To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This paper studies a periodic-review single-commodity setup-cost inventory model with backorders and holding/backlog costs satisfying quasiconvexity assumptions. We show that the Markov decision process for this inventory model satisfies the assumptions that lead to the validity of optimality equations for discounted and average-cost problems and to the existence of optimal (s, S) policies. In particular, we prove the equicontinuity of the family of discounted value functions and the convergence of optimal discounted lower thresholds to the optimal average-cost lower threshold for some sequence of discount factors converging to 1. If an arbitrary nonnegative amount of inventory can be ordered, we establish stronger convergence properties: (i) the optimal discounted lower thresholds converge to optimal average-cost lower threshold; and (ii) the discounted relative value functions converge to average-cost relative value function. These convergence results previously were known only for subsequences of discount factors even for problems with convex holding/backlog costs. The results of this paper also hold for problems with fixed lead times.
Substantial research shows that cardiovascular disease is a major cause of disability in the United States of America (USA) and worldwide. Despite the well-documented significance of intimate partnerships for cardiovascular health and disease management, how relationship quality contributes to the functional health of older adults diagnosed with cardiovascular disease is much less understood than mental health and mortality risk. Informed by the disablement process model and the lifecourse perspective, this study examines the association between relationship quality and functional limitations among partnered older adults aged 50 years and older diagnosed with cardiovascular disease in the USA. Data are from the Health and Retirement Study, 2006–2012 (N = 1,355). Multi-level linear regression analyses show that baseline negative relationship quality is significantly associated with increased functional limitations over the two- and four-year follow-ups. Additionally, the link between negative relationship quality and functional limitations is stronger among older adults with lower household income over a two-year span, compared to their higher-income counterparts, suggesting that these older adults are doubly disadvantaged by higher relationship strains and limited economic resources. Our findings demonstrate the significance of relationship quality for the functional health of older adults with cardiovascular disease and shed light on the importance of marriage/partnerships as an important social context for a critical stage in the disablement process (i.e. functional limitations).
Direct determination of barrier height (ΦBH) value between Ir and single crystal (001) hydrogen-terminated diamond with lightly boron doped has been performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique. 70 nm Ir islands were formed on hydrogen-terminated diamond surface using anodic aluminum oxide. The ΦBH value for Ir/hydrogen-terminated diamond was −0.43 ± 0.14 eV, indicating that Ir was a suitable metal for ohmic contact with hydrogen-terminated diamond. The band diagram of Ir/hydrogen-terminated diamond was obtained. The experimental ΦBH was compared with the theoretical ΦBH in this work.
The Hudesheng mafic–ultramafic intrusions are located in the Oulongbuluke Block, north of the Qaidam Block in Qinghai Province, NW China. We carried out a detailed study of the intrusions, including field observations, petrology, zircon U–Pb geochronology, Lu–Hf isotopes, bulk-rock major- and trace-element geochemistry, and mineral compositions, to provide a better understanding of their properties and the regional tectonic evolution. Zircon U–Pb dating on gabbro and pyroxenite samples yielded ages of 465 and 455 Ma, respectively. Geochemical data, in conjunction with the field observations and petrological features, suggest that the complex is Alaskan-type and the magma was derived from a depleted mantle source that was hydrous picritic basalt in composition and influenced by crustal contamination and slab-derived fluid metasomatism. Based on all the chronological, petrological, mineralogical and geochemical and regional geological data, we conclude that the palaeo-ocean closed diachronously from west to east between the Qaidam and Oulongbuluke blocks, and that the ocean in the east of the North Qaidam region closed after ∼455 Ma.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
The variation of the molecular architecture of multiblock copolymers has enabled the introduction of functional behaviour and the control of key mechanical properties. In the current study, we explore the synergistic relationship of two structural components in a shape-memory material formed of a multiblock copolymer with crystallizable poly(ε-caprolactone) and crystallizable poly[oligo(3S-iso-butylmorpholine-2,5-dione)] segments (PCL-PIBMD). The thermal and structural properties of PCL-PIBMD films were compared with PCL-PU and PIBMD-PU, investigated by means of DSC, SAXS and WAXS measurements. The shape-memory properties were quantified by cyclic, thermomechanical tensile tests, where deformation strains up to 900% were applied for programming PCL-PIBMD films at 50 °C. Toluene vapor treatment experiments demonstrated that the temporary shape was fixed mainly by glassy PIBMD domains at strains lower than 600%, with the PCL contribution to fixation increasing to 42±2% at programming strains of 900%. This study into the shape-memory mechanism of PCL-PIBMD provides insight into the structure-function relation in multiblock copolymers with both crystallizable and glassy switching segments.
