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To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional infection control approach to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates.
Four neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of INICC member hospitals from El Salvador, Mexico, Philippines, and Tunisia.
A total of 2,241 patients hospitalized in 4 NICUs for 40,045 bed-days.
We conducted a before-after prospective surveillance study. During Phase 1 we performed active surveillance, and during phase 2 the INICC multidimensional infection control approach was implemented, including the following practices: (1) central line care bundle, (2) education, (3) outcome surveillance, (4) process surveillance, (5) feedback of CLABSI rates, and (6) performance feedback of infection control practices. We compared CLABSI rates obtained during the 2 phases. We calculated crude stratified rates, and, using random-effects Poisson regression to allow for clustering by ICU, we calculated the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for each follow-up time period compared with the 3-month baseline.
During phase 1 we recorded 2,105 CL-days, and during phase 2 we recorded 17,117 CL-days. After implementation of the multidimensional approach, the CLABSI rate decreased by 55%, from 21.4 per 1,000 CL-days during phase 1 to 9.7 per 1,000 CL-days during phase 2 (rate ratio, 0.45 [95% confidence interval, 0.33–0.63]). The IRR was 0.53 during the 4–12-month period and 0.07 during the final period of the study (more than 45 months).
Implementation of a multidimensional infection control approach was associated with a significant reduction in CLABSI rates in NICUs.
A before-after prospective surveillance study to assess the impact of a multidimensional infection control approach for the reduction of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rates.
Pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) of hospital members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) from 10 cities of the following 6 developing countries: Colombia, El Salvador, India, Mexico, Philippines, and Turkey.
We performed a prospective active surveillance to determine rates of CAUTI among 3,877 patients hospitalized in 10 PICUs for a total of 27,345 bed-days. The study was divided into a baseline period (phase 1) and an intervention period (phase 2). In phase 1, surveillance was performed without the implementation of the multidimensional approach. In phase 2, we implemented a multidimensional infection control approach that included outcome surveillance, process surveillance, feedback on CAUTI rates, feedback on performance, education, and a bundle of preventive measures. The rates of CAUTI obtained in phase 1 were compared with the rates obtained in phase 2, after interventions were implemented.
During the study period, we recorded 8,513 urinary catheter (UC) days, including 1,513 UC-days in phase 1 and 7,000 UC-days in phase 2. In phase 1, the CAUTI rate was 5.9 cases per 1,000 UC-days, and in phase 2, after implementing the multidimensional infection control approach for CAUTI prevention, the rate of CAUTI decreased to 2.6 cases per 1,000 UC-days (relative risk, 0.43 [95% confidence interval, 0.21–1.0]), indicating a rate reduction of 57%.
Our findings demonstrated that implementing a multidimensional infection control approach is associated with a significant reduction in the CAUTI rate of PICUs in developing countries.
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