To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
CHD is closely related to respiratory system diseases (Mok Q, Front Pediatr 2017; 5: 2296–2360). Flexible fibreoptic bronchoscopy will diagnose anatomical lesions of the trachea and perform interventions at the same time for children with indications. We report a case of pulmonary artery sling with severe tracheostenosis in a 11-month-old boy. Tracheal stents were placed with good prognosis.
The time dispersion effect affects the accuracy of solar time difference of arrival (TDOA) navigation. In this celestial autonomous navigation, Mars's moons are reflecting celestial bodies, and their shape affects the TDOA dispersion model. In the