Solid-state batteries are promising candidates for energy storage due to their potential advantages in safety, working temperature range, and energy density compared to traditional liquid-electrolyte-based batteries. Rational battery architecture design and a scalable fabrication approach are critical to realize solid-state batteries. In this article, we present the architecture, fabrication procedure, and related challenges of sulfide and oxide electrolyte-based solid-state batteries. Approaches toward intimate solid−solid contact, thin solid-electrolyte fabrication, and scale-up production are discussed. Finally, we discuss the future research directions of solid-state batteries.
Minimally invasive surgery is a developing direction of modern medicine. With the successful development of controllable capsule endoscopies, capsule robots are very popular in the field of gastrointestinal medicine. At present, the study of intestinal robots is aimed at the pipeline environment of a single-phase liquid flow. But there exist food residues (i.e. solid particles) or liquid foods in the actual intestine, so intestinal fluid should be liquid–solid or liquid–liquid two-phase mixed fluid. For inner spiral capsule robots with different internal diameters and outer spiral capsule robots, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, the operational performance indicators (i.e. axial thrust force, circumferential resisting moment and maximum pressure to pipeline wall) of spiral capsule robots are numerically calculated in the liquid–solid or liquid–liquid two-phase mixed fluid. By the orthogonal experimental optimization method, the optimum design of spiral capsule robots is obtained in the liquid–solid mixed fluid. The experimental verification has been also carried out. The results show that in the liquid–solid two-phase fluid, the axial thrust force and circumferential resisting moment of the spiral capsule robots decrease with the increase of the size or concentration of solid particles. In the same liquid–solid or liquid–liquid mixed fluid, the operational performance indicators of outer spiral robots are much higher than those of inner spiral robots, and the operational performance indicators of inner spiral robots with bigger internal diameters are higher than those with smaller internal diameters. Adding solid particles of high concentration in the pipeline containing liquid will reduce the drive performance of spiral capsule robots, but adding another liquid of high viscosity will improve the drive performance of spiral capsule robots.
One-dimensional zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure arrays show unique semiconducting, piezoelectric, and wetting properties, and how they interact with cells is critical for their biomedical applications. In this work, we prepare ZnO nanorod arrays (ZnO NRAs) and study their interactions with neonatal rat cardiomyocytes either as a substrate or patch. We find that ZnO NRAs can (1) inhibit cell adhesion and spreading as a substrate and (2) selectively kill underneath cells as a patch. We further identify surface nanomorphology as the dominant factor responsible for the inhibitory effect. These discoveries suggest potential application of ZnO NRAs as a cell inhibitory biointerface.
