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The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
To satisfy the needs of precise pin-point landing missions in deep space exploration, this paper proposes a method based on feature line extraction and matching to estimate the attitude and position of a lander during the descent phase. Linear equations for a lander's motion parameters are given by using at least three feature lines on the planetary surface and their two-dimensional projections. Then, by taking advantage of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), candidate solutions are obtained. Lastly, the unique lander's attitude and position relative to the landing site are selected from the candidate solutions. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is able to estimate a lander's attitude and position robustly and quickly. Without an extended Kalman filter, the average errors of attitude are less than 1° and the average errors of position are less than 10 m at an altitude of 2,000 m. With an extended Kalman filter, attitude errors are within 0·5° and position errors are within 1 m at an altitude of 247·9 m.
We report our investigations on the host galaxy properties of stellar binary black holes (SBBHs) by implementing simple recipes for SBBH formation and merger into cosmological galaxy formation model. If the time delay between SBBH formation and merger ranges from Gyr to the Hubble time, SBBH mergers at redshift z < 0.3 occur preferentially in big galaxies with stellar mass M* > 2 × 1010M⊙ and metallicities Z peaking around ~0.6Z⊙. However, the host galaxy stellar mass distribution of heavy SBBH mergers (with total black hole mass >50M⊙) is bimodal with one peak at ~109M⊙ and the other peak at ~2 × 1010M⊙. The contribution fraction from metal-poor host galaxies (Z < 0.2Z⊙) to heavy mergers is much larger than that to less heavy mergers. If SBBHs were formed in the early universe, their mergers detected at z < 0.3 occur preferentially in even more massive galaxies with M* > 3 × 1010M⊙ and in galaxies with metallicities mostly >0.2Z⊙ and peaking at Z ~ 0.6Z⊙.
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary DHA and EPA on gonadal steroidogenesis in mature females and males, with a feeding trial on tongue sole, a typical marine teleost with sexual dimorphism. Three experimental diets differing basically in DHA:EPA ratio, that is, 0·68 (diet D:E-0·68), 1·09 (D:E-1·09) and 2·05 (D:E-2·05), were randomly assigned to nine tanks of 3-year-old tongue sole (ten females and fifteen males in each tank). The feeding trail lasted for 90 d before and during the spawning season. Fish were reared in a flowing seawater system and fed to apparent satiation twice daily. Compared with diet D:E-0·68, diet D:E-1·09 significantly enhanced the oestradiol production in females, whereas diet D:E-2·05 significantly enhanced the testosterone production in males. In ovaries, diet D:E-1·09 induced highest mRNA expression of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 17α-hydroxylase (P450c17) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD). In testes, diet 2·05 resulted in highest mRNA expression of FSHR, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, P450c17 and 3β-HSD. Fatty acid profiles in fish tissues reflected closely those of diets. Female fish had more gonadal EPA content but less DHA content than male fish, whereas there was a reverse observation in liver. In conclusion, the dietary DHA:EPA ratio, possibly combined with the dietary EPA:arachidonic acid ratio, differentially regulated sex steroid hormone synthesis in mature female and male tongue soles. Females seemed to require more EPA but less DHA for the gonadal steroidogenesis than males. The results are beneficial to sex-specific nutritive strategies in domestic teleost.
This work was to evaluate the differences of soil and plant analysis development (SPAD) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) readings and their relationship with leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA). The study explored new indices to diagnose nitrogen (N) status. These indices were obtained by multiplying SPAD readings and leaf area index (LAI). Linear regression relationships between Chlorophyll values and N indicators showed the SPAD readings (Chl: LNA=0.0546×Chl-0.479, R2=0.94***, P<0.001). The projected results suggested that Chl values could play an important role for improving N status diagnosis from stem elongation to heading stages in paddy rice.
