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The coexistence of underweight (UW) and overweight (OW)/obese (OB) at the population level is known to affect iron deficiency (ID) anaemia (IDA), but how the weight status affects erythropoiesis during pregnancy is less clear at a population scale. This study investigated associations between the pre-pregnancy BMI (pBMI) and erythropoiesis-related nutritional deficiencies.
Anthropometry, blood biochemistry and 24-h dietary recall data were collected during prenatal care visits. The weight status was defined based on the pBMI. Mild nutrition deficiency-related erythropoiesis was defined if individuals had an ID, folate depletion or a vitamin B12 deficiency.
The Nationwide Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (Pregnant NAHSIT 2017–2019).
We included 1456 women aged 20 to 45 years with singleton pregnancies.
Among these pregnant women, 9·6 % were UW, and 29·2 % were either OW (15·8 %) or OB (13·4 %). A U-shaped association between the pBMI and IDA was observed, with decreased odds (OR; 95 % CI) for OW subjects (0·6; 95 % CI (0·4, 0·9)) but increased odds for UW (1·2; 95 % CI (0·8, 2·0)) and OB subjects (1·2; 95 % CI (0·8, 1·8)). The pBMI was positively correlated with the prevalence of a mild nutritional deficiency. Compared to normal weight, OB pregnant women had 3·4-fold (3·4; 95 % CI (1·4, 8·1)) higher odds for multiple mild nutritional deficiencies, while UW individuals had lowest odds (0·3; 95 % CI (0·1, 1·2)). A dietary analysis showed negative relationships of pBMI with energy, carbohydrates, protein, Fe and folate intakes, but positive relationship with fat intakes.
The pre-pregnancy weight status can possibly serve as a good nutritional screening tool for preventing IDA during pregnancy.
To develop a theoretical model explaining the longitudinal changes in the caregiving process for family caregivers of persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Taiwan.
A longitudinal, grounded theory approach using in-depth face-to-face interviews and an open-ended interview guide. We conducted 42 interviews over a two-year period; each participant was interviewed at least once every six months. All participants were interviewed in their home. The participants total of 13 family caregivers of persons with MCI.
One core theme emerged: “protective preparation.” This reflected the family caregiving process of preparation for a further decline in cognitive function, and protection from the impact of low self-esteem, accidents, and symptoms of comorbidities for the family member with MCI. Protective preparation contained three components: ambivalent normalization, vigilant preparation, and protective management.
Interventions to help family caregivers manage the changes in persons with MCI can reduce caregiver burden. Our findings could provide a knowledge base for use by healthcare providers to develop and implement strategies to reduce caregiver burden for family caregivers of persons with MCI.
SiO2-MgF2/TiO2 double-layer films with antireflective, self-cleaning and adherent properties were prepared by spin-coating SiO2-MgF2 and TiO2 sol on glass substrate successively and subsequently being calcined at 250°C. The optical and structural properties of films have been investigated by visible spectrophotometer and field emission scanning electron microscope, respectively. At the same time, self-cleaning property generated from superhydrophilicity and photocatalysis was obtained. The results indicated that the as-prepared SiO2-MgF2/TiO2 double-layer films show a maximum increase in transmittance near 520 nm wavelength of 2.8% and photocatalytic property with the R value of 4.7(JIS R 1703–2).It has been demonstrated that high transmittance, self-cleaning and adherent composite has been obtained by a simple sol–gel route presenting good potential to be applied on photovoltaics systems.
Severe limb trauma often results in substantial injuries to multiple tissue types, including bone, skeletal muscle, nerve, and vasculature. These injuries generally present increased clinical challenges and frequently cannot be managed with conventional reconstruction techniques. Furthermore, due to the complex nature of these injuries, there is no real consensus on intervention strategies [1–3]. Given the inherent severe and pervasive tissue damage, multistage treatment is routinely required, and patients are typically encumbered with diminished long-term function even if limb salvage and reconstruction are successful [4, 5].