Two phases of diabase-sill-forming magmatism are recorded within the Badu anticline where magmas were emplaced into upper Palaeozoic carbonates and clastic rocks of the Youjiang fold-and-thrust belt in the SW South China Block, China. Zircons from these diabase units yield weighted mean U–Pb ages of 249.2±2.0 Ma and 187.1±3.3 Ma, and magmatic oxygen fugacity values from ‒20 to ‒6 (average of ‒12, equating to FMQ +5) and ‒20 to ‒10 (average of ‒15, equating to FMQ +2), respectively. These data indicate that the sills were emplaced during Early Triassic and Early Jurassic times. The discovery of c. 250 Ma mafic magmatism in this area was probably related to post-flood-basalt extension associated with the Emeishan mantle plume or rollback of the subducting Palaeo-Tethys slab. The c. 190 Ma diabase sills indicate that the southwestern South China Block records Early Jurassic mafic magmatism and lithospheric extension that was likely associated with a transition from post-collisional to within-plate tectonic regimes. The emplacement of diabase intrusions at depth may have driven hydrothermal systems, enabling the mobilization of elements from sedimentary rocks and causing the formation of a giant epigenetic metallogenic domain. The results indicate that high-oxygen-fugacity materials within basement rocks caused crustal contamination of the magmas, contributing to the wide range of oxygen fugacity conditions recorded by the Au-bearing Badu diabase. In addition, data from inherited xenocrystic zircons within the Badu diabase and detrital zircons from basement rocks suggest that the Neoproterozoic Jiangshao suture extends to the south of the Badu anticline.
To produce pulses with good flat-top quality, pulse-forming lines (PFLs) have been widely used in the field of Tesla-type pulse generators. To shorten the physical length of the PFL, a double-width PFL (DWPFL) is proposed that doubles the output pulse width while maintaining flat-top quality. A repetitively 10 GW Tesla-type long-pulse generator producing pulses with flat-top width of about 110 ns was developed with a coaxial DWPFL to produce high-current electron beams. Electron beams of about 10 GW with flat-top widths of about 110 ns were obtained on a planar vacuum diode load. With this pulse generator and a C-band high-power microwave system, microwaves of ~2.2 GW power and full-width at half-maximum of 101 ns were generated. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility and ideal output waveform quality of the DWPFL.
Surface exfoliation was observed on single-crystal silicon surface under the action of compressed plasma flow (CPF). This phenomenon is mainly attributed to the strong transient thermal stress impact induced by CPF. To gain a better understanding of the mechanism, a micro scale model combined with thermal conduction and linear elastic fracture mechanics was built to analyze the thermal stress distribution after energy deposition. After computation with finite element method, J integral parameter was applied as the criterion for fracture initiation evaluation. It was demonstrated that the formation of surface exfoliation calls for specific material, crack depth, and CPF parameter. The results are potentially valuable for plasma/matter interaction understanding and CPF parameter optimization.
In this paper we consider the algorithm for recovering sparse orthogonal polynomials using stochastic collocation via ℓq minimization. The main results include: 1) By using the norm inequality between ℓq and ℓ2 and the square root lifting inequality, we present several theoretical estimates regarding the recoverability for both sparse and non-sparse signals via ℓq minimization; 2) We then combine this method with the stochastic collocation to identify the coefficients of sparse orthogonal polynomial expansions, stemming from the field of uncertainty quantification. We obtain recoverability results for both sparse polynomial functions and general non-sparse functions. We also present various numerical experiments to show the performance of the ℓq algorithm. We first present some benchmark tests to demonstrate the ability of ℓq minimization to recover exactly sparse signals, and then consider three classical analytical functions to show the advantage of this method over the standard ℓ1 and reweighted ℓ1 minimization. All the numerical results indicate that the ℓq method performs better than standard ℓ1 and reweighted ℓ1 minimization.
As the strong thermal effect in the surface, intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) has been extensively used in material surface modification. The ablation is an important part in the interaction process between IPIB and material. In order to investigate the ablation mechanism, combined with IPIB dynamic energy spectrum and infrared imaging diagnostic results, a two-dimensional axisymmetric heat conduction model considering the effect of ablated material was constructed to describe the ablation process and calculate the lost mass of the targets. The influences of beam parameters and ablated matter on the ablation rate were discussed. The experimental and simulative results of ablation threshold and mass were compared.
