To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary threonine (Thr) on growth performance, and muscle growth, protein synthesis and antioxidant related signaling pathways of hybrid catfish Pelteobagrus vachelli♀ × Leiocassis longirostris♂. The total of 1200 fish (14.19 ± 0.13 g) were randomly distributed into six groups with four replicates each, fed six diets with graded level of Thr (9.5, 11.5, 13.5, 15.4, 17.4, and 19.3 g kg-1 diets) for 56 days. Results showed (P< 0.05) that dietary Thr (1) increased percent weight gain (PWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER); (2) up-regulated growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), myogenic regulation factors (MyoD, Myf5, MyoG, and Mrf4), and MyHC mRNA levels; (3) increased muscle protein content via regulating AKT/TOR signaling pathway; (4) decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) contents, increased CAT, GST, GR, and GSH activities, up-regulated mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes related to NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and γ-glutamylcysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC). These results suggest that Thr has potential role to improve muscle growth and protein synthesis, which might be due to the regulation of GH-IGF system, muscle growth related gene, antioxidative capacity, and protein synthesis related signaling pathways. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of SGR, the Thr requirement of hybrid catfish (14.19–25.77 g) was estimated to be 13.77 g kg-1 of the diet (33.40 g kg-1 of dietary protein).
In the early days of anthropology as a discipline in the nineteenth century, evolutionism and diffusionism supplied anthropologists with ‘global’ visions. Anthropologists have always been involved with all-encompassing cosmopolitan notions such as humankind and culture. Many have thus endeavoured to explain the world as a whole, and how humans have developed in different historical moments. In the 1980s and 1990s, when the new label ‘globalization’ generated a field of scholarly preoccupations, anthropologists started to contribute to this growing body of literature. Their most valuable contributions are related to the tensions between local and global forces, and between forces of heterogeneity and homogeneity, as well as to the use of ethnography as a methodological tool. Anthropologists have borrowed notions from other related disciplines such as sociology, history, and geography. This paper situates the anthropological production on ‘the global’ within this diverse history of borrowings, internal disciplinary debates, and wider historical junctures.
Perceived loneliness, an increasingly prevalent social issue, is closely associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the neural mechanisms previously implicated in key cognitive and affective processes in loneliness and MDD still remain unclear. Such understanding is critical for delineating the psychobiological basis of the relationship between loneliness and MDD.
We isolated the unique and interactive cognitive and neural substrates of loneliness and MDD among 27 MDD patients (mean age = 51.85 years, 20 females), and 25 matched healthy controls (HCs; mean age = 48.72 years, 19 females). We assessed participants' behavioral performance and neural regional and network functions on a Stroop color-word task, and their resting-state neural connectivity.
Behaviorally, we found greater incongruence-related accuracy cost in MDD patients, but reduced incongruence effect on reaction time in lonelier individuals. When performing the Stroop task, loneliness positively predicted prefrontal-anterior cingulate-parietal connectivity across all participants, whereas MDD patients showed a decrease in connectivity compared to controls. Furthermore, loneliness negatively predicted parietal and cerebellar activities in MDD patients, but positively predicted the same activities in HCs. During resting state, MDD patients showed reduced parietal-anterior cingulate connectivity, which again positively correlated with loneliness in this group.
We speculate the distinct neurocognitive profile of loneliness might indicate increase in both bottom-up attention and top-down executive control functions. However, the upregulated cognitive control processes in lonely individuals may eventually become exhausted, which may in turn predispose to MDD onset.
This paper explores the characteristics of health technology assessment (HTA) systems and practices in Asia. Representatives from nine countries were surveyed to understand each step of the HTA pathway. The analysis finds that although there are similarities in the processes of HTA and its application to inform decision making, there is variation in the number of topics assessed and the stakeholders involved in each step of the process. There is limited availability of resources and technical capacity and countries adopt different means to overcome these challenges by accepting industry submissions or adapting findings from other regions. Inclusion of stakeholders in the process of selecting topics, generating evidence, and making funding recommendations is critical to ensure relevance of HTA to country priorities. Lessons from this analysis may be instructive to other countries implementing HTA processes and inform future research on the feasibility of implementing a harmonized HTA system in the region.
We report on an interview method using photo-based network elicitation and a landmark anchoring event to collect data on relationship change in ego networks retrospectively. Using the wedding albums of married or formerly married respondents, we populate a network from many years ago with persons pictured in the album and then collect data about each respondent’s relationship with each person at the time of the wedding and at the time of the interview. This data collection method mitigates many of the problems associated with retrospective data collection and does not have the logistical difficulties associated with panel studies. Our findings show that this method is successful in collecting significant numbers of connections that have undergone change, and especially reductions in activity along various dimensions.
