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Cyclospora cayetanensis, a coccidian parasite that causes protracted and relapsing gastroenteritis, has a short recorded history. At least 54 countries have documented C. cayetanensis infections and 13 of them have recorded cyclosporiasis outbreaks. Cyclospora cayetanensis infections are commonly reported in developing countries with low-socioeconomic levels or in endemic areas, although large outbreaks have also been documented in developed countries. The overall C. cayetanensis prevalence in humans worldwide is 3.55%. Among susceptible populations, the highest prevalence has been documented in immunocompetent individuals with diarrhea. Infections are markedly seasonal, occurring in the rainy season or summer. Cyclospora cayetanensis or Cyclospora-like organisms have also been detected in food, water, soil and some other animals. Detection methods based on oocyst morphology, staining and molecular testing have been developed. Treatment with trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (TMP–SMX) effectively cures C. cayetanensis infection, whereas ciprofloxacin is less effective than TMP–SMX, but is suitable for patients who cannot tolerate co-trimoxazole. Here, we review the biological characteristics, clinical features, epidemiology, detection methods and treatment of C. cayetanensis in humans, and assess some risk factors for infection with this pathogen.
Ethnic minority groups often have more complex and aversive pathways to mental health care. However, large population-based studies are lacking, particularly regarding involuntary hospitalisation. We sought to examine the risk of involuntary admission among first-generation ethnic minority groups with early psychosis in Ontario, Canada.
Using health administrative data, we constructed a retrospective cohort (2009–2013) of people with first-onset non-affective psychotic disorder aged 16–35 years. This cohort was linked to immigration data to ascertain migrant status and country of birth. We identified the first involuntary admission within 2 years and compared the risk of involuntary admission for first-generation migrant groups to the general population. To control for the role of migrant status, we restricted the sample to first-generation migrants and examined differences by country of birth, comparing risk of involuntary admission among ethnic minority groups to a European reference. We further explored the role of migrant class by adjusting for immigrant vs refugee status within the migrant cohort. We also explored effect modification of migrant class by ethnic minority group.
We identified 15 844 incident cases of psychotic disorder, of whom 19% (n = 3049) were first-generation migrants. Risk of involuntary admission was higher than the general population in five of seven ethnic minority groups. African and Caribbean migrants had the highest risk of involuntary admission (African: risk ratio (RR) = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.34–1.73; Caribbean: RR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.37–1.82), and were the only groups where the elevated risk persisted when compared to the European reference group within the migrant cohort (African: RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.04–1.48; Caribbean: RR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.07–1.56). Refugee status was independently associated with involuntary admission (RR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.02–1.32); however, this risk varied by ethnic minority group, with Caribbean refugees having an elevated risk of involuntary admission compared with Caribbean immigrants (RR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.15–2.58).
Our findings are consistent with the international literature showing increased rates of involuntary admission among some ethnic minority groups with early psychosis. Interventions aimed at improving pathways to care could be targeted at these groups to reduce disparities.
Three-dimensional nano-mulberries consisting of SnO2 nanoparticles have been successfully anchored onto the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) to construct hierarchical hybrids—SnO2@RGO with a one-pot approach. The SnO2 nano-mulberries with different amounts of RGO have been produced for optimizing their composition effect on Li storage performance. Specifically, SnO2@RGO hybrids incorporated with optimized amount of RGO nanosheets (∼20.8%) exhibit highly enhanced capacity of ∼1025 mA h/g at 0.1 A/g and a reversible capacity of 750 mA h/g over 100 cycles at 0.2 A/g. The materials also deliver much better rate performance with average specific capacity of ∼498 mA h/g at 2 A/g in comparison with that of SnO2 nano-mulberries. After cycling for 600 times at 1 A/g, the SnO2@RGO electrodes still maintain high reversible capacity of ∼602 mA h/g, corresponding to 35% of the second cycle and 133% of the 70th discharge capacity.
Few of the previous studies of clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR) have explored whether outcomes other than conversion, such as poor functioning or treatment responses, are better predicted when using risk calculators. To answer this question, we compared the predictive accuracy between the outcome of conversion and poor functioning by using the NAPLS-2 risk calculator.
Three hundred CHR individuals were identified using the Chinese version of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms. Of these, 228 (76.0%) completed neurocognitive assessments at baseline and 199 (66.3%) had at least a 1-year follow-up assessment. The latter group was used in the NAPLS-2 risk calculator.
