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Animal studies have suggested that mushroom intake can alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. However, the association between mushroom intake and NAFLD is unknown in humans. We aimed to investigate the association of mushroom intake with NAFLD among Chinese adults. This is a cross-sectional study of 24,236 adults (mean [standard deviation] age: 40.7 [11.9] years; 11,394 men [47.0%]). Mushroom intake was assessed via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Newly diagnosed NAFLD was identified based on the results of annual health examinations, including ultrasound findings and a self-reported history of the disease. Multiple logistic models were used to examine the association between mushroom intake and NAFLD. The prevalence of newly diagnosed NAFLD was 19.0%. Compared to those consuming mushrooms less frequently (≤1 time/week), the fully adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of newly diagnosed NAFLD were 0.95 (0.86, 1.05) for those consuming 2-3 times/week and 0.76 (0.63, 0.92) for those consuming ≥4 times/week, respectively (P for trend = 0.01). The inverse association was consistent in subgroups defined by age, sex, and body mass index. In conclusion, higher mushroom intake was significantly associated with lower prevalence of NAFLD among Chinese adults. Future research is required to understand the causal association between mushroom intake and NAFLD.
Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus canadensis are the common causes of human echinococcosis in China. An accurate species identification tool for human echinococcosis is needed as the treatments and prognosis are different among species. The present work demonstrates a method for the simultaneous detection of these three Echinococcus species based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). Specific primers of this mPCR were designed based on the mitochondrial genes and determined by extensive tests. The method can successfully detect either separated or mixed target species, and generate expected amplicons of distinct size for each species. Sensitivity of the method was tested by serially diluted DNA, showing a detection threshold as less as 0.32 pg for both E. granulosus s.s. and E. canadensis, and 1.6 pg for E. multilocularis. Specificity assessed against 18 other parasites was found to be 100% except weakly cross-react with E. shiquicus. The assay was additionally applied to 69 echinococcosis patients and 38 healthy persons, confirming the high reliability of the method. Thus, the mPCR described here has high application potential for clinical identification purposes, and can further provide a useful tool for evaluation of serology and imaging method.
Many components in diet have regulated oxidative stress, inflammatory reaction and even balance estrogen levels. Because these factors are closely associated with depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women, it is considered that dietary factors are able to prevent and control depressive symptoms. On the other hand, dietary pattern that considers the correlations and synergies between foods and nutrients, is expected to have a greater impact on disease risk. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether dietary patterns are associated with depressive symptoms in Chinese postmenopausal women.
A cross-sectional study of 2051 postmenopausal women (mean age: 58.8±7.4 years) was conducted in Tianjin, China. Dietary consumption was assessed by a valid self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Principal component analysis was used to derive three major dietary patterns: “healthy”, “sweets” and “Traditional Tianjin” from 88 food items. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and cut-off point of 48 indicating serious depressive symptoms. The associations between quartile of dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were assessed by using multiple logistic regression analysis.
The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of having depressive symptoms for increasing quartile of dietary patterns were as follows: “healthy”, 1.00, 0.79(0.49–1.28), 0.62(0.37–1.04), and 0.57(0.33–0.97); “sweets”,1.00, 0.75(0.42–1.3), 1.08(0.64–1.81) and 1.66(1.03–2.71); “Traditional Tianjin”, 1.00, 1.02(0.58–1.79), 0.96 (0.54–1.71) and 2.53(1.58–4.16), respectively.
The present study demonstrated that a healthy dietary pattern was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. On the contrary, greater adherence to sweets and Traditional Tianjin dietary patterns were associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms.
In order to make the end of the three-axis platform follow the control command and achieve stable control of the end attitude, an improved orientation vector spherical linear interpolation (SLERP) method is proposed for the requirements, which specifically handles the position of the gimbal lock, so that the platform can move smoothly around the gimbal lock position. A three-axis platform with a camera at the end is set up for the validity of the proposed algorithm. At first, an adaptive speed measurement method based on incremental encoder is introduced, which can automatically adapt to high and low speed, and estimate the ultra-low speed to realize the speed measurement of large dynamic range, and this is used for the motion control of the three-axis platform. Then, the SLERP method for the quaternion interpolation on the starting and ending attitudes represented in quaternion is introduced in detail, and it is continuously improved in response to its existing problems for the platform. Finally, an orientation vector SLERP method is proposed, which uses viscosity factor and rejection factor to adjust the algorithm near the platform’s gimbal lock position. A tracking experiment was designed using the red ball as the following target detected by the designed target tracking algorithm using the camera, which verified the effectiveness of the attitude tracking control based on the proposed improved orientation vector SLERP.
