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Preoperative nutritional status plays an important role in predicting postoperative outcomes. Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) and Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) are good tools to assess patients’ nutritional status. They have been used in predicting outcomes in various malignancies, but few studies have focused on pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. Totally, 306 PDAC patients were enrolled. The propensity score matching (PSM) method was introduced to eliminate the baseline inequivalence. Patients with different PNI (or CONUT) scores showed inequivalence baseline characteristics, and patients with compromised nutritional status were related with a more advanced tumour stage. After PSM, the baseline characteristics were well balanced. Both low PNI (≤45) and high CONUT (≥3) were independent risk factors for poor overall survival (P < 0·05), and the result remained the same after PSM. Survival analysis demonstrated both patients with low PNI and high CONUT score were associated with poorer survival, and the result remained the same after PSM. The results of AUC indicated that CONUT might have a higher sensitivity and specificity in predicting complications and survival. Preoperative low PNI (≤45) and high CONUT (≥3) scores might be reliable predictors of prognosis and surgical complications in PDAC patients. Compared with PNI, CONUT might be more effective.
Androgenetic embryonic stem (AgES) cells offer a possible tool for patient-specific pluripotent stem cells that will benefit genomic imprinting studies and clinic applications. However, the difficulty in producing androgenetic embryos and the unbalanced expression of imprinted genes make the therapeutic applicability of AgES cells uncertain. In this study, we produced androgenetic embryos by injecting two sperm into an enucleated metaphase II (MII) oocyte. By this method, 88.48% of oocytes survived after injection, and 20.24% of these developed to the blastocyst stage. We successfully generated AgES cell lines from the androgenetic embryos and assayed the expression of imprinted genes in the cell lines. We found that the morphological characteristics of AgES cells were similar to that of fertilized embryonic stem cells (fES), such as expression of key pluripotent markers, and generation of cell derivatives representing all three germ layers following in vivo and in vitro differentiation. Furthermore, activation of paternal imprinted genes was detected, H19, ASC12 and Tss3 in AgES cell activation levels were lower while other examined genes showed no significant difference to that of fES cells. Interestingly, among examined maternal imprinted genes, only Mest and Igf2 were significantly increased, while levels of other detected genes were no different to that of fES cells. These results demonstrated that activation of some paternal imprinted genes, as well as recovery of maternal imprinted genes, was present in AgES cells. We differentiated AgES cells into a beating embryoid body in vitro, and discovered that the AgES cells did not show significant higher efficiency in myocardial differentiation potential.
Atomistic simulations of 18 silicon 〈110〉 symmetric tilt grain boundaries are performed using Stillinger Weber, Tersoff, and the optimized Modified Embedded Atom Method potentials. We define a novel structural unit classification through dislocation core analysis to characterize the relaxed GB structures. GBs with the misorientation angle θ ranging from 13.44° to 70.53° are solely composed of Lomer dislocation cores. For GBs with θ less than but close to 70.53°, GB ‘step’ appears and the equilibrated states with lowest GB energies can be attained only when such GB ‘step’ is located in the middle of each single periodic GB structure. For the misorientation angles in the range of 93.37° ≤ θ ≤ 148.41°, GB structures become complicated since they contain multiple types of dislocation cores. This work not only facilitates the structural characterization of silicon 〈110〉 STGBs, but also may provide new insights into mirco-structure design in multicrystalline silicon.
Surface exfoliation was observed on single-crystal silicon surface under the action of compressed plasma flow (CPF). This phenomenon is mainly attributed to the strong transient thermal stress impact induced by CPF. To gain a better understanding of the mechanism, a micro scale model combined with thermal conduction and linear elastic fracture mechanics was built to analyze the thermal stress distribution after energy deposition. After computation with finite element method, J integral parameter was applied as the criterion for fracture initiation evaluation. It was demonstrated that the formation of surface exfoliation calls for specific material, crack depth, and CPF parameter. The results are potentially valuable for plasma/matter interaction understanding and CPF parameter optimization.
The transition metal compound catalysts have been taken a great part in renewable energy conversion and storage systems. Herein, we report the uniform CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with abundant oxygen vacancies and specific active surface exposed through the simple hydrothermal reaction for improving the electrocatalytic performance and stability. They show good electrocatalytic performance for hydrogen evolution reaction in 0.5 M H2SO4 with an onset potential of 20 mV, the overpotential of 45 mV (at j = 10 mA/cm2), and remarkable long-term stability more than 100 h at different current densities and better oxygen reduction reaction activity with lower overpotential in 0.1 M KOH. Moreover, the home-made primary Zn–air batteries, using CoFe2O4 nanoparticles as an air–cathode display the high open-circuit voltage of 1.47 V and the maximum power density of 142 mW/cm2. The two-series-connected batteries fabricated by CoFe2O4 nanoparticles can support a light-emitting diode to work for more than 48 h.