We divided the sample into two broad categories based on different outcome definitions, conversion (n = 46) v. non-conversion (n = 153) or recovery (n = 138) v. poor functioning (n = 61). Interestingly, the NAPLS-2 risk calculator showed moderate discrimination of subsequent conversion to psychosis in this sample with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.631 (p = 0.007). However, for discriminating poor functioning, the AUC of the model increased to 0.754 (p < 0.001).
Our results suggest that the current risk calculator was a better fit for predicting a poor functional outcome and treatment response than it was in the prediction of conversion to psychosis.
Noble metal (Ag, Au) nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on the surface of three-dimensional (3D) materials are promising 3D surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates. In this work, the authors reported the preparation of 3D wax/silica/Ag(Au) colloidosomes by sulfonic acid group–terminated silica spheres (SiO2–SO3H) combined with a Pickering emulsion technique, as well as seed-mediated growth method of noble metal NPs. The presence of –SO3H group on the silica spheres not only improves significantly the quality of wax/silica colloidosomes (forming perfect silica shell around wax droplet) but also can adsorb metal precursor ions via electrostatic attraction for further growth of metal NPs. The size and coverage of Ag(Au) NPs on wax/silica droplets can be facilely tuned, and relevant wax/silica/Ag(Au) colloidosomes and silica/Ag(Au) Janus particles are obtained via this strategy. The obtained wax/silica/Ag colloidosomes as 3D SERS substrates exhibited excellent SERS enhancement ability and detection limit of 4-aminothiophenol reached 10−9 M.
This study aim to derive and validate a simple and well-performing risk calculator (RC) for predicting psychosis in individual patients at clinical high risk (CHR).
From the ongoing ShangHai-At-Risk-for-Psychosis (SHARP) program, 417 CHR cases were identified based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), of whom 349 had at least 1-year follow-up assessment. Of these 349 cases, 83 converted to psychosis. Logistic regression was used to build a multivariate model to predict conversion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to test the effectiveness of the SIPS-RC. Second, an independent sample of 100 CHR subjects was recruited based on an identical baseline and follow-up procedures to validate the performance of the SIPS-RC.
Four predictors (each based on a subset of SIPS-based items) were used to construct the SIPS-RC: (1) functional decline; (2) positive symptoms (unusual thoughts, suspiciousness); (3) negative symptoms (social anhedonia, expression of emotion, ideational richness); and (4) general symptoms (dysphoric mood). The SIPS-RC showed moderate discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.744 (p < 0.001). A risk estimate of 25% or higher had around 75% accuracy for predicting psychosis. The personalized risk generated by the SIPS-RC provided a solid estimate of conversion outcomes in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.804 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.662–0.951].
The SIPS-RC, which is simple and easy to use, can perform in the same manner as the NAPLS-2 RC in the Chinese clinical population. Such a tool may be used by clinicians to counsel appropriately their patients about clinical monitor v. potential treatment options.
Facing a bottleneck in the growth of aquaculture, and a gap in the supply and demand of the highly beneficial n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA), sustainable alternatives to traditional marine-based feeds are required. Therefore, in the present trial, a novel oil obtained from a genetically engineered oilseed crop, Camelina sativa, that supplied over 25 % n-3 LC-PUFA was tested as a sole dietary-added lipid source in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feed. Three groups of fish were fed three experimental diets for 12 weeks with the same basal composition and containing 20 % added oil supplied by either a blend of fish oil and rapeseed oil (1:3) (COM) reflecting current commercial formulations, wild-type Camelina oil (WCO) or the novel transgenic Camelina oil (TCO). There were no negative effects on the growth, survival rate or health of the fish. The whole fish and flesh n-3 LC-PUFA levels were highest in fish fed TCO, with levels more than 2-fold higher compared with those of fish fed the COM and WCO diets, respectively. Diet TCO had no negative impacts on the evaluated immune and physiological parameters of head kidney monocytes. The transcriptomic responses of liver and mid-intestine showed only mild effects on metabolism genes. Overall, the results clearly indicated that the oil from transgenic Camelina was highly efficient in supplying n-3 LC-PUFA providing levels double that obtained with a current commercial standard, and similar to those a decade ago before substantial dietary fishmeal and oil replacement.
