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This study examined factors that were associated with the effectiveness of pre-existing household emergency plans during the 2011 EF5 Joplin and EF4 Tuscaloosa tornadoes. We focused on whether discussing with family members helped increase the plan’s effectiveness.
A telephone survey based on random sampling was conducted in 2012 with 1006 respondents in both cities. Each city experienced huge losses, injuries, and casualties. The working sample included 494 respondents who had a household emergency plan in place before these tornadoes.
Multinomial logistic regression showed that discussing with family members increased the helpfulness of the plan in Joplin, where people had not experienced tornadoes frequently and were less prepared for tornadoes relative to residents in Tuscaloosa.
This study provides empirical evidence on the importance of encouraging family involvement when making household emergency plans, especially in places that are less prepared for disasters than those that are better prepared.
The interaction of rarefaction waves and a heavy/light interface is investigated using numerical simulations by solving the compressible Euler equations. An upwind space–time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme with second-order accuracy in both space and time is adopted. Rarefaction waves are generated by simulating the shock-tube problem. In this work, the SF6/air interface evolution under different conditions is considered. First, the gas physical parameters before and after the rarefaction waves impact the interface are calculated using one-dimensional gas dynamics theory. Then, the interaction between the rarefaction waves and a single-mode perturbation interface is investigated, and both the interface evolution and the wave patterns are obtained. Afterwards, the amplitude growth of the interface over time is compared between cases, considering the effects of the interaction period and the strength of the rarefaction waves. During the interaction of the rarefaction waves with the interface, the Rayleigh–Taylor instability induced by the rarefaction waves is well predicted by modifying the nonlinear model proposed by Zhang & Guo (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 786, 2016, pp. 47–61), considering the variable acceleration. After the rarefaction waves leave the interface, the equivalent Richtmyer–Meshkov instability is well depicted by the nonlinear model proposed by Zhang et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 121(17), 2018, 174502), considering the growth rate transition from Rayleigh–Taylor instability to Richtmyer–Meshkov instability. The differences in the heavy/light interface amplitude growth under the rarefaction wave condition and the shock wave condition are compared. The interface perturbation is shown to be more unstable under rarefaction waves than under a shock wave.
We report new U–Pb isotopic data for detrital zircons from Cambrian–Ordovician strata on the northern margin of the western Yangtze Block, which together with published U–Pb isotopic data for coeval strata in the South China Block, provide critical constraints on the provenance of these sediments and further shed light on the early Palaeozoic position of the South China Block in the context of Gondwana. Detrital zircons in this study yield four major age peaks in the early Palaeoproterozoic, early Neoproterozoic, middle Neoproterozoic and late Neoproterozoic – early Palaeozoic. The dominant age population of 900–700 Ma matches well with magmatic ages from the nearby Panxi–Hannan Belt, which indicates that Cambrian–Ordovician sedimentary rocks in the western Yangtze Block were mainly of local derivation. However, compilations of detrital zircon ages for the Cambrian–Ordovician strata from the Cathaysia Block and the eastern Yangtze Block show that both blocks are dominated by late Mesoproterozoic- and early Neoproterozoic-aged detrital zircons, which suggests a remarkable exotic input with typical Gondwana signatures. According to the integrated detrital zircon age spectra of the Cambrian–Ordovician sedimentary rocks from the entire South China Block and palaeocurrent data, the South China Block should have been linked with North India and Western Australia within East Gondwana. Specifically, the Cathaysia Block was located adjacent to Western Australia, while the Yangtze Block was connected with North India.