As the strong thermal effect in the surface, intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) has been extensively used in material surface modification. The ablation is an important part in the interaction process between IPIB and material. In order to investigate the ablation mechanism, combined with IPIB dynamic energy spectrum and infrared imaging diagnostic results, a two-dimensional axisymmetric heat conduction model considering the effect of ablated material was constructed to describe the ablation process and calculate the lost mass of the targets. The influences of beam parameters and ablated matter on the ablation rate were discussed. The experimental and simulative results of ablation threshold and mass were compared.
As a kind of flash heat source, intense pulsed ion beam (IPIB) can be used for material surface modification. The ablation effect has important influence on interaction between IPIB and material. Therefore, the understanding of ablation mechanism is of great significance to IPIB application. In this work, pure zinc targets were irradiated and ablated by IPIB. In the ablation process under the different ion beam energy densities, the ablation products were collected by a monocrystalline silicon substrate. By analyzing the ablation products with scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectrometer, the surface morphology, and the spatial distribution of ablation products quantity were obtained. The results are useful for clearing the ablation process and the influence of beam parameter on the ablation effect.
As the energy spread of intense pulsed electron beams (IPEB) strongly influences the irradiation effects, it has been of great importance to characterize the IPEB energy spectrum. With the combination of Child–Langmuir law and Monte Carlo simulation, the IPEB energy spectrum has been obtained in this work by transformation from the accelerating voltage applied to the diode. To verify the accuracy of this simple algorithm, a magnetic spectrometer with an imaging plate was designed to test the IPEB energy spectrum. The measurement was completed with IPEB generated by explosive emission electron diode, the pulse duration, maximum electron energy, total beam current being 80 ns, 450 keV, and 1 kA, respectively. The results verified the reliability of the above analysis method for energy spectrum, which can avoid intercepting the beam, and at the same time significantly improved the energy resolution. Some calculation and experimental details are discussed in this paper.
Schizophrenia (SZ) is suggested to be a complex polygenetic disorder with high heritability. Genome-wide association studies have found that the rs1635, rs11038167, and rs10489202 polymorphisms are associated with SZ in Han Chinese. However, results of validation studies are inconsistent. This study aimed to test the association between the NKAPL rs1635, TSPAN18 rs11038167, and MPC2 rs10489202 polymorphisms and SZ in a Chinese population.
This study contained 700 unrelated SZ patients (300 Zhuang and 400 Han) and 700 gender- and age-matched controls (300 Zhuang and 400 Han). The polymorphisms in TSPAN18 (rs11038167), NKAPL (rs1635), and MPC2 (rs10489202) were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY method. Statistical analyses were performed with PLINK program and SPSS l6.0 for Windows. STATA11.1 was used for meta-analysis.
No statistically significant difference was found in different allele and genotype frequencies of rs1635, rs11038167, and rs10489202 between SZ cases and controls of Zhuang and Han ethnicities and the total samples (all p>0.05). Further meta-analysis suggested that single-nucleotide polymorphism rs10489202 was significantly associated with SZ in a Han Chinese population (pOR=0.002).
Our case–control study failed to validate the significant association of NKAPL rs1635, TSPAN18 rs11038167, and MPC2 rs10489202 polymorphisms with SZ susceptibility in the southern Zhuang or Han Chinese population. However, meta-analysis showed a significant association between MPC2 variant rs10489202 and SZ susceptibility in Han Chinese.
Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs postnatal growth and skeletal muscle development in neonatal infants. This study evaluated whether dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Ca (HMB-Ca) supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve muscle growth in IUGR neonates using piglets as a model. A total of twelve pairs of IUGR and normal-birth-weight (NBW) male piglets with average initial weights (1·85 (sem 0·36) and 2·51 (sem 0·39) kg, respectively) were randomly allotted to groups that received milk-based diets (CON) or milk-based diets supplemented with 800 mg/kg HMB-Ca (HMB) during days 7–28 after birth. Blood and longissimus dorsi (LD) samples were collected and analysed for plasma amino acid content, fibre morphology and the expression of genes related to muscle development. The results indicate that, regardless of diet, IUGR piglets had a significantly decreased average daily weight gain (ADG) compared with that of NBW piglets (P<0·05). However, IUGR piglets fed HMB-Ca had a net weight and ADG similar to that of NBW piglets fed the CON diet. Irrespective of body weight (BW), HMB-Ca supplementation markedly increased the type II fibre cross-sectional area and the mRNA expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), insulin-like growth factor-1 and myosin heavy-chain isoform IIb in the LD of piglets (P<0·05). Moreover, there was a significant interaction between the effects of BW and HMB on mTOR expression in the LD (P<0·05). In conclusion, HMB-Ca supplementation during the early postnatal period could improve skeletal muscle growth and maturity by accelerating fast-twitch glycolytic fibre development in piglets.