The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been widely studied. However, for individuals with attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS), it is unclear whether the duration of untreated prodromal symptoms (DUPrS) also has a negative effect on the progression of psychosis. Our aim was to identify demographic and clinical factors contributing to the DUPrS in a large sample of individuals with APS, and to evaluate the association between DUPrS and the conversion to psychosis.
A sample of 391 individuals with APS, who were identified through a structured interview for prodromal syndromes, were included in this study, of whom a total of 334 patients had completed at least a 1-year clinical follow-up. A total of 57 individuals had converted to psychosis.
The average DUPrS was 4.8 months for the whole sample. Individuals with a longer DUPrS were likely to be men, non-local residents, with abnormal thought symptoms, a higher severity level of negative symptoms, the lower severity level of general symptoms, and lower level of general function before the onset of attenuated positive symptoms. A DUPrS of less than 2 months, or more than 6 months, lowered the risk for conversion to psychosis.
Our data suggested that the association between the DUPrS and outcome in individuals with APS were likely to be different, which is either long or short DUPrS was not related to future psychosis onset. Individuals with APS were more likely to have a group of features associated with a longer DUPrS.
Melt-SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis), based on the SHS process and oxide reaction method, was used for preparation of TiB2/Al composites. The mass ratio of two reactants, Ti powder/TiO2, in initial powder mixture was varied from 0:1 to 1:0. The results showed that the 5 wt% TiB2/Al composites could be successfully produced by a reaction of aluminum powder, TiO2, and B2O3 in Al melt at 950 °C, while the reaction rate was slow. The addition of titanium powder helps to reduce the content of Al2O3 and destroy the coating structure of Al2O3 covered TiB2 particles, which leads to the acceleration of reaction process and improvement of particle concentration. A significant improvement was that TiB2 particles were dispersively distributed when the mass ratio of Ti powder/TiO2 was 2:3. As a result, the 5 wt% TiB2/Al composites fabricated by melt-SHS process with modified reactants ratio showed excellent tensile properties with the ultimate tensile strength as high as 114.24 MPa. Besides, the composite also showed superior ductility.
Novel 1–1.5 μm BiOCl0.5Br0.5 composite microspheres were prepared by coprecipitation method, then calcined at different temperatures. The BiOCl0.5Br0.5 samples before and after calcination were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, N2-physical adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the thermostability of BiOCl0.5Br0.5 composite microspheres is lower than BiOCl and higher than BiOBr. Heat treatment at low 500 °C could obviously improve the crystallinity of BiOCl0.5Br0.5 microspheres, resulting in a significant increase in activity. BiOCl0.5Br0.5 microspheres calcined at 450 °C displayed the highest activity and stability. At elevated temperature calcination (600–800 °C), phase transition occurred over BiOCl0.5Br0.5. Br element was gradually lost and new phase of Bi24O31Br10 appeared. High temperature calcination did not change the morphology of BiOCl0.5Br0.5, but the surface area and surface OH groups decreased, which resulted in a large decrease in activity.
To solve the problem of attitude determination using magnetometers independently and uniquely, which is important for underwater vehicles, a type of full attitude determination method based on geomagnetic gradient tensor is proposed in this paper. In this method, a group of non-linear equations concerning geomagnetic gradient tensors is established, where a quaternion is selected to calculate three attitude angles of an underwater vehicle. The optimal quaternion is estimated using Newton Down-hill to optimise the object function. The detailed steps of the full attitude determination based on geomagnetic gradient tensor are given, and the effects of the initial angle error and the sensor noise on the attitude determination are investigated. Simulations show that the algorithm can identify precisely and quickly the attitudes even in the presence of larger initial angle error and sensor noise, which proves the attitude determination algorithm.
An optimization scheme for the generation of monoenergetic proton beams by using an overdense hydrocarbon target, followed by an underdense plasma gas, irradiated by an ultra-intense laser pulse is presented. The scheme is based on a combination of a radiation pressure acceleration mechanism and a laser wakefield acceleration mechanism, and is verified by one-dimensional relativistic particle-in-cell (1D PIC) simulations. As compared to the pure hydrogen (H) target, protons in the hydrocarbon target can be pre-accelerated to higher energy and compressed in space due to the existence of the heavy carbon atoms, which provides a better injection process for the successive laser wakefield acceleration in the underdense plasma gas, resulting in the generation of a monoenergetic, tens-of-GeV proton beam. Additionally, for the first time, it is found that the use of the hydrocarbon target can reduce the requirement for laser intensity to generate proton beams with the same energy in this combined scheme, as compared to the use of the pure H target.
