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Magnesium alloys usually lack “operative deformation slip mechanisms” because of their hexagonal close-packed structure. Therefore, the mechanical behavior of magnesium alloys at different temperatures is dictated by other deformation mechanisms such as twinning, detwinning, secondary twinning, or dynamic recrystallization (DRX). Twinning and DRX can affect the development of grain size and orientation distribution, as well as the deformation behavior of magnesium alloys. The current understanding of the mechanisms and mechanics of these different deformation modes and their implementation in crystal plasticity-based modeling are highlighted in this article. Future directions in the development of constitutive models are also discussed.
We aimed to investigate the association between plasma retinol and incident cancer among Chinese hypertensive adults. We conducted a nested case–control study, including 231 patients with incident cancer and 231 matched controls during a median 4·5-year follow-up of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. There was a significant, inverse association between retinol levels and digestive system cancer (per 10 μg/dl increases: OR 0·79; 95 % CI 0·69, 0·91). When compared with participants in the first quartile of retinol (< 52·3 μg/dl), a significantly lower cancer risk was found in participants in quartile 2–4 ( ≥ 52·3 μg/dl: OR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·13, 0·71). However, there was a U-shaped association between retinol levels and non-digestive system cancers where the risk of cancers decreased (although not significantly) with each increment of plasma retinol (per 10 μg/dl increases: OR 0·89; 95 % CI 0·60, 1·31) in participants with retinol < 68·2 μg/dl, and then increased significantly with retinol (per 10 μg/dl increase: OR 1·65; 95 % CI 1·12, 2·44) in participants with retinol ≥ 68·2 μg/dl. In conclusion, there was a significant inverse dose–response association between plasma retinol and the risk of digestive system cancers. However, a U-shaped association was observed between plasma retinol and the risk of non-digestive cancers (with a turning point approximately 68·2 μg/dl).
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
We sought to examine the potential modifiers in the association between long-term low-dose folic acid supplementation and the reduction of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) among hypertensive patients, using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). This analysis included 16 867 participants who had complete data on tHcy measurements at both the baseline and exit visit. After a median treatment period of 4·5 years, folic acid treatment significantly reduced the tHcy levels by 1·6 μmol/l (95 % CI 1·4, 1·8). More importantly, after adjustment for baseline tHcy and other important covariates, a greater degree of tHcy reduction was observed in certain subgroups: males, the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677TT genotype, higher baseline tHcy levels (≥12·5 (median) v. <12·5 μmol/l), lower folate levels (<8·0 (median) v. ≥8·0 ng/ml), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min per 1·73 m2 (v. 60–<90 and ≥90 ml/min per 1·73 m2), ever smokers and concomitant use of diuretics (P for all interactions <0·05). The degree of tHcy reduction associated with long-term folic acid supplementation can be significantly affected by sex, MTHFR C677T genotypes, baseline folate, tHcy, eGFR levels and smoking status.
This study aim to derive and validate a simple and well-performing risk calculator (RC) for predicting psychosis in individual patients at clinical high risk (CHR).
From the ongoing ShangHai-At-Risk-for-Psychosis (SHARP) program, 417 CHR cases were identified based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), of whom 349 had at least 1-year follow-up assessment. Of these 349 cases, 83 converted to psychosis. Logistic regression was used to build a multivariate model to predict conversion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to test the effectiveness of the SIPS-RC. Second, an independent sample of 100 CHR subjects was recruited based on an identical baseline and follow-up procedures to validate the performance of the SIPS-RC.
Four predictors (each based on a subset of SIPS-based items) were used to construct the SIPS-RC: (1) functional decline; (2) positive symptoms (unusual thoughts, suspiciousness); (3) negative symptoms (social anhedonia, expression of emotion, ideational richness); and (4) general symptoms (dysphoric mood). The SIPS-RC showed moderate discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.744 (p < 0.001). A risk estimate of 25% or higher had around 75% accuracy for predicting psychosis. The personalized risk generated by the SIPS-RC provided a solid estimate of conversion outcomes in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.804 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.662–0.951].
The SIPS-RC, which is simple and easy to use, can perform in the same manner as the NAPLS-2 RC in the Chinese clinical population. Such a tool may be used by clinicians to counsel appropriately their patients about clinical monitor v. potential treatment options.