Geochronological, major and trace element, and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic data are reported for the monzonitic rocks of the Fushan pluton in the Taihang Mountains, central North China Craton, in order to investigate their sources, petrogenesis and tectonic implications. Zircon U–Pb dating results reveal that the Fushan pluton was emplaced during the Early Cretaceous (∼126–124 Ma). The monzonites and quartz monzonites are mainly characterized by calc-alkaline and magnesian features and display light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and flat heavy REE (HREE) patterns with slightly positive Eu anomalies. They have similar whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70653–0.70819), εNd(t) values (−13.6 to −18.6) and zircon εHf(t) values (−21.8 to −17.3). The primary magma of the Fushan pluton was derived from the partial melting of a spinel-facies amphibole-bearing ancient enriched lithospheric mantle. The monzonitic rocks also have high Ba–Sr and low Y and Yb contents, with high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios. These geochemical features of monzonitic rocks are not only inherited from the magma source but also significantly enhanced by crystal fractionation during magmatic evolution; e.g. hornblende fractionation increased the Ba–Sr concentrations and Sr/Y ratios. During the Early Cretaceous, the slab sinking and roll-back of the Palaeo-Pacific Plate could have created an ancient big mantle wedge beneath East Asia and induced a lithospheric extensional process in the central North China Craton within an intracontinental setting.
The main aim of this study was to explore the mediating role of learning engagement on the relationship between social networking site (SNS) addiction and academic achievement among 406 university students. The Social Networking Site Addiction Scale, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students, and Chinese Students Academic Achievement Scale were used to evaluate students’ SNS addiction, learning engagement, and academic achievement. Correlation analysis indicated that SNS addiction, learning engagement, and academic achievement were significantly correlated with each other. The causal steps regression and bootstrap analysis show that learning engagement mediated the relationship between SNS addiction and academic achievement. Implications for research and instructions for how to improve university students’ academic achievement are discussed.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the primary diagnoses and outcomes of emergency department visits in older people with dementia and to compare these parameters with those in older adults without dementia.
Design and Setting:
This hospital-based retrospective study retrieved patient records from a hospital research database, which included the outpatient and inpatient claims of two hospitals.
The patient records were retrieved from the two hospitals in an urban setting. The inclusion criteria were all patients aged 65 and older who had attended the two hospitals as an outpatient or inpatient between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2016. Patients with dementia were identified to have at least three reports of diagnostic codes, either during outpatient visits, during emergency department visits, or in hospitalized database records. The other patients were categorized as patients without dementia.
The primary diagnosis during the emergency department visit, cost of emergency department treatment, cost of hospital admission, length of hospital stay, and diagnosis of death were collected.
A total of 149,203 outpatients and inpatients aged 65 and older who were admitted to the two hospitals were retrieved. The rate of emergency department visits in patients with dementia (23.2%) was lower than that in those without dementia (48.6%). The most frequent primary reason for emergency department visits and the main cause of patient death was pneumonia. Patients with dementia in the emergency department had higher hospital admission rates and longer hospital stays; however, the cost of treatment did not show a significant difference between the two groups.
Future large and prospective studies should explore the severity of disease in older people with dementia and compare results with older adults without dementia in the emergency department.
This study investigated the development of temporal adverbs in early childhood Mandarin. All cases of temporal adverbs indicating the past, present, and future were extracted from the Early Child Mandarin Corpus (168 children in four age groups: 2;6, 3;6, 4;6, 5;6). Data analyses indicated: (1) Mandarin-speaking children produced a repertoire of 21 types of temporal adverbs, and the children in the first age group (M = 2;6) were capable of using temporal adverbs to denote past, present, and future events; (2) within each age group, the children produced significantly more future temporal adverbs than the other two subtypes; and (3) there was a significant age effect that, with increased age, more children were able to produce all subtypes of temporal adverbs. Overall, findings of this corpus-based investigation shed light upon Chinese children's early-attained ability to express the three fundamental notions of time by resorting to the appropriate linguistic devices.
A series of metal oxides (MnFeOx, MnCrOx, MnTiOx, and MnFeTiOx) supported on attapulgite (ATP) were synthesized by coprecipitation for the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3. Then, they were subjected to appropriate characterizations for their properties (XRD, TEM, BET, XPS, etc.). The catalytic activity of MnFeTiOx/ATP catalyst was over 95% NOx conversion within a wide temperature window between of 175 and 300 °C, and 88% N2 selectivity. Moreover, MnFeTiOx/ATP presented excellent potassium resistance relative to the traditional V–W–Ti catalyst, and its denitration performance was significantly improved. The NOx conversion rate could be restored to nearly 90% at 210 °C after removing potassium via washing of K–MnFeTiOx/ATP. In addition, the MnFeTiOx/ATP showed better SO2 resistance and stability than the traditional V–W–Ti catalyst. Therefore, the MnFeTiOx/ATP catalyst has been proved to have broad prospects in NH3-SCR.
Previous studies in schizophrenia revealed abnormalities in the cortico-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical circuit (CCTCC) pathway, suggesting the necessity for defining thalamic subdivisions in understanding alterations of brain connectivity.
To parcellate the thalamus into several subdivisions using a data-driven method, and to evaluate the role of each subdivision in the alterations of CCTCC functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia.
There were 54 patients with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls included in this study. First, the thalamic structural and functional connections computed, based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, white matter tractography) and resting-state functional MRI, were clustered to parcellate thalamus. Next, functional connectivity of each thalamus subdivision was investigated, and the alterations in thalamic functional connectivity for patients with schizophrenia were inspected.
