The N95 respirator is one type that is recommended by the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to prevent inhalation of droplets that may act to transmit respiratory pathogens. However, the reliability of this respirator to prevent transmission is dependent on how well it is fitted to the wearer. For ill-fitting respirators, the average penetration by ambient aerosol was found to be 33%, compared with 4% for well-fitting respirators. Such penetration or leakage may be caused by the gap between the respirator and the wearer's face. Therefore, formal fit testing should be carried out prior to the use of N95 respirators. Quantitative fit testing measures “the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator” using an electronic device.