Zircon U–Pb dating and whole-rock geochemical analysis have been performed on Late Jurassic – Early Cretaceous intrusive rocks of the Ulanhot area, NE China, with the aim of constraining the tectonic evolution of the central and southern Da Xingan Range. Zircon U–Pb dating indicates that Late Jurassic – Early Cretaceous magmatic events experienced four stages at: c. 155 Ma; c. 144 Ma; 135–130 Ma; and c. 126 Ma. The c. 155 Ma magmatic event consists of quartz diorite and granite-porphyryp with the geochemical characteristic of high Sr and Sr/Y or high A/CNK (1.38), implying the primary magma was derived from partial melting of a thickened lower crust which induced the closure of the Mongol–Okhotsk Ocean. The c. 144 Ma magmatic event consists of quartz monzodiorite with the geochemical characteristics of alkaline series, and indicates the delamination of a thickened crust. The 135–130 Ma magmatic event consists of syenogranite and granite-porphyry with characteristics of both I-type and A-type granites, which induced both the subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific oceanic plate and the post-orogenic extension of the Mongol–Okhotsk Orogenic Belt. The c. 126 Ma magmatic event consisted of highly fractionated I-type biotite granite and alkaline series gabbro, marking the end of the Mongol–Okhotsk Orogen, and implying that the study area was controlled by the circum-Pacific tectonic system during this stage.
Soluble starch synthase II (SSII) plays an important role in the biosynthesis of starch and in rice it consists of three isoforms encoded by SSII-1, SSII-2 and SSII-3. However, the genetic effects of various SSII alleles on grain quality have not been systematically characterized. In the present study, the japonica alleles on SSII-1, SSII-2 and SSII-3 (SSIIa) loci from a japonica cultivar, Suyunuo, were respectively introgressed by molecular marker-assisted selection into a typical indica cultivar, Guichao2, through successive backcrossing, generating three sets of near-isogenic lines (NILs). Grain quality and starch property analysis showed that NIL-SSII-3j exhibited significant decreases in the following parameters: amylose content, average granule size, and setback viscosity and consistency; but increases in peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, gelatinization temperature and relative crystallinity. Moreover, the proportion of short amylopectin chains and branching degree also increased when compared with those of NIL-SSII-3i (Guochao2). Similar effects were observed in NIL-SSII-1j, and certain alterations in the fine structure of starch (granule size) were revealed. However, NIL-SSII-2j did not exert significant effect on grain quality and starch properties. In brief, among the SSII gene family, the functional diversity occurred on SSII-1 and SSII-3, and not on SSII-2. Therefore, it appears that more attention should be directed to SSII-1 and SSII-3 loci for improving the eating and cooking quality of rice.
We report in this study the dissociation conditions for the carbon dioxide
hydrate in the presence of additive materials. We measured the
hydrate-water-vapor (H-Lw-V) three-phase equilibrium data using the isochoric
method. Examples of these phase equilibrium data for the additive materials of
1,3,5-trioxane, 2,5-dihydrofuran, 1,3-dioxolane, and 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran are
presented. The experimental pressure range is from 1.6 to 3.3 MPa, and the
concentration of each additive is at 10 wt%. The experimental results indicate
that cyclic ethers of 1,3,5-trioxane, 2,5-dihydrofuran, and 1,3-dioxolane
promote the formation of carbon dioxide hydrate. Their promotion effects at a
given pressure are up to 5 K, 6.9 K, and 4.2 K, respectively, The additive
material of 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran, however, shows the inhibitor behavior. The
average inhibition effect is about 1.3 K at a given pressure.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for letrozole, C17H11N5, are reported [a = 7.034(0) Å, b = 16.177(5) Å, c = 13.411(3) Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 105.71(9)°, unit-cell volume V = 1469.0(3) Å3, Z = 4, and space-group P21/c]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21/c space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
To explore the prevalence and determinants of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among flood victims.