Based on the data-driven parcellation method, six thalamic subdivisions were defined. Loss of connectivity was observed between several thalamic subdivisions (superior-anterior, ventromedial and dorsolateral part of the thalamus) and the sensorimotor system, anterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum in patients with schizophrenia. A gradual pattern of dysconnectivity was observed across the thalamic subdivisions. Additionally, the altered connectivity negatively correlated with symptom scores and duration of illness in individuals with schizophrenia.
The findings of the study revealed a wide range of thalamic functional dysconnectivity in the CCTCC pathway, increasing our understanding of the relationship between the CCTCC pathway and symptoms associated with schizophrenia, and further indicating a potential alteration pattern in the thalamic nuclei in people with schizophrenia.
To achieve fast satellite selection for a multi-Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), thereby reducing the burden on a receiver's processing element and the cost of hardware, and improving the utilisation ratio of receiver signal channels, the relationship between the number of satellites and Geometric Dilution Of Precision (GDOP), the number of satellites selected and the computation time is analysed. A fast rotating partition algorithm for satellite selection based on equal distribution of the sky is proposed. The algorithm divides the satellite selection process into two parts: rough selection and detailed selection. Unhealthy satellites, according to a health identifier, and low elevation angle satellites with a large troposphere delay are eliminated during the rough selection process. During the detailed satellite selection process, the satellite sky is divided and rotated to match satellites based on the average angle distance between the satellite and central partition line. Static data from the International GNSS Service (IGS) station and dynamic data collected at China University of Mining and Technology were used to verify the algorithm, and the results demonstrated that an inverse matrix could be avoided to reduce computation complexity. Additionally, the new satellite selection algorithm has the merit that there is little effect on the computation when the selected satellites and number of satellites in the field increased. A single system of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and double system of GPS/Globalnaya Navigazionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) both passed the hypothesis test for each epoch. By including BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) data, data utilisation increased to more than 95% using the rotating partition algorithm. Also, the GDOP and positioning performance of a rotating partition algorithm and an optimal Dilution Of Precision (DOP) algorithm are compared in this paper, and the analysis result shows that both of the algorithms have only a small difference of GDOP and have comparable positioning performance.
Polydopamine (PDA) is a biopolymer, which can form uniform thin films on almost all solid substrates as well as at the liquid/air interface. Carbonized polydopamine possesses graphite-like structure and exhibits high electrical conductivity, which makes it a potential carbon-based thin film conductor. However, studies on mechanical behavior of PDA and its derived materials are very limited. In this study, PDA samples were synthesized through self-assembly of dopamine in aqueous solution. Elastic modulus of thin films was measured using the nanoindentation technique. It is shown that the Young’s modulus of PDA thin film increased with increasing heat treatment temperature (up to 600°C). Doping with Cu ions also increased the Young’s modulus of PDA. Furthermore, all PDA thin films, with and without Cu, exhibited creep behavior.
Identifying the relative importance of urban and non-urban land-use types for potential denitrification derived N2O at a regional scale is critical for quantifying the impacts of human activities on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission under changing environments. In this study we used a regional dataset from China including 197 soil samples and six land-use types to evaluate the main predictors (land use, heavy metals, soil pH, soil moisture, substrate availability, functional and broad microbial abundances) of potential denitrification using multivariate and pathway analysis. Our results provide empirical evidence that soils on farms have the greatest potential denitrifying ability (PDA) (10.92±6.08ng N2O-N·g–1 dry soil·min–1) followed by urban soil (6.80±5.35ng N2O-N·g–1 dry soil·min–1). Our models indicate that land use (low vs. high human activity), followed by total nitrogen (TN) and heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd) was the most important driver of PDA. In addition, our path analysis suggests that at least part of the impacts of land use on potential denitrification were mediated via microbial abundance, soil pH and substrates including TN, dissolved organic carbon and nitrate. This study identifies the main predictors of denitrification at a regional scale which is needed to quantify the impact of human activities on ecosystem functionality under changing conditions.
To explore the direct and indirect associations of dietary patterns with hypertension using structural equation modelling (SEM).
Factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to classify different dietary patterns and SEM was employed to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with hypertension. Total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol (TC:HDL-C) ratio and LDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol (LDL-C:HDL-C) ratio were used as observed indicator variables of the lipid latent variable. Waist circumference, body fat percentage and BMI, which were associated with hypertension, were used as observed indicator variables of the obesity latent variable.
International Chronic Disease Cohort (ICDC) that began in 2005 with the purpose of describing the frequency and determinants of chronic diseases in Jilin Province, China.
A total of 1492 adults (40–79 years) were enrolled in the baseline study from August 2010 to August 2011.
Hypertension prevalence in our study population was 34·9 %. It was found that the wine pattern, condiment pattern, obesity latent variable, lipid latent variable, glucose, age and family history of hypertension were factors that had an association with hypertension via SEM, and the corresponding coefficients were 0·056, 0·011, 0·230, 0·281, 0·098, 0·232 and 0·116, respectively.
The wine pattern and lipid latent variable had positive direct associations with hypertension. The condiment pattern had a positive indirect association with hypertension via the obesity latent variable. The vegetables pattern, modern pattern and snack pattern were not associated with hypertension.