Previous studies have shown that the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet might contribute to managing risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but evidence is limited. We examined the association of DASH diet score (DASH-DS) with NAFLD, as well as the intermediary effects of serum retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4), serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), serum TAG, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and BMI.
We performed a cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study. Dietary data and lifestyle factors were assessed by face-to-face interviews and the DASH-DS was then calculated. We assessed serum RBP4, hs-CRP and TAG and calculated HOMA-IR. The presence and degree of NAFLD were determined by abdominal sonography.
Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study participants, aged 40–75 years at baseline (n 3051).
After adjusting for potential covariates, we found an inverse association between DASH-DS and the presence of NAFLD (Ptrend = 0·009). The OR (95 % CI) of NAFLD for quintiles 2–5 were 0·78 (0·62, 0·98), 0·74 (0·59, 0·94), 0·69 (0·55, 0·86) and 0·77 (0·61, 0·97), respectively. Path analyses indicated that a higher DASH-DS was associated with lower serum RBP4, hs-CRP, TAG, HOMA-IR and BMI, which were positively associated with the degree of NAFLD.
Adherence to the DASH diet was independently associated with a marked lower prevalence of NAFLD in Chinese adults, especially in women and those without abdominal obesity, and might be mediated by reducing RBP4, hs-CRP, TAG, HOMA-IR and BMI.
Nanosilver is an environment-friendly, harmless alternative of traditional disinfectants which can be potentially applied in the sericulture industry. However, the effects of nanosilver on the intestinal bacterial community of the silkworms (Bombyx mori L.) are unclear. In this study, Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing technology was used to assess the intestinal bacterial community in both male and female silkworms while treated with different concentrations of nanosilver. We found that nanosilver significantly influenced the composition of silkworm intestinal bacterial community on the different taxonomic levels. Most conspicuously, the abundance of Firmicutes was increased by the treatment of 20 mg L−1 nanosilver but decreased by that of 100 mg L−1 nanosilver at the phylum level. The same trend was observed in Bacilli at the class level and in Enterococcus at the genus level. In some extreme cases, application of nanosilver eliminated the bacterium, e.g., Brevibacillus, but increased the population of several other bacteria in the host intestine, such as Blautia, Terrisporobacter, Faecalibacterium, and some bacteria could only be found in nanosilver treatment groups, e.g., Dialister. In addition, although nanosilver generally showed negative effects on the cocooning rate in a dose-dependent manner, we found that 20 mg L−1 nanosilver treatment significantly increased the body weight of silkworms and did not show negative effects on the survival rate. These results indicated that the intestinal bacteria community of silkworm larvae was significantly changed after nanosilver treatment which might consequently influence host growth and development.
Seasonal influenza virus epidemics have a major impact on healthcare systems. Data on population susceptibility to emerging influenza virus strains during the interepidemic period can guide planning for resource allocation of an upcoming influenza season. This study sought to assess the population susceptibility to representative emerging influenza virus strains collected during the interepidemic period. The microneutralisation antibody titers (MN titers) of a human serum panel against representative emerging influenza strains collected during the interepidemic period before the 2018/2019 winter influenza season (H1N1-inter and H3N2-inter) were compared with those against influenza strains representative of previous epidemics (H1N1-pre and H3N2-pre). A multifaceted approach, incorporating both genetic and antigenic data, was used in selecting these representative influenza virus strains for the MN assay. A significantly higher proportion of individuals had a ⩾four-fold reduction in MN titers between H1N1-inter and H1N1-pre than that between H3N2-inter and H3N2-pre (28.5% (127/445) vs. 4.9% (22/445), P < 0.001). The geometric mean titer (GMT) of H1N1-inter was significantly lower than that of H1N1-pre (381 (95% CI 339–428) vs. 713 (95% CI 641–792), P < 0.001), while there was no significant difference in the GMT between H3N2-inter and H3N2-pre. Since A(H1N1) predominated the 2018–2019 winter influenza epidemic, our results corroborated the epidemic subtype.
Temperature resulting from the joule heating power and the turn-on and turn-off dissipation of high-power, high-frequency applications is the root cause of their thermal instability, electrical performance degradation, and even thermal-fatigue failure. Thus, the study presents thermal and electrical characterizations of the power MOSFET module packaged in SOT-227 under natural convection and forced convection through three-dimensional (3D) thermal-electric (TE) coupled field analysis. In addition, the influences of some key parameters like electric loads, ambient conditions, thermal management considerations (heat sink, heat spreader) and operation conditions (duty cycle and switching frequency) on the power loss and thermal performance of the power module are addressed. The study starts from a suitable estimation of the power losses, where the conduction losses are calculated using the temperature- and gate-voltage-dependent on-state resistance and drain current through the device, and the switching losses are predicted based on the ideal switching waveforms of the power MOSFETs applied. The effectiveness of the theoretical predictions in terms of device’s power losses and temperatures is demonstrated through comparison with the results of circuit simulation and thermal experiment.