A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2014 among individuals who had experienced the 1998 floods and had been diagnosed with PTSD in 1999 in Hunan, China. Cluster sampling was used to select subjects from the areas that had been surveyed in 1999. PTSD was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, social support was measured according to a Social Support Rating Scale, coping style was measured according to a Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and personality was measured by use of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale for Chinese. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews by use of a structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to reveal the determinants of chronic PTSD.
A total of 123 subjects were interviewed, 17 of whom (14.4%) were diagnosed with chronic PTSD. Chronic PTSD was significantly associated with disaster stressors (odds ratio [OR]: 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.47), nervousness (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01-1.17), and social support (OR: 0.85; 95 CI%: 0.74-0.98).
Chronic PTSD in flood victims is significantly associated with disaster stressors, nervousness, and social support. These factors may play important roles in identifying persons at high risk of chronic PTSD. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:504–508)
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for beta-methyl vinyl phosphate (MAP), C29H27N2O10P, are reported [a = 17.293(4) Å, b = 6.142(6) Å, c = 14.464(8) Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 112.048(0)°, unit-cell volume V = 1424.19 Å3, Z = 2, and space group P21]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21 space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
Thermo-camera is employed here to analyze kinds of quality abnormal and improve production process during manufacture procedure of silicon-based thin-film solar modules. It shows that thermo-camera device can help engineers to solve problem of production line quickly and accurately, and save the manpower and financial resources at the same time.
The aim of the present study was to determine whether early weaning-induced growth retardation could be attenuated by increased consumption of methionine as dl-methionine (DLM) or dl-2-hydroxy-4-methylthiobutyrate (HMTBA) in both lactating sows and weaned piglets. Therefore, diets containing DLM and HMTBA at 25 % of the total sulphur-containing amino acids (AA) present in the control (CON) diet were fed to lactating sows and weaned piglets and their responses were evaluated. Compared with the CON diet-fed sows, the HMTBA diet-fed sows exhibited a tendency (P< 0·10) towards higher plasma taurine concentrations and the DLM diet-fed sows had higher (P< 0·05) plasma taurine concentrations, but lower (P< 0·05) isoleucine concentrations. Suckling piglets in the HMTBA treatment group had higher (P< 0·05) intestinal reduced glutathione (GSH) content, lower (P< 0·05) oxidised glutathione (GSSG):GSH ratio, and higher (P< 0·05) plasma cysteine and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity than those in the CON and DLM treatment groups. The feed intake (P< 0·05) and body weight of piglets averaged across post-weaning (PW) days were higher (P< 0·05) in the HMTBA treatment group than in the DLM treatment group and were higher (P< 0·05) and tended (P< 0·10) to be higher, respectively, in the HMTBA treatment group than in the CON treatment group. Increased (P< 0·05) GSSG content and GSSG:GSH ratio and down-regulated (P< 0·05) expression of nutrient transport genes were observed in the jejunum of piglets on PW day 7 than on PW day 0. On PW day 14, the HMTBA diet-fed piglets had higher (P< 0·05) intestinal GSH content than the CON diet-fed piglets and higher (P< 0·05) plasma GPx activity, villus height and goblet cell numbers than the CON diet- and DLM diet-fed piglets. In conclusion, early weaning-induced growth retardation appears to be attenuated through changes in plasma AA profiles and elevation of growth performance and intestinal antioxidant capacity in piglets following increased consumption of methionine as HMTBA.
In recent years, human leptospirosis has been reported in Jinping and Liping counties, Guizhou province, but the leptospires have never been isolated. To track the source of infection and understand the aetiological characteristics, we performed surveillance for field mice carriage of leptospirosis in 2011. Four strains of leptospire were isolated from Apodemus agrarius. PCR confirmed the four isolates as pathogenic. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) showed that the four strains were closely related to serovar Lai strain 56601 belonging to serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae, which is consistent with the antibody detection results from local patients. Furthermore, the diversity of leptospiral isolates from different hosts and regions was demonstrated with MLVA. Our results suggest that A. agrarius may be the main carrier of Leptospira in Jinping and Liping counties, and the serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae serovar may be the epidemic serogroup of Leptospira. This will contribute to the control and prevention of leptospirosis in these localities.