Magnetic coupling resonance wireless power transfer technology has attracted worldwide attention in recent years due to its mid-range, non-radiative, and high-efficiency power transfer. However, in regard to its practical applications, there are still some issues that need to be considered and studied with respect to coil design, such as coil structure, and parasitic parameter extraction. This paper investigated the characteristics of magnetic coupling resonance wireless power transfer systems with different coil structures, including circular coils and rectangular coils arranged in parallel. We calculated the magnetic field distributions and mutual inductances by subdividing the receiving coils and computing the magnetic flux density of each subdivision. The proposed analysis was validated by means of the finite element analysis and the experimental results. We investigated the effects of the coil's structure, and topological structures, on the power transfer efficiency. The results demonstrate that using circular coils in parallel is more advantageous than using rectangular coils.
This work was to evaluate the differences of soil and plant analysis development (SPAD) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) readings and their relationship with leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA). The study explored new indices to diagnose nitrogen (N) status. These indices were obtained by multiplying SPAD readings and leaf area index (LAI). Linear regression relationships between Chlorophyll values and N indicators showed the SPAD readings (Chl: LNA=0.0546×Chl-0.479, R2=0.94***, P<0.001). The projected results suggested that Chl values could play an important role for improving N status diagnosis from stem elongation to heading stages in paddy rice.
As a kind of flash heat source, intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) can be used for material surface modification. The ablation effect has important influence on interaction between IPIB and material. Therefore, the understanding of ablation mechanism is of great significance to IPIB application. In this work, pure zinc targets were irradiated and ablated by IPIB. In the ablation process under the different ion beam energy densities, the ablation products were collected by a monocrystalline silicon substrate. By analyzing the ablation products with scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectrometer, the surface morphology, and the spatial distribution of ablation products quantity were obtained. The results are useful for clearing the ablation process and the influence of beam parameter on the ablation effect.
Right pulmonary artery–left atrial fistula is a rare congenitalcardiac anomaly, and only a few articles published so far have reported the diagnosis and treatment of right pulmonary artery–left atrial fistula. In this study, we report three cases of successful transcatheter closure or surgical repair of right pulmonary artery–left atrial fistula.
As the energy spread of intense pulsed electron beams (IPEB) strongly influences the irradiation effects, it has been of great importance to characterize the IPEB energy spectrum. With the combination of Child–Langmuir law and Monte Carlo simulation, the IPEB energy spectrum has been obtained in this work by transformation from the accelerating voltage applied to the diode. To verify the accuracy of this simple algorithm, a magnetic spectrometer with an imaging plate was designed to test the IPEB energy spectrum. The measurement was completed with IPEB generated by explosive emission electron diode, the pulse duration, maximum electron energy, total beam current being 80 ns, 450 keV, and 1 kA, respectively. The results verified the reliability of the above analysis method for energy spectrum, which can avoid intercepting the beam, and at the same time significantly improved the energy resolution. Some calculation and experimental details are discussed in this paper.
The ground state properties of Fe3−xCrxO4 (x = 0–3) compounds were studied using first principles calculation. Stress–strain methods were used to evaluate elastic constants of these compounds. These compounds are mechanically stable structures, because they satisfy the mechanical stability criteria. The mechanical moduli were estimated using the Voigt–Reuss–Hill approximation. The calculated bulk moduli of Fe3O4, Fe2CrO4, FeCr2O4, and Cr3O4 are 190.9 GPa, 135.5 GPa, 180.1 GPa, and 235.6 GPa, respectively. Both of anisotropic indexes and 3-D surface contour were used to illustrate the elastic anisotropy. Debye temperature and anisotropy of acoustic velocity of Fe3−xCrxO4 compounds were also investigated. The maximum Debye temperature is attributing to Cr3O4 with 507.6 K among Fe3−xCrxO4 compounds. The minimum thermal conductivity of Fe3−xCrxO4 compounds was estimated by both Clarke's model and Cahill's model. Moreover, 3-D surface contour of the anisotropic thermal conductivity of Fe3−xCrxO4 compounds was obtained based on the Clarke's model and anisotropic Young's modulus.