Extremity trauma remains the predominant type of combat casualty for US armed forces members engaged in ongoing military conflicts, a continuation of historical trends. Explosive munitions are the primary cause of these injuries [6, 7], resulting in penetrating blast wounds with large zones of injury that encompass multiple tissue types, and, notably, a high incidence of bone and soft-tissue trauma  (Figure 29.1). High-energy trauma incidents, such as motor vehicle collisions, produce an additional civilian patient population. Although passenger survival in these incidents has increased with improved engineering of safety features, severe extremity trauma remains common [8, 9].
In order to better understand the individual-level motives for ticket-splitting, Taiwan's Election and Democratization Study has since 2001 included a question aimed at measuring respondents’ preferences for checks and balances. We argue that this set of questions, designed to measure a combination of Fiorina's policy-balancing hypothesis and Ladd's cognitive Madisonianism, is inconsistent with principles of survey methodology and thus produces data that are suboptimal. Following a method developed by Carsey and Layman, we propose an alternative concept, the policy-balancing index derived from the perceived ideological distance between respondent and political parties, which both avoids methodological violations and provides us with a more precise concept to work with. We test the index and find it to be a significant determinant of ticket-splitting behavior.
Whole-mount immunofluorescence technique provides a way to reveal integrated expression patterns of biological molecules in individuals. Well-documented morphological preservation ability in biology makes aldehydes the fixative of choice. Cross-linking among biocomponents and aldehydes is the key for maintaining morphology but masks the biological molecules for immunodetection. This study performs an easily accessible method by applying heat-induced retrieval, which can rescue the antigenicity of the proteins and also enhance the labeling sensitivity of the fluorescence dye in overfixed zebrafish embryos. The results show that the immunoreactivities of antibodies to myosin in the muscles, green fluorescent protein in the blood vessels and the nuclei in the cells can be recovered significantly, and the morphology of the zebrafish embryos, even the fragile mutants, is at the same time well maintained. Therefore, we provide a choice for antigen retrieval, which is effective for whole-mount immunofluorescence microscopy.
High efficiency photovoltaic devices are normally fabricated on single crystalline substrates. These single crystalline substrates are expensive and volume production for widespread usage has not been realistic. To date, large volume production of solar cells is on less expensive non-crystalline substrates such as glass. Typically the films grown on glass are polycrystalline with less than ideal efficiency. It was proposed that a dramatic gain in the efficiency may be achieved if one uses a biaxially oriented buffer layer on glass to grow biaxial semiconductor films to fabricate solar devices compared to that of films grown directly on glass. Biaxial films are not exactly single crystal but have strongly preferred crystallographic orientations in both the out-of-plane and in-plane directions. Typically the misorientation between grains can be small (within a few degrees) and may possess low carrier recombination rate. In this paper we shall discuss growth techniques that would allow one to produce biaxial buffer layers on glass. A specific strategy using an atomic shadowing mechanism in an oblique angle deposition configuration that allows one to grow biaxial buffer layers such as CaF2 on glass substrate will be discussed in detail. Results of heteroepitaxy of semiconductor materials such as CdTe and Ge on these biaxial buffer/glass substrates characterized by x-ray pole figure, reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) pole figure and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) will be presented.
A series of tetrahedral tetramers of 2,5-diphenyl substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole compounds were synthesized and characterized for electron-transporting layer (ETL) in organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The multiple-branch design of the oxadiazole tetramers intends to increase the melting temperature and to generate glass phase of the low molar mass derivative such as 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD). We observed temperatures of the glass phase transition for the oxadiazole tetramer with appropriate peripheral substituents, indicative of amorphous characteristics of the molecule in spite of highly symmetrical molecular framework. The luminescence-current-voltage characteristics of multilayer OLED devices containing the oxadiazole tetramer or PBD as ETL were examined to evaluate the efficiency of our multiple-branch molecular design.
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