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Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
There has been a lot of study on the SOR-like methods for solving the augmented system of linear equations since the outstanding work of Golub, Wu and Yuan (BIT 41(2001)71-85) was presented fifteen years ago. Based on the SOR-like methods, we establish a class of accelerated SOR-like methods for large sparse augmented linear systems by making use of optimization technique, which will find the optimal relaxation parameter ω by optimization models. We demonstrate the convergence theory of the new methods under suitable restrictions. The numerical examples show these methods are effective.
A study of 7,388 consecutive patients after hepatic resection between 2011 and 2012 identified hepatolithiasis, cirrhosis, and intraoperative blood transfusion as the only independent risk factors of both incisional and organ/space surgical site infection (SSI). Patients with these conditions should be cared for with caution to lower SSI rates.
Trade records show that since the 1990s China has changed from a net exporting to a net importing country with respect to some species of snakes. Imports of snakes to China increased up to 2002, when the National Wildlife Management Authority imposed a suspension of international trade in snakes. We investigated the impact of the ban using the same methods as an earlier study of this trade for the period 1990–2001. We found that both imports and exports of snakes recorded in the CITES Trade Database and the Wild Animal and Plant International Trade Database of China have decreased markedly since 2004. The combination of national-level control measures and CITES regulations appear to have controlled the previously unsustainable utilization of snakes in China.
In this paper, we present the use of the orthogonal spline collocation method for the semi-discretization scheme of the one-dimensional coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. This method uses the Hermite basis functions, by which physical quantities are approximated with their values and derivatives associated with Gaussian points. The convergence rate with order and the stability of the scheme are proved. Conservation properties are shown in both theory and practice. Extensive numerical experiments are presented to validate the numerical study under consideration.
The correlation of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1/T1 genetic polymorphisms with oxidative stress-related chronic diseases was proved recently. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of GSTM1/T1 genetic polymorphisms with antioxidant biomarkers and consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) in healthy subjects. In this study, for conducting a 3 d dietary survey, 190 healthy adults were recruited. After DNA extraction, a multiple PCR method was used for GSTM1/T1 genotyping. A spectrophotometer method was applied for the determination of plasma total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), vitamin C level and erythrocyte GST enzyme activity. A general linear model was used to compare the mean values of antioxidant parameters for different GSTM1/T1 genotypes and consumption of F&V. Polymorphisms of GSTM1/T1 had no effects on plasma T-AOC and vitamin C levels. Deletion of the GSTM1 gene decreased the erythrocyte GST activity. There was correlation between plasma T-AOC and consumption of F&V in the GSTM1− or GSTT1+ subjects. A similar pattern was evident for erythrocyte GST activity in the GSTM1− subjects. No association was found among consumption of F&V and GSTM1/T1 genotypes and plasma vitamin C level. Different consumption of F&V had no impact on plasma T-AOC and vitamin C levels in the GSTM1−/GSTT1+ or GSTM1−/GSTT1− subjects. The erythrocyte GST activity was more sensitive to consumption of F&V in the individuals with the GSTM1−/GSTT1+ genotype. Association was found among GSTM1/T1 genotypes, antioxidant parameters and consumption of F&V. Large-scale and multiple ethnic studies are needed to further evaluate the relationship.
A 3-year study of spotted fever group rickettsial ecology in Inner Mongolia revealed that nearly half of the human population tested had antibodies to Rickettsia sibirica detected by complement fixation test. Infected persons, ticks and a high proportion of seropositive livestock and wild rodents were found in all five vegetation zones (desert, steppe, forest, forest-grassland and grassland).
Three Luxi adult Yellow steers were used to isolate and culture intramuscular pre-adipocytes in vitro as well as to examine factors influencing their proliferation and differentiation. The intramuscular pre-adipocytes were taken from adipose tissues within muscles between the sixth and seventh rib and cultured after digestion with collagenase I. The results showed that the separated cell populations were highly homogeneous, proliferative and doubled within 62 h. When the confluent pre-adipocytes were treated with 10 μg/ml insulin and 0.25 μmol/l dexamethasone, small lipid droplets appeared on day 2 and the number of lipid droplets rapidly increased around the nuclei on day 6. Their dynamic morphological changes, growth curve, Oil Red O staining, and reaction to insulin and dexamethasone all verified their pre-adipocyte identity. Under controlled conditions, the intramuscular pre-adipocytes resumed proliferating and differentiating in vitro. Interestingly, the proportion of cultured diploid pre-adipocytes reached more than 90% after six repeated cultures. This study confirms the existence of functionally active pre-adipocytes within the muscles of Chinese adult local breed cattle. These cell strains are a potentially useful model for understanding further the mechanism of intramuscular adipose deposition in tissues, in order to improve beef quality based on Chinese local breed beef cattle.
The electrical induced structural transformation of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film in phase change memory device was investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). Selected area electron diffraction (SAD) pattern showed that the electrical-induced Ge2Sb2Te5 film was crystallized into a face-centered cubic structure. Micro-Raman spectra show that the Ge2Sb2Te5 active layer at the high resistance state exhibited two minor peaks superposed on the broad peak after several switch cycles, which is identical to those of the Ge2Sb2Te5 active layer at the low resistance state. This is most likely due to the accumulation of segregated crystallites. TEM results suggest that the existence of nano-sized nuclei clusters resulted in the reduced resistance for the Ge2Sb2Te5 active layer at the high resistance state after first several switches. The dependence of resistance on the cycle number indicates that the deterioration of the Ge2Sb2Te5 active layer is resulted from the incomplete amorphization process, which is consistent with the micro-Raman results.
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