Experiments on Richtmyer–Meshkov instability of quasi-single-mode interfaces are performed. Four quasi-single-mode air/
interfaces with different deviations from the single-mode one are generated by the soap film technique to evaluate the effects of high-order modes on amplitude growth in the linear and weakly nonlinear stages. For each case, two different initial amplitudes are considered to highlight the high-amplitude effect. For the single-mode and saw-tooth interfaces with high initial amplitude, a cavity is observed at the spike head, providing experimental evidence for the previous numerical results for the first time. For the quasi-single-mode interfaces, the fundamental mode is the dominant one such that it determines the amplitude linear growth, and subsequently the impulsive theory gives a reasonable prediction of the experiments by introducing a reduction factor. The discrepancy in linear growth rates between the experiment and the prediction is amplified as the quasi-single-mode interface deviates more severely from the single-mode one. In the weakly nonlinear stage, the nonlinear model valid for a single-mode interface with small amplitude loses efficacy, which indicates that the effects of high-order modes on amplitude growth must be considered. For the saw-tooth interface with small amplitude, the amplitudes of the first three harmonics are extracted from the experiment and compared with the previous theory. The comparison proves that each initial mode develops independently in the linear and weakly nonlinear stages. A nonlinear model proposed by Zhang & Guo (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 786, 2016, pp. 47–61) is then modified by considering the effects of high-order modes. The modified model is proved to be valid in the weakly nonlinear stage even for the cases with high initial amplitude. More high-order modes are needed to match the experiment for the interfaces with a more severe deviation from the single-mode one.
In order to reveal the quantitative relationship between fatigue crack deflection path and cross-sectional grain boundary (GB) arrangement of metallic nanolayered composites (NLCs), a stochastic model was established based on the interface-dominant fatigue damage for the ultrafine-scale NLCs. The model indicates that the crack deflection length decreases with decreasing GB arrangement deviation and grain size of constituent layers. The observation and quantitative analysis of fatigue cracking behavior of the Cu/W multilayers with a layer thickness of 5 and 20 nm was conducted to verify the model.
Fatigue performance of metallic nanolayered composites (NLCs) has been gaining more and more attention due to the rapid development in the field of both micro-electro-mechanical systems and high-performance engineering structure materials and the increasing demand for long-term fatigue reliability. Metallic NLCs have exhibited different damage behaviors due to the effect of high-density heterogeneous interface compared with bulk materials and thin metal films. In this review paper, the cyclic deformation damage behavior, fatigue cracking feature, and fatigue properties of some metallic NLCs are reviewed. Effects of length scales, including layer thickness and grain size, on fatigue damage behaviors of the NLCs are revealed, and the transition of the fatigue cracking behavior and the corresponding damage mechanism are discussed. Then, the fatigue properties of some typical metallic NLCs are presented and compared with that of bulk materials and metal thin films. The effect of interface type and grain boundary alignment is also discussed to correlate with fatigue cracking resistance of the NLCs. Finally, some prospective research topics on fatigue performance of metallic NLCs are addressed.
This paper presents new LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb chronology, whole-rock geochemical and zircon Hf isotopic data for the felsic lavas of the Huili Group from the southwestern Yangtze Block. LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb dating shows that these rocks were emplaced in Late Mesoproterozoic time (∼1028 to 1019 Ma). Relative to typical I-type and S-type granitoids, all the samples are characterized by low Sr and Eu, and high high-field-strength element contents, high TFeO/MgO, enriched rare earth element compositions and negative Eu anomalies, indicating that they share the geochemical signatures of A-type granitoid. They can be further divided into two groups: Group I and Group II. Group I are A1-type felsic rocks and were produced by fractional crystallization of alkaline basaltic magmas. The Group II felsic lavas belong to the A2-type and were derived by partial melting of a crustal source with mixing of mantle-derived magmas. Both Group I and Group II felsic lavas may erupt in a continental back-arc setting. The coexistence of A1- and A2-type rocks in the southwestern Yangtze Block suggests that they can occur in the same tectonic setting.
The present study used a person-centered approach to identify math motivation profiles under self-determination theory, and examine whether math achievement varies across different profiles. Data were collected from 2,137 children. Five student motivation profiles were identified: a “high quality” profile characterized by high levels of intrinsic and identiﬁed motivation and a low level of controlled motivation, a “high quantity” profile characterized by high levels of these three kinds of motivation, a “low quantity” profile characterized by low levels of these three kinds of motivation, a “poor quality” profile characterized by a high level of controlled motivation and low levels of intrinsic and identiﬁed motivation, and a “low autonomous motivation” profile characterized by very low levels of intrinsic and identiﬁed motivation. These five profiles differed in math achievement. We found that students in the high quality profile had the highest level of math achievement compared to those in the other profiles. This result indicated that the quality of motivation was more important than the amount of motivation.