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is known to be a natural antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotective effect of ALA on the motility of boar spermatozoa and its antioxidant effect on boar spermatozoa during freezing–thawing. Different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 or 10.0 mg/ml) of ALA were added to the extender used to freeze boar semen, and the effects on the quality and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities of frozen–thawed spermatozoa were assessed. The results indicated that the addition of ALA to the extender resulted in a higher percentage of motile spermatozoa post-thaw (P < 0.05). The activities of superoxide dismutase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and catalase improved after adding ALA to the extender (P < 0.05). Artificial insemination results showed that pregnancy rate and litter size were significantly higher at 6.0 mg/ml in the ALA group than in the control group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, ALA conferred a cryoprotective capacity to the extender used for boar semen during the process of freezing–thawing, and the optimal concentration of ALA for the frozen extender was 6.0 mg/ml.
Tramadol hydrochloride (HCl) is a centrally acting synthetic opioid analgesic. Psychotic symptoms are relatively rare in reported adverse events. Here, we report a patient who presented with tramadol-related psychotic symptoms.
A 59-year-old female had underlying bipolar I disorder and received lithium treatment with stable affective status. 1 month before hospitalisation, she had been taking tramadol HCl/acetaminophen for joint pain. She then developed obvious persecutory delusion. However, her clinical picture did not meet the criteria of any mood episode. After treatment of risperidone in addition to lithium, she was discharged without any psychotic symptom. She remained euthymic without any psychotic symptom on monotherapy of lithium (300 mg) three tablets once daily.
Tramadol HCl is commonly prescribed in clinical practice and psychotic symptoms related to it are uncommon. We should be careful about the rare but important adverse events while prescribing tramadol HCl.
In this paper, we study the mathematical formulation for an optimal control problem governed by a linear parabolic integro-differential equation and present the optimality conditions. We then set up its weak formulation and the finite element approximation scheme. Based on these we derive the a priori error estimates for its finite element approximation both in H1 and L2 norms. Furthermore some numerical tests are presented to verify the theoretical results.
A 50-yr resolution reconstruction of climate and environment variability during the period 43–14 ka was developed using 26 high-precision U/Th dates and 390 oxygen isotope (δ18O) data of a stalagmite (SJ1) collected from Songjia Cave in central China, which is close to the northwestern boundary of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM). The δ18O record in SJ1 displays significant millennial-scale changes that correlate well in timing and duration with Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events 5–10 and Heinrich event 4 (H4) identified in high-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Four 230Th dates constrain the H4 event precisely to the period of 39.7 to 38.3 ka. Notable centennial variations of the ASM activity could be observed within the H4 event. The magnitude and duration of D/O event 4.1 recorded in SJ1 are similar to those archived in east China but different from those documented in southwest China, suggesting that the manifestation of this event may be regionally different. The timing, duration and structure of D/O events 5–10 and Heinrich event 4 suggest that temperature changes in both hemispheres have exerted significant influences on the ASM variations in central China.
Two Cloisonné enamel architectural components from Fuwangge in the Forbidden City that were produced from Yangzhou (one production center) in Qing Dynasty (1616-1911 A.D.) were chosen and analyzed. A combination of Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and micro-Raman spectroscopy was successfully used to analyze eight colors in enamel glazes (yellow, white, pink, turquoise, yellow green, deep blue, red and deep green). Chemical composition results reveal that the enamel glaze matrix belongs to lead-potash-lime glass (PbO-K2O-CaO-SiO2). Based on Raman spectroscopy, lead-tin yellow types II, cassiterite, lead arsenate, fluorite and hematite were found as opacifiers and/or colorants. In addition, a detailed discussion of raw materials, such as fluorite and borax, might provide valuable information to trace manufacturing technology and provenance.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
The S-doped BiOBr composite microspheres were successfully prepared through one-pot solvothermal method. The as-prepared samples exhibit higher photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B and phenol under visible light irradiation, attributed to the improvement of the photo-absorption property and the narrow band gap due to the dopants of S element. The higher efficiency for photodegradation of organic pollutant endows this material with a bright perspective in purification of waste water under visible-light irradiation.
Mn-doped bismuth oxide bromide microspheres have been prepared by the hydrothermal method. The resultant composite microspheres exhibited higher photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation, attributing to the improvement of the photo-absorption property and the separation efficiency of photogenerated electrons and holes. The holes and O2•− are the main active species in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation, rather than •OH.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.