Flow around a high-speed rotating circular cylinder for
is investigated numerically. The Reynolds number is defined as
being the free-stream flow velocity, the diameter of the cylinder and the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, respectively. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a high rotation rate on the wake flow for a range of Reynolds numbers. Simulations are performed for Reynolds numbers of 100, 150, 200, 250 and 500 and a wide range of rotation rates from 1.6 to 6 with an increment of 0.2. Rotation rate is the ratio of the rotational speed of the cylinder surface to the incoming fluid velocity. A systematic study is performed to investigate the effect of rotation rate on the flow transition to different flow regimes. It is found that there is a transition from a two-dimensional vortex shedding mode to no vortex shedding mode when the rotation rate is increased beyond a critical value for Reynolds numbers between 100 and 200. Further increase in rotation rate results in a transition to three-dimensional flow which is characterized by the presence of finger-shaped (FV) vortices that elongate in the wake of the cylinder and very weak ring-shaped vortices (RV) that wrap the surface of the cylinder. The no vortex shedding mode is not observed at Reynolds numbers greater than or equal to 250 since the flow remains three-dimensional. As the rotation rate is increased further, the occurrence frequency and size of the ring-shaped vortices increases and the flow is dominated by RVs. The RVs become bigger in size and the flow becomes chaotic with increasing rotation rate. A detailed analysis of the flow structures shows that the vortices always exist in pairs and the strength of separated shear layers increases with the increase of rotation rate. A map of flow regimes on a plane of Reynolds number and rotation rate is presented.
Compared with the general population, individuals with schizophrenia have a higher risk of periodontal disease, which can potentially reduce their life expectancy. However, evidence for the early development of periodontal disease in schizophrenia is scant. The current study investigated risk factors for periodontal disease in patients newly diagnosed with schizophrenia.
We identified a population-based cohort of patients in Taiwan with newly diagnosed schizophrenia who developed periodontal disease within 1 year of their schizophrenia diagnosis. Treatment with antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to medication type and duration, and the association between medication use and the treated periodontal disease was assessed through logistic regression.
Among 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2373 (65.7%) had an incidence of treated periodontal disease during the 1-year follow-up. Female sex (adjusted odds ratios [OR] 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.63); young age (adjusted OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98–0.99); a 2-year history of periodontal disease (adjusted OR 2.45; 95% CI 1.84–3.26); high income level (adjusted OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.64–3.06) and exposure to first-generation (adjusted OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.54–2.32) and secondary-generation (adjusted OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.11–1.58) antipsychotics, anticholinergics (adjusted OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.03–1.50) and antihypertensives (adjusted OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.64–2.23) were independent risk factors for periodontal disease. Hyposalivation – an adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) (adjusted OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.63–2.45), anticholinergics (adjusted OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.05–1.53) and antihypertensives (adjusted OR 1.90; 95% CI 1.63–2.22) – was associated with increased risk of periodontal disease. Therefore, hypersalivation due to FGA use (adjusted OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.59–0.88) was considered a protective factor.
The current study highlights that early prevention of periodontal disease in individuals with schizophrenia is crucial. Along with paying more attention to the development of periodontal disease, assessing oral health regularly, helping with oral hygiene, and lowering consumption of sugary drinks and tobacco, emphasis should also be given by physicians to reduce the prescription of antipsychotics to the extent possible under efficacious pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia.
We consider a compositional data analysis approach to forecasting the age distribution of death counts. Using the age-specific period life-table death counts in Australia obtained from the Human Mortality Database, the compositional data analysis approach produces more accurate 1- to 20-step-ahead point and interval forecasts than Lee–Carter method, Hyndman–Ullah method and two naïve random walk methods. The improved forecast accuracy of period life-table death counts is of great interest to demographers for estimating survival probabilities and life expectancy, and to actuaries for determining temporary annuity prices for various ages and maturities. Although we focus on temporary annuity prices, we consider long-term contracts that make the annuity almost lifetime, in particular when the age at entry is sufficiently high.
Chronic disease management may be improved with the integration of mobile technologies capable of real-world physiologic monitoring. We performed a prospective, single-centre, pilot study to assess the feasibility of a consumer-based activity monitor use in outpatient management of adolescent cardiomyopathy patients. During the 3-month study period, the activity monitor was worn consistently and provided detailed physiologic and activity data with no adverse events related to the device use. Survey data revealed that the majority of subjects approve of these technologies becoming integrated into routine clinical care. Ongoing study is in need to define optimal disease management for this complex patient population in the age of consumer-driven healthcare.