The development of a non-periodic
gaseous interface subjected to a planar shock wave is investigated experimentally and theoretically to evaluate the effects of the non-periodic portions of the interface on the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability. Experimentally, five kinds of discontinuous chevron-shaped interfaces with or without non-periodic portions are created by the extended soap film technique. The post-shock flows and the interface morphologies are captured by schlieren photography combined with a high-speed video camera. A periodic chevron-shaped interface, which is multi-modal (81 % fundamental mode and 19 % high-order modes), is first considered to evaluate the impulsive linear model and several typical nonlinear models. Then, the non-periodic chevron-shaped interfaces are investigated and the results show that the existence of non-periodic portions significantly changes the balanced position of the initial interface, and subsequently disables the nonlinear model which is applicable to the periodic chevron-shaped interface. A modified nonlinear model is proposed to consider the effects of the non-periodic portions. It turns out that the new model can predict the growth of the shocked non-periodic interface well. Finally, a method is established using spectrum analysis on the initial shape of the interface to separate its bubble structure and spike structure such that the new model can apply to any random perturbed interface. These findings can facilitate the understanding of the evolution of non-periodic interfaces which are more common in reality.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
High-fidelity experiments of Richtmyer–Meshkov instability on a single-mode air/
interface are carried out at weak shock conditions. The soap-film technique is extended to create single-mode gaseous interfaces which are free of small-wavelength perturbations, diffusion layers and three-dimensionality. The interfacial morphologies captured show that the instability evolution evidently involves the smallest experimental uncertainty among all existing results. The performances of the impulsive model and other nonlinear models are thoroughly examined through temporal variations of the perturbation amplitude. The individual growth of bubbles or spikes demonstrates that all nonlinear models can provide a reliable forecast of bubble development, but only the model of Zhang & Guo (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 786, 2016, pp. 47–61) can reasonably predict spike development. The distinct images of the interface morphology obtained also provide a rare opportunity to extract interface contours such that a spectral analysis of the interfacial contours can be performed, which realizes the first direct validation of the high-order nonlinear models of Zhang & Sohn (Phys. Fluids, vol. 9, 1997, pp. 1106–1124) and Vandenboomgaerde et al. (Phys. Fluids, vol. 14 (3), 2002, pp. 1111–1122) in terms of the fundamental mode and high-order harmonics. It is found that both models show a very good and almost identical accuracy in predicting the first two modes. However, the model of Zhang & Sohn (1997) becomes much more accurate in modelling the third-order harmonics due to the fewer simplifications used.
Using time-resolved laser-scanning confocal microscopy and ultrafast optical pump/THz probe spectroscopy, we measure photoluminescence (PL) and THz-conductivity in perovskite micro-crystals and films. PL quenching and lifetime variations occur from local heterogeneity. Ultrafast THz-spectra measure sharp quantum transitions from excitonic Rydberg states, providing weakly bound excitons with a binding energy of ~13.5 meV at low temperatures. Ab-initio electronic structure calculations give a direct band gap of 1.64 eV, a dielectric constant of ~18, heavy electrons, and light holes, resulting in weakly bound excitons, consistent with the binding energies from the experiment. The complementary spectroscopy and simulations reveal fundamental insights into perovskite light-matter interactions.
A new ternary compound Al5NdNi2 was prepared by melting a stoichiometric mixture of aluminum, neodymium, and nickel in an arc furnace and annealing in vacuum. The crystal structure of Al5NdNi2 was studied by X-ray powder diffraction technique and Rietveld analysis. All diffraction lines of Al5NdNi2 were indexed, and the lattice parameters were refined with an orthorhombic structure type of space group Immm (No.71) using Rietveld analysis program DBWS-9807. The lattice parameters are presented, a = 7.0508(1) Å, b = 9.5690(1) Å, c = 3.9792(1) Å, V = 268.47 Å3, Z = 2, ρ = 4.91 g cm−3, and RIR = 1.23.
