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Low urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is associated with dyslipidaemia in adults but is not well characterised in adolescents. Because dyslipidaemia is a cardiovascular risk factor, identifying such an association in adolescents would allow for the prescription of appropriate measures to maintain cardiovascular health. The present study addresses this question using data in the 2001–2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1692 adolescents aged 12–19 years. Primary outcomes were UIC, cardiometabolic risk factors and dyslipidaemia. Data for subjects categorised by low and normal UIC and by sex were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Treating UIC as the independent variable, physical activity level, apoB and lipid profiles differed significantly between subjects with low and normal UIC. Subjects with low UIC had a significantly greater risk of elevated total cholesterol (TC) (95 % CI 1·37, 2·81), elevated non-HDL (95 % CI 1·33, 2·76) and elevated LDL (95 % CI 1·83, 4·19) compared with those with normal UIC. Treating UIC as a dependent variable, the risk of low UIC was significantly greater in those with higher apoB (95 % CI 1·52, 19·08), elevated TC (≥4·4mmol/l) (95 % CI 1·37, 2·81) and elevated non-HDL (≥3·11mmol/l) (95 % CI 1·33, 2·76) than in those with normal UIC. These results show that male and female adolescents with low UIC tend to be at greater risk of dyslipidaemia and abnormal cardiometabolic biomarkers, though the specific abnormal parameters differed between sexes. These results may help to identify youth who would benefit from interventions to improve their cardiometabolic risk.
The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is a deposit-feeder and vital for marine benthic ecosystems. Hypoxia can influence the behaviour and even lead to massive mortality in A. japonicus in the wild. It is important to understand the molecular responses of A. japonicus when exposed to acute changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. In this study, RNA-seq provided a general overview of the gene expression profiles of the respiratory tree of A. japonicus exposed to DO of 8 mg l−1 (DO8), 4 mg l−1 (DO4) and 2 mg l−1 (DO2) conditions. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) screening with the NOISeq method identified 51, 59 and 61 DEGs according to the criteria of fold change ≥2 and divergence probability ≥0.8 in the comparisons of DO2 vs DO4, DO2 vs DO8 and DO4 vs DO8, respectively. Gene ontology analysis showed that ‘cellular process’ and ‘binding’ had the most enriched DEGs in the categories of ‘biological process’ and ‘molecular function’, respectively (catalytic activity also had the most enriched DEGs in the category of ‘molecular function’ based on the comparison of DO2 vs DO8), while ‘cell’ and ‘cell part’ had the most enriched DEGs in the category of ‘cellular component’. The DEGs were mapped to 79, 81 and 104 pathways in the KEGG database, and 8, 29 and 16 pathways were significantly enriched, respectively. The DO-specific DEGs identified in this study of the respiratory tree are important targets for further research into the biochemical mechanisms involved in the response of the sea cucumber to changes in the DO concentration.
In this paper, we present some efficient numerical schemes to solve a two-phase hydrodynamics coupled phase field model with moving contact line boundary conditions. The model is a nonlinear coupling system, which consists the Navier-Stokes equations with the general Navier Boundary conditions or degenerated Navier Boundary conditions, and the Allen-Cahn type phase field equations with dynamical contact line boundary condition or static contact line boundary condition. The proposed schemes are linear and unconditionally energy stable, where the energy stabilities are proved rigorously. Various numerical tests are performed to show the accuracy and efficiency thereafter.
Three dimensional (3D) porous graphene decorated with MoO2 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized by SEM and TEM, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis and electrochemical experiments. The results revealed that the in situ formed monoclinic MoO2 nanoparticles were randomly decorated on the surface of graphene sheets and the obtained graphene–MoO2 nanohybrids were 3D porous structures. The mass ratio of molybdenum precursor with GO has effects on the specific surface area and the electrochemical properties of the nanocomposite. The M30G1 (the mass ratio of molybdenum precursor with GO was 30:1) composite electrode exhibited a higher specific capacitance and better cycling stability. The specific capacitances were 356 F/g at the current density of 0.1 A/g in KOH electrolyte, which predicted their potential application in energy storage. The electrochemical performance of M30G1 composite was also investigated in Na2SO4 electrolyte, which was poorer than that in KOH electrolyte. Therefore, the chosen of electrolyte is important to materials performance.
C3N4/Bi2WO6 heterojunction photocatalysts were successfully synthesized using consecutive hydrothermal and calcination processes. These photocatalysts were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence measurements. The results of these measurements indicated that the Bi2WO6 nanoparticles were approximately 30–50 nm and uniformly distributed on the surface of C3N4 lamellar structures. The 20% C3N4/Bi2WO6 displayed enhanced visible-light absorption from 432 nm to 468 nm. Photocatalytic tests also revealed that the 20% C3N4/Bi2WO6 photocatalyst exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to that of pure C3N4 and Bi2WO6 under irradiation by visible light (λ > 420 nm). Furthermore, the excellent photocatalytic efficiency of the 20% C3N4/Bi2WO6 photocatalyst was determined to be related to the formation of C3N4/Bi2WO6 heterojunctions, and their presence was found to be generally beneficial for the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs.
In this paper we consider an M/M/c queue modified to allow both mass arrivals when the system is empty and the workload to be removed. Properties of queues which terminate when the server becomes idle are firstly developed. Recurrence properties, equilibrium distribution, and equilibrium queue-size structure are studied for the case of resurrection and no mass exodus. All of these results are then generalized to allow for the removal of the entire workload. In particular, we obtain the Laplace transformation of the transition probability for the absorptive M/M/c queue.
This paper is concerned with the asymptotic behaviour of solutions to quasilinear hyperbolic equations with nonlinear damping on the quarter-plane (x, t) ∈ ℝ+ x ∈ ℝ+. We obtain the Lp (1 ≤ p ≤ +∞) convergence rates of the solution to the quasilinear hyperbolic equations without the additional technical assumptions for the nonlinear damping f(v) given by Li and Saxton.
Recent research activities relevant to high energy density physics (HEDP) driven by the heavy ion beam at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences are presented. Radiography of static objects with the fast extracted high energy carbon ion beam from the Cooling Storage Ring is discussed. Investigation of the low energy heavy ion beam and plasma interaction is reported. With HEDP research as one of the main goals, the project HIAF (High Intensity heavy-ion Accelerator Facility), proposed by the Institute of Modern Physics as the 12th five-year-plan of China, is introduced.
A family history of dementia is associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) late in life (LOAD). This study marked the first attempt to assess the familial contribution to differences in cognitive performance in a large family-based group in the Chinese community. We enrolled 168 participants without dementia from a single pedigree with 9 probable AD patients diagnosed after age 65. These participants were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, the Chinese version of the Mini Mental State Examination, and the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale–Cognitive Subscale. Analyses found that extended family members of the LOAD pedigree showed similar performance on measures of global cognitive function and semantic memory compared to controls, but lower scores on episodic memory, attention, and executive function measures. These results indicate that the genetic influences on certain sub-cognitive domains are more detectable despite normal global cognitive function, and that family members with the LOAD pedigree are at risk for developing LOAD by virtue of their family history with an additive risk due to increased age. The findings in this study support the importance of documenting if there is a positive family history of AD in clinical evaluations. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–11)