A novel solid-clad-by-liquid method was developed to form a 10-m long by 10-mm wide by 80-μm thick Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite tape. Three deformation routes (cold rolling, cold rolling with intermediate annealing, and cold rolling combined with warm rolling) have been investigated in short Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrate. To optimize the dynamic continuous annealing parameters for the long composite substrates, air-cooled and furnace-cooled annealing procedures were compared in short Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrates. Improved cube texture of 98.7% in a 10-m long by 10-mm wide by 80-μm thick Ni–5 at.% W/Ni–9.3 at.% W/Ni–5 at.% W composite substrate was achieved via warm rolling deformation at 550 °C and two-step dynamic continuous annealing (750 °C for 1 h followed by 1200 °C for 1 h). The yield strength, Curie temperature, and saturation magnetization of 176 MPa, 324 K, and 18 emu/g, respectively, were obtained.
There has been great concern with the use of radiofrequency ablation in infants since radiofrequency ablation lesions were shown to have a progressing nature in immature myocardium of animals. In this report, we present a 2-month-old infant with life-threatening medically refractory supraventricular tachycardia. Radiofrequency ablation successfully cured arrhythmia; however, late effects of radiofrequency ablation lesions resulted in a progressive mitral valve perforation requiring surgical repair.
English as a lingua franca (ELF) refers to ‘any use of English among speakers of different first languages for whom English is the communicative medium of choice, and often the only option’ (Seidlhofer, 2011, p. 7*). ELF research started relatively recently. It was only discussed occasionally in the last century. Landmark changes were the publications of Jenkins (2000*) and Seidlhofer (2001*). These works inspired more research into ELF, as witnessed by a dramatically increased interest in ELF since then, resulting in a large number of journal articles, monographs, edited books (e.g. Mauranen & Ranta, 2009*) and large corpora (e.g. the Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English, the Corpus of English as a Lingua Franca in Academic Settings, and the Asian Corpus of English). In addition, ELF researchers have launched the annual conference series (International Conference of English as a Lingua Franca), the Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, and the De Gruyter book series Developments in English as a Lingua Franca. These publications move from an initial understanding of ELF as a ‘variety’ or ‘varieties’ to a later conceptualisation of ELF as a dynamic, fluid and variable phenomenon. ELF has become a major focus of discussions and activities among both applied linguists and English language teaching professionals (Jenkins, Cogo, & Dewey, 2011).
We report a neonatal case of the use of alteplase for the lysis of a large aortic arch thrombus formed during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Alteplase (0.1–0.15 mg/kg/hour) was infused for thrombolysis, and meanwhile, unfractionated heparin was administrated at 5–10 U/kg/hour for the anticoagulation purpose. Alteplase was successfully administered to this neonate after the repair of congenital diaphragmatic hernia on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and the patient survived without apparent catastrophic long-term complications. It is reasonable to consider alteplase therapy during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in this setting.
This paper focuses on the estimation and application aspects of the Erlang count logit-weighted reduced mixture of experts model (EC-LRMoE), which is a fully flexible multivariate insurance claim frequency regression model. We first prove the identifiability property of the proposed model to ensure that it is a suitable candidate for statistical inference. An expectation conditional maximization (ECM) algorithm is developed for efficient model calibrations. Three simulation studies are performed to examine the effectiveness of the proposed ECM algorithm and the versatility of the proposed model. The applicability of the EC-LRMoE is shown through fitting an European automobile insurance data set. Since the data set contains several complex features, we find it necessary to adopt such a flexible model. Apart from showing excellent fitting results, we are able to interpret the fitted model in an insurance perspective and to visualize the relationship between policyholders’ information and their risk level. Finally, we demonstrate how the fitted model may be useful for insurance ratemaking.
A simple and facile stereolithography 3D printing technique was utilized to fabricate piezoelectric photopolymer-based polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blends. Different process variables, such as solvent (N,N-dimethylformamide, DMF) to PVDF ratio and PVDF solution to photopolymer resin (PR) ratio, were engineered to enhance the dispersion of the PVDF into the PR so as to achieve the maximum piezoelectric coupling coefficient. Our results demonstrate that a ratio of 1:10 (PVDF:DMF) and 2 wt%-PVDF/PR was optimal for the best dissolution of the PVDF, 3D printability, and piezoelectric properties. Under these conditions, the blend generated ±0.121 nA under 80 N dynamic loading excitation. We believe that the findings of this work would promote many further studies on the mass production of flexible piezoelectric polymer blends with higher quality finished surface and design flexibility.