Vessel behaviour analysis plays an important role in maritime situational awareness. However, available technology still provides only limited approaches to vessel behaviour analysis. In this paper, we propose a visual analytics framework to interactively explore the characteristics of vessel behaviour by means of integrating visualisation with data mining and a human-computer interaction controlling model, which combines human insight with the enormous storage and processing capacities of computers to gain insight into vessel behaviour. In addition, we provide multiple views for visually analysing vessel trajectories, densities and speeds. Case studies with 15 days' AIS data collected from the middle Hankou channel to Yangluo channel in the Yangtze River demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
In the theory of spontaneous combustion, identifying the critical value of the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter corresponds to solving a bifurcation point problem. There are two different numerical methods used to solve this problem—the direct and indirect numerical methods. The latter finds the bifurcation point by solving a partial differential equation (PDE) problem. This is a better method to find the bifurcation point for complex geometries. This paper improves the indirect numerical method by combining the grid-domain extension method with the matrix equation computation method. We calculate the critical parameters of the Frank-Kamenetskii equation for some complex geometries using the indirect numerical method. Our results show that both the curve of the outer boundary and the height of the geometries have an effect on the values of the critical Frank-Kamenetskii parameter, however, they have little effect on the critical dimensionless temperature.
In this work, the reduction mechanism of potassium chromate (K2CrO4) was investigated via in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. During the hydrogen reduction of K2CrO4, the formation of K3CrO4, KCrO2, and KxCrO2 were detected for the first time. The study discovered that K2CrO4 was firstly reduced to K3CrO4 and an amorphous Cr(III) intermediate product at low temperature (400–500 °C). Moreover, the K3CrO4 was the only crystalline material at this stage. As the temperature increased, a stabilized amorphous CrOOH was formed. At a high temperature (550–700 °C), KCrO2 was generated. Interestingly, a portion of KCrO2 was spontaneously decomposed during the hydrogen reduction, accompanying by the formation of K0.7CrO2. Finally, the results clearly illustrated the reduction mechanism of K2CrO4: K2CrO4 → K3CrO4 → amorphous intermediate → KCrO2.
Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) play essential physiological roles in a wide range of biological processes. Serpins are researched limited in Taenia solium, although some are considered to participate in host immune responses. Tsserpins were identified as typical serpins due to the primary structure of characteristic features: the serpin motif, serpin signature and reaction centre loop (RCL). RCLs of four serpin genes (TsB6, Ts4848, Ts12383 and Ts570) contained the conserved sequences of inhibitory serpins, which may involve in immune regulation. TsEP45 differed greatly from the patterns of representative serpins, suggesting that TsEP45 may be non-inhibitory. The bioinformatic analyses were supposed that Tsserpins might be a potential antigen for diagnosis. The five recombinant Tsserpin proteins were expressed and identified reacting with Cysticercus cellulosae-positive serum samples. The indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISAs) based on Tsserpins were developed and validated, one of the five Tsserpins, TsEP45, showed excellent diagnostic results with 93·33% sensitivity and 94·12% specificity, respectively. This performance was in perfect accordance with the results of the bioinformatic analysis. This study provided a comprehensive demonstration of sequences and structural-based analysis of Tsserpins. The iELISAs based on five Tsserpins were developed and compared. TsEP45 was the potential species-specific antigen for developing iELISA to detect porcine cysticercosis.
The new ternary compound of Al2Cu3Gd was prepared by melting with stoichiometric composition in an electric arc furnace. The X-ray powder diffraction data of Al2Cu3Gd have been collected by the Rigaku Smart Lab X-ray powder diffractometer. The Rietveld refinement method had been used to study the crystal structure of Al2Cu3Gd. The results showed that the Al2Cu3Gd, new compound have the hexagonal structure, space group P6/mmm (No. 191) with a = 5.1822 (1) Å, c = 4.1566 (1) Å, V = 96.67 Å3, Z = 1, and the density is 6.62 g cm−3, and the intensity ratio reference intensity ratio is 1.29.