Eimeria spp. are the causative agents of coccidiosis, a major disease affecting the poultry industry. So far, only a few antigen genes of E. acervulina have been reported. In this study, a clone, named as cSZ-JN2, was identified from a cDNA expression library prepared from E. acervulina sporozoite stage with the ability to stimulate the chicken immune response. The sequence analysis showed that the open reading fragment (ORF) of cSZ-JN2 was 153 bp in size and encoded a predicted protein of 50 amino acids of Mr 5·3 kDa. BLASTN search revealed that cSZ-JN2 had no significant homology with the known genes of E. acervulina or any other organism (GenBank). The recombinant cSZ-JN2 antigen expressed in E. coli was recognized strongly by serum from chickens experimentally infected with E. acervulina. Immunofluorescence analysis using antibody against recombinant cSZ-JN2 indicated that this protein was expressed in sporozoite and merozoite developmental stages. Animal challenge experiments demonstrated that the recombinant protein of cSZ-JN2 and DNA vaccine carrying cSZ-JN2 could significantly increase the average body weight gains, decrease the mean lesion scores and the oocyst outputs of the immunized chickens and presented anti-coccidial indices of more than 165. All the above results suggested that the cSZ-JN2 was a novel E. acervulina antigen and could be an effective candidate for the development of a new vaccine against E. acervulina infection.
We aimed to investigate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia (total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) ≥ 10 μmol/l) and its major determinants in rural Chinese hypertensive patients. A cross-sectional investigation was carried out in Lianyungang of Jiangsu province, China. This analysis included 13 946 hypertensive adults. The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia was 51·6 % (42·7 % in women and 65·6 % in men). The OR of hyperhomocysteinaemia were 1·52 (95 % CI 1·39, 1·67) and 2·32 (95 % CI 2·07, 2·61) for participants aged 55–65 and 65–75 v. 45–55 years; 1·27 (95 % CI 1·18, 1·37) for participants with a BMI ≥ 25 v. < 25 kg/m2; 1·14 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·23) for participants with v. without antihypertensive treatment; 1·09 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·18) for residents inland v. coastal; 0·89 (95 % CI 0·82, 0·97) and 0·83 (95 % CI 0·74, 0·92) for participants with moderate and high v. low physical activity levels; 1·54 (95 % CI 1·41, 1·68) and 2·47 (95 % CI 2·17, 2·81) for participants with a glomerular filtration rate 60–90 and < 60 v. ≥ 90 ml/min per 1·73 m2; and 1·20 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·35) and 3·81 (95 % CI 3·33, 4·36) for participants with CT and TT v. CC genotype at methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C>T polymorphism, respectively. Furthermore, higher tHcy concentrations were observed in smokers of both sexes (men: geometric mean 12·1 (interquartile range (IQR) 9·2–14·5) v. 11·9 (IQR 9·3–14·0) μmol/l, P= 0·005; women: geometric mean 10·3 (IQR 8·3–13·0) v. 9·6 (IQR 7·8–11·6) μmol/l, P= 0·010), and only in males with hypertension grade 3 (v. grade 1 or controlled blood pressure) (geometric mean 12·1 (IQR 9·2–14·4) v. 11·7 (IQR 9·2–14·0), P= 0·016) and in male non-drinkers (yes v. no) (geometric mean 12·3 (IQR 9·4–14·8) v. 11·7 (IQR 9·1–13·9), P= 0·014). In conclusion, there was a high prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia in Chinese hypertensive adults, particularly in the inlanders, who may benefit greatly from tHcy-lowering strategies, such as folic acid supplementation and lifestyle change.
Ultrashort electron bunch trains can be used for plasma wake field acceleration (PWFA) to overcome the limit of transformer ratio of a single electron bunch, or high-power terahertz (Thz) radiation production by various radiation mechanisms. Basic facility for high-power THz radiation development based on ultrashort electron beam has been set up at accelerator lab of TUB. Using birefringent crystal serials, ultraviolet (UV) pulse shaping for photocathode radio frequency gun to produce THz-repetition-rate pulse train was realized. Driven by such pulses, ultrashort electron bunch train with picosecond (ps) spacing was obtained for THz production. Measurement of the stacked UV pulse trains was done by difference frequency generation (DFG), and the measured group velocity mismatch of α-BBO crystal at 266.7-nm wavelength was 0.8 ps/mm. This method may also be applied to form ramped electron bunch trains for PWFA.