Astronomy cloud computing environment is a cyber-Infrastructure for Astronomy Research initiated by Chinese Virtual Observatory (China-VO) under funding support from NDRC (National Development and Reform commission) and CAS (Chinese Academy of Sciences). Based on virtualization technology, astronomy cloud computing environment was designed and implemented by China-VO team. It consists of five distributed nodes across the mainland of China. Astronomer can get compuitng and storage resource in this cloud computing environment. Through this environments, astronomer can easily search and analyze astronomical data collected by different telescopes and data centers , and avoid the large scale dataset transportation.
be an infinite iterated function system on
be its attractor. Then, for any
, it corresponds to a sequence of integers
, called the digit sequence of
, in the sense that
To understand the nature of hedge fund managers’ skills, we study the implementation of risk arbitrage by hedge funds using their portfolio holdings and comparing them with those of other institutional arbitrageurs. We find that hedge funds significantly outperform a naive risk-arbitrage portfolio by 3.7% annually on a risk-adjusted basis, whereas non–hedge fund arbitrageurs fail to outperform the benchmark. Our analysis reveals that hedge funds’ superior performance does not reflect fund managers’ ability to predict or affect the outcome of merger and acquisition deals; rather, hedge fund managers’ superior performance is attributed to their ability to manage downside risk.
In C-Band transfer measuring systems, the Precise Orbit Determination (POD) precision of Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites is limited by signal biases such as the station delay biases, transponder delay biases, the ionospheric delay model bias, etc. In order to improve the POD precision, the signal biases of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) are calibrated using Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and C-Band Transfer Ranging (CBTR) observations. Since the Changchun SLR site and C-Band station are close to each other, the signal biases of the Changchun C-Band station are calibrated using the co-location comparison method. Then the signal biases of the other two CAPS C-Band stations, located in Linton and Kashi, are calibrated using the combined POD method, with the signal biases of the Changchun C-Band station being fixed. After the signal biases are calibrated, the RMS of the line-of-sight residuals of the Changchun SLR observations decrease by 0·4 m, with the percentage improvement being 75·19%.
The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary fiber on methanogenic diversity and community composition in the hindgut of indigenous Chinese Lantang gilts to explain the unexpected findings reported earlier that Lantang gilts fed low-fiber diet (LFD) produced more methane than those fed high-fiber diet (HFD). In total, 12 Lantang gilts (58.7±0.37 kg) were randomly divided into two dietary groups (six replicates (pigs) per group) and fed either LFD (NDF=201.46 g/kg) or HFD (NDF=329.70 g/kg). Wheat bran was the main source of fiber for the LFD, whereas ground rice hull (mixture of rice hull and rice bran) was used for the HFD. Results showed that the methanogens in the hindgut of Lantang gilts belonged to four known species (Methanobrevibacter ruminantium, Methanobrevibacter wolinii, Methanosphaera stadtmanae and Methanobrevibacter smithii), with about 89% of the methanogens belonging to the genus Methanobrevibacter. The 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene copies of Methanobrevibacter were more than three times higher (P<0.05) for gilts fed LFD (3.31×109 copies/g dry matter (DM)) than gilts fed HFD (1.02×109 copies/g DM). No difference (P>0.05) was observed in 16S rRNA gene copies of Fibrobacter succinogenes between the two dietary groups, and 18S rRNA gene copies of anaerobic fungi in gilts fed LFD were lower than (P<0.05) those fed HFD. To better explain the effect of different fiber source on the methanogen community, a follow-up in vitro fermentation using a factorial design comprised of two inocula (prepared from hindgut content of gilts fed two diets differing in their dietary fiber)×four substrates (LFD, HFD, wheat bran, ground rice hull) was conducted. Results of the in vitro fermentation confirmed that the predominant methanogens belonged to the genus of Methanobrevibacter, and about 23% methanogens was found to be distantly related (90%) to Thermogymnomonas acidicola. In vitro fermentation also seems to suggest that fiber source did change the methanogens community. Although the density of Methanobrevibacter species was positively correlated with CH4 production in both in vivo (P<0.01, r=0.737) and in vitro trials (P<0.05, r=0.854), which could partly explain the higher methane production from gilts fed LFD compared with those in the HFD group. Further investigation is needed to explain how the rice hull affected the methanogens and inhibited CH4 emission from gilts fed HFD.
To investigate natural enemies of emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in northeastern China, we conducted field surveys of ash (Fraxinus Linnaeus (Oleaceae)) trees in semi-natural forests and plantations at variable EAB densities from 2008 to 2013. Our surveys revealed a complex of natural enemies including eight hymenopteran parasitoids and two apparently parasitic Coleoptera, woodpeckers, and several undetermined mortality factors. Parasitoid complex abundance and its contribution to EAB mortality varied with the time of year, type of ash stands, and geographic regions. The egg parasitoid Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and the larval parasitoid Tetrastichus planipennisi Yang (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) were frequently observed in Jilin, Liaoning, and Heilongjiang provinces and in Beijing, but not in Tianjin. Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), however, was more prevalent near Beijing and further south in Tianjin. Larvae of two species of apparently parasitic beetle, Tenerus Laporte (Coleoptera: Cleridae) species and Xenoglena quadrisignata Mannerheim (Coleoptera: Trogossitidae), were also recovered attacking overwintering EAB in Liaoning Province, with Tenerus species being a dominant mortality agent (~13%). Our findings support the need to consider the geographic origin of insect natural enemies for EAB biocontrol, as well as an expanded foreign exploration for EAB natural enemies throughout its native range in Asia.
Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites play a significant role in the space segment of the Chinese Area Navigation System. The C-Band transfer ranging method developed by the National Time Service Center (NTSC) has been widely used in the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS), with its advantages of separating satellite ranging from time synchronization and being unaffected by weather. The explicit ranging correction models for the C-Band transfer ranging method are introduced in detail in this article for the first time. Precise Orbit Determination (POD) using C-Band pseudo-range observation of GEO satellite 2010-001A in July 2012 has been conducted. The residual Root Mean Square (RMS) of each site and POD are analysed with orbit difference over overlaps of adjacent orbit arcs. Moreover, the orbit of the GEO satellite has been evaluated by Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data from both domestic and foreign SLR sites for the first time. The residual RMS of POD using C-Band observation is better than 0·1 m, and the orbit difference over overlaps of adjacent orbit arcs is better than 3 m. In addition, the residual RMS in line-of-sight for a SLR site in China are better than 1 m, while the RMS for the Yarragadee site in Australia is about 3·4 m. It has been shown that the GEO satellite orbit accords very well with the C-Band observation. Also, the distribution of CAPS stations affects the orbit precision. All sites in CAPS are now located in China with low and medium latitudes. The residual RMS of the SLR site in the southern hemisphere is larger than that of the site in China.
We have investigated the growth mode of iron on clean Cu(100), Cu (110) and Cu(111) surfaces using high resolution LEED. We studied the effect of substrate temperature on the growth of epitaxial fee iron. Iron metal was evaporated from an electron beam source under UHV conditions and deposited on the copper single crystal surfaces at three different temperatures (173 K, 300 K and 473 K). A high resolution LEED system was used to measure the diffraction spot profiles. The samples were studied as a function of temperature after deposition on the copper substrates. The clean Cu surfaces were also measured and used as references for the Fe:Cu system. The diffraction spot profiles show Gaussian line shape before and after the Fe deposition. The effect of iron grown on the Cu surface is to reduce the coherent length. This effect is observed for all the copper surfaces. The intensity of the diffraction spots exhibit a sudden increase above 470 K, simultaneously a larger coherent length is observed. This effect occurs for all copper surfaces. The epitaxial growth of Fe is better on Cu (100) than on the other surfaces. The best epitaxial growth is obtained for the highest substrate temperature. A careful Auger study reveals that the anomalous increase observed on the intensity of the diffraction spots is related to the evaporation of iron from the copper surface. The spot profiles at low temperature are very broad and are suggestive of very poor epitaxy, random islands growth with a high probability of bec iron inclusions.
The Dorset ram of the callipyge phenotype presents with muscular hypertrophy in the buttocks, and its inheritance is polar overdominant. A partial DNA fragment of 250 bp was obtained from the goat (Capra hircas) callipyge gene (CLPG; GenBank accession no. EU753362), which shared 96.04% and 88.65% identity with the corresponding regions of ovine (Ovis aries) and porcine CLPG, respectively. A polymorphism in the DNA fragment was detected by polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Sequencing results indicated no A→C mutation corresponding to the ovine CLPG gene, although one A→C transversion was located 147 bp downstream from the CLPG site. The polymorphism, named SNP216 after its position (where SNP indicates single-nucleotide polymorphism), was investigated in Boer (n=63), Laiwu Black (n=70), Lubei White×Boer Hybrid (n=40), Lubei White (n=29) and Inner Mongolia Alashan White cashmere (n=115) goat populations. The results indicated that allele A was dominant in four of the goat populations, the Inner Mongolia Alashan White cashmere goats being the exception. The first four populations were in a state of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05). In Inner Mongolia Alashan White cashmere goats, least-square means of birth weight, production of cashmere and body weight gain from birth to weaning did not differ significantly between the AA and AC phenotypes (P>0.5).
