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All over the earth the faces of all living things have been created by Mother earth with great tenderness.
Luther Standing Bear (cited in DeMallie 1985: 288)
At night, outside, I watch the constellations move across the curve of black sky. The Great Hand moves toward the horizon. This is the hand that offers help for the souls of the dead to step on the path commonly called the Milky Way, or the way of nurturance. This is where they begin their journey along this Path of Spirits to the world of souls. In Greek astronomy this hand would be a part of the constellation called Orion, but we have many different skies, all held with equal respect. I like the compassion offered by the Hand to the dead.
Indigenous astronomies vary for different indigenous nations. My Navajo sister, Nancy Mary Boy, uses a travelling planetarium to teach others the Navajo sky world. What is most fascinating to me in her stories of the night sky is the constellation called The Feather. When The Feather touches earth, lightning strikes. Lightning wakes the beetles, the bears, every sleeping creature dwelling inside their dens of winter earth. They emerge into the time of rising plants. Farther north, people say two constellations must come together to create this same lightning that opens the season of spring.
To validate a fat intake questionnaire (FIQ) developed to assess habitual dietary intake while focusing on the assessment of detailed fatty acid intake including total trans unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA).
An 88 food item/food group FIQ was developed using a meal pattern technique. Validation was achieved by comparison with dietary intake assessed by a modified diet history (DH) in a cross-over design. Eighty-four individuals supplied adipose tissue biopsies for linoleic acid and total TUFA analysis as an independent validation of the FIQ and DH.
Medical Centre, Dublin Airport, Republic of Ireland.
One hundred and five healthy volunteers (43 females and 62 males aged 23–63 years).
Significant correlations (P < 0.0005) were achieved for intakes of energy (0.78), total fat (0.77), saturated fat (0.77), monounsaturated fat (0.63), polyunsaturated fat (0.73), TUFA (0.67) and linoleic acid (0.71) assessed by the FIQ compared with the DH. Linoleic acid intake assessed by the FIQ and the DH was significantly correlated with adipose tissue concentrations (r = 0.58 and 0.49, respectively; P<0.005); however, total TUFA intake was poorly correlated with adipose tissue concentrations (r = 0.17 and 0.10 for FIQ and DH, respectively).
The FIQ compared favourably with the DH in assessing habitual diet, in particular fatty acid intake. In addition, the FIQ was successfully validated against the linoleic acid composition of adipose tissue, an independent biomarker of relative fatty acid status. The FIQ could therefore be used as an alternative to the DH as it is a shorter, less labour-intensive method.
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