Co-expression of Trichinella spiralis macrophage migration inhibitory factor (TsMIF) with T. spiralis cystatin-like domain protein (TsMCD-1) in a DNA vaccine induces a Th1 immune response and partial protection against T. spiralis infection. The present study evaluated whether co-expression of mouse ubiquitin (Ub) with TsMIF and TsMCD-1 might improve the immune response against T. spiralis infection. Groups of BALB/c mice were immunized twice at 2-week intervals with 100 μg of plasmid DNA encoding either a TsMIF–TsMCD-1 fusion protein (pVAX1-Tsmif-Tsmcd-1) or an Ub-co-expressing triple fusion protein Ub–TsMIF–TsMCD-1 (pVAX1-Ub-Tsmif-Tsmcd-1). Control animals were immunized with pVAX1-Ub or blank vector plasmid. Specific antibody levels (IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgM, IgA, IgE) against the recombinant protein TsMIF–TsMCD-1, serum cytokines (interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and IL-17), CD4+/CD8+ T cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses were monitored. Challenge infection was performed 2 weeks after the second immunization and worm burden was assayed at 35 days post-challenge. Antibody responses induced by pVAX1-Ub-Tsmif-Tsmcd-1 were significantly lower than for TsMIF-TsMCD-1, but the vaccine induced increased levels of Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ) and increased T-cell cytotoxicity. The reduction of worm burden (37.95%) following immunization with pVAX1-Ub-Tsmif-Tsmcd-1 was significantly greater than that induced by the pVAX1-Tsmif-Tsmcd-1 vaccine (23.17%; P< 0.05).
Using a hybrid computational approach, we introduce A-like nanorods into a phaseseparating AB blend, which has 45/55 composition. In the absence of the rods, the minority A phase forms droplets in the matrix of B. With the addition of N = 670 rods that interact solely through a short range repulsive interaction (mimicking the steric stabilization provided by a coating of A ligands), the mixture retains this droplet morphology. When, however, we add an effective attraction between the sterically stabilized rods, the nanoparticles form extensive networks in the A phase, which can form a continuous phase. In addition to altering the morphology of the mixture, the attractive interaction influences the rate of domain growth. In particular, at early times, the mutually attractive rods increase the growth rate of the domains in the early stage. At late times, the domain growth crosses over to a slow growth regime. Our findings demonstrate that the morphology and coarsening of a rod-filled blend can be controlled by varying the rod-rod interaction and hence, provides guidelines for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites.
Plasmids expressing macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) of Trichinella spiralis (TsMIF), multi-cystatin-like domain protein (MCD-1) of T. spiralis (TsMCD-1), or co-expressing TsMIF and TsMCD-1 were constructed with a pVAX1 vector. Their ability to generate a protective immune response against T. spiralis infection was evaluated in BALB/c mice. Groups of mice were immunized twice at 2-week intervals with 100 μg of recombinant plasmids pVAX1-Tsmif, pVAX1-Tsmcd-1 or pVAX1-Tsmif-Tsmcd-1. Control animals were immunized with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or blank vector plasmid. Specific antibody levels (IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgM, IgA, IgE) against the recombinant protein TsMIF-TsMCD-1, serum cytokines (interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and IL-17) and CD4+/CD8+ T cells were monitored. Challenge infection was performed 2 weeks following the second immunization and worm burden was assayed at 35 days post-challenge. Vaccination with pVAX1-Tsmif induced moderate serum IFN-γ and increases of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, but no specific immunoglobulin antibody response. Vaccination with pVAX1-Tsmcd-1 induced a predominant Th1 antibody (IgG2a and IgG2b) response and strong levels of serum IFN-γ, and increases of CD4+ T cells. Importantly, co-expression of TsMIF and TsMCD-1 in DNA immunization produced more serum IFN-γ and markedly enhanced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than the single DNA vaccine of the two genes. Challenge infection demonstrated that immunization with pVAX1-Tsmif-Tsmcd-1 reduced worm burdens (by 23.17%; P < 0.05).