Se is an essential trace element in human nutrition associated with antioxidant activity. Previous studies on predictors of toenail Se or serum Se have mostly concentrated on demographic factors such as age and gender. The present paper examines the association between apoE genotype and Se levels in nail samples in a rural elderly Chinese cohort.
Two thousand Chinese aged 65 years and over from four counties in China were enrolled in a cohort to study the association of Se with cognitive decline. Nail samples were collected from each participant and analysed for Se levels. Dietary Se intake was estimated from an FFQ using Se contents measured in food items collected from each village. Blood samples on filter cards were collected and analysed for apoE genotype. Mixed-effect models were constructed with nail Se level as the dependent variable and each village as the random effect, which controlled for the potential confounding effect from correlation in Se measures obtained from participants residing in the same village.
In this elderly Chinese cohort, carriers of the apoE ε4 allele had significantly lower Se levels measured in nail samples than non-carriers after adjusting for other significant covariates and controlling for estimated dietary Se intake. There was no significant difference between the two genotypes on estimated Se dietary intake (P = 0·6451).
Future studies are needed to examine the mechanism underlying the association between the apoE ε4 allele and Se levels, including the role of oxidative stress and that of reduced lipid metabolism in the apoE ε4 carriers.
Frugivorous bats are important seed dispersers for many plant species (Cox et al. 1991, Fleming & Heithaus 1981, Hodgkison et al. 2003a, McConkey & Drake 2006, Nyhagen et al. 2005, Utzurrum 1995). They regularly consume figs in the wild (Fujita & Tuttle 1991, Kalko et al. 1996, Shilton et al. 1999). Various species of pteropodid bats have been reported foraging on the fruits of more than 30 fig species in tropical and subtropical Asia, Africa and Australia (Bhat 1994, Fujita & Tuttle 1991, Marshall & McWilliam 1982, Thomas 1984). Food transit times in frugivorous bats are relatively rapid; generally less than 30 min (Laska 1990, Tedman & Hall 1985). Several studies have demonstrated that seed germination was either enhanced or unaffected after passage through the digestive tract of bats (Figueiredo & Perin 1995, Fleming & Heithaus 1981, Lieberman & Lieberman 1986).
The protective efficacy of a Schistosoma japonicum, Chinese strain, triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI) plasmid DNA vaccine was examined in naïve pigs. Pigs were vaccinated with the TPI DNA-plasmid alone, or in conjunction with IL-12 as pcDNA3.1-P35, pcDNA3.1-P40 plasmids via intramuscular injection. Control pigs were immunized with equivalent amounts of pcDNA3.1. Pigs were immunized 3 times at 21-day intervals and challenged 30 days after the final boost. Forty-five days post-challenge, pigs were sacrificed and perfused to compare adult worm burdens, female worm burdens, liver egg burdens and granuloma size. We found that pigs vaccinated with SjCTPI DNA alone had adult worm burdens reduced by 48·3% and that a further decrease in adult worm burdens was not seen in the group vaccinated with SjCTPI DNA in conjunction with IL-12 (46·2% reduction). The SjCTPI DNA vaccines had a more pronounced effect on reducing female worm burdens i.e. 53·6% SjCTPI alone and 59·6% for SjCTPI+IL-12. Vaccination with SjCTPI-DNA reduced liver eggs by 49·4% and this response was significantly enhanced by the addition of IL-12 (65·8% reduction in liver eggs). In addition to the dramatic protective effects seen in vaccinated pigs, we also noted that granuloma size was reduced by 42% in both groups. Thus, vaccination of pigs and other large animals in China with SjCTPI DNA vaccine will likely reduce transmission by reducing adult worm burdens and worm egg output and simultaneously reduce hepatic egg-associated pathology.
Eu(DBM)3phen-doped poly(methyl methacryate) (PMMA) with different doping concentration were prepared. The highest doping concentration sample (10000 ppm) was examined by near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) with a resolution of 50 nm; and the result showed that there were no aggregates larger than 50 nm in the doped polymer. This result was further confirmed by optical properties of the doping material. Concentration quenching was not detected by metastable-state lifetime measurements, indicating that no aggregates existed. According to the fluorescence spectra analysis, the relative intensity ratio (R) of 5D0→7F2 to 5D0→7F1 transition was not shown to be significantly changed with the increasing of Eu3+ content. The analysis reflected that the local structure and asymmetry in the vicinity of europium ions were not changed, and that the Eu3+ ions in PMMA were homogeneously dispersed.