invited) takeaway food outlets attended the training; attendance did not appear to be associated with the level of deprivation of food outlet location. Changes made by staff that required minimal effort or cost to the business were the most likely to be implemented and sustained. Less popular changes included using products that are difficult (or expensive) to source from suppliers, or changes perceived to be unpopular with customers.
The Takeaway Masterclass appears to be a feasible and acceptable intervention for improving cooking practices and menu options in takeaway food outlets for those who attended the training. Further work is required to increase participation and retention and explore effectiveness, paying particular attention to minimising adverse inequality effects.
Erinn L. Soucie, Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Canada,
Gerard Evan, Cancer Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA,
Linda Z. Penn, Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Canada
The body of knowledge concerning apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms involved in this cellular process continues to expand at an unprecedented rate. This knowledge has impacted not only on our understanding of cancer development, but also on diagnosis and treatment approaches for malignant diseases. This chapter summarizes some of the ways in which tumor cells have successfully corrupted cell survival and death machinery in order to evade the penalty of apoptosis. This is followed by a discussion of novel therapeutics that have begun to emerge and which are designed to address directly these mechanistic changes that can confound current treatment regimens. The advent of current technologies such as laser capture micro-dissection of tumor tissues and microarray expression profiling have also allowed for accurate diagnosis of cancer genotypes. With these and other technologies, the potential now exists to develop new treatment regimens that can directly target individual tumor susceptibilities and, further, to predict the likelihood of response of a particular tumor to specific treatments. Together, advances in the field of apoptosis research have resulted in a revolution in the design of novel anti-cancer therapeutics for cancer treatment. In future, diagnosis of the nature of the anti-apoptotic lesions within a given tumor cell could be directly translated into a rational treatment strategy to eradicate cancers.
Defining cancer in apoptotic terms
The word “cancer” has evolved to become an umbrella term which encompasses the many incarnations of the disease.
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