In order to improve the total laser-proton energy conversion efficiency, a nanobrush target is proposed for proton acceleration and investigated by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. The simulation results show that the nanobrush target significantly enhances the energy and number of hot electrons through the target rear side. Compared with plain target, the sheath field on the rear surface is increased near 100% and the total laser-proton energy conversion efficiency is prompted more than 70%. Furthermore, the proton divergence angle is less than 30° by using nanobrush target. The proposed target may serve as a new method to increase the energy conversion efficiency from laser to protons.
The layered oxide LiVO2 recently has received more attention due to its interesting structural and magnetic behaviors involving the two-dimensional magnetic frustration in these systems. We synthesized a series of F-doped LiVO2 samples, and reported the F-doping effect on the structure and transition temperature Tt. The samples LiVO2-xFx (x=0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurement. The structural analysis shows that with increasing x, the ratio of lattice parameter c/a increasing, i.e. in the a-b plane the lattice is compressed while in the c-axis direction the lattice expands. The DSC measurements show that a first-order phase transition happens at around 500 K, and the thermal hysteresis around phase transition temperature Tt increases with increasing x. Substitution of O with F ions results in a change of two dimensional characteristics and the distortion of the VO6 block in structure, which significantly influence the magnetic ordering transition temperature Tt.
New observations are presented on the emission of electrons from n-type polycrystalline diamond and n-type boron nitride (BN) cold cathode films, both as synthesized and after post-synthesis annealing. The films have been observed to show an increase in electron emission after annealing by one to several orders of magnitude, depending upon the type of emitter and the specific surface treatment. Observations from both plasma and laser annealing treatments will be presented.
The annealed BN cold cathodes have been observed to yield stable emission currents as high as 2 A cm−2 (∼4 mA total current) at fields as low as ∼30 V μm−1. This is believed to be the highest reported current density yet observed from a planar film cold cathode emitter.
New observations are presented on the emission of electrons from n-type boron nitride (BN) cold cathode films. These carbon-doped BN films demonstrate a significant improvement in the electron emission current, on the order of 1 to 3 orders of magnitude, as a function of the extraction field for many different materials and morphologies.
These BN cold cathodes have yielded stable DC currents in excess of 4 mA at an extraction field of approximately 30 V/μm.
Electron acceleration by the ponderomotive force of a laser pulse with duration less than the plasma wavelength in inhomogeneous underdense plasmas is studied by two-dimensional relativistic parallel particle-in-cell (PIC) code. Particular attention is paid to the mechanism of electron acceleration associated with the increasing group velocity of the laser pulse. In an underdense plasma layer with linearly descending density profile, the accelerated electrons move together with the laser pulse which propagates with increasing group velocity. In an inhomogeneous pre-plasma with linearly ramping density profile, as the incident laser propagates up the density gradient with decreasing group velocity, ponderomotive acceleration is reduced compared with the uniform pre-plasma. As the reflected laser propagates down the density gradient with increasing group velocity, the ponderomotive acceleration by the reflected laser is more effective due to increasing group velocity of the reflected light and the return currents induced by the incident laser light. Relativistic electrons with multi-tens-MeV energies are generated.
Better methods of assessing patients' and family members' causal models of illness are needed to improve adherence with biomedical interventions and to design services that meet the needs of consumers.
To develop a quantitative measure suitable for assessing the relationship of causal beliefs to expressed emotion, stigma, care-seeking and adherence.
The Causal Models Questionnaire for Schizophrenia, which includes 45 causes identified during in-depth interviews with family members, was administered to 245 family members of 135 patients with DSM–III–R schizophrenia in Suzhou and Siping, China at the time of admission to hospital.
Respondents, who identified a mean of 2.5 causes (range 1–10, mode 2), attributed 84% of the cause of schizophrenia to social, interpersonal and psychological problems. Hence, their beliefs do not concur with Chinese professionals' ideas about the biomedical causes of schizophrenia. Multivariate analyses identified the socio-economic factors that influence family members' causal beliefs.
Despite the complexity of causal models, measures can be developed that will help improve clinicians' communication with patients and understanding of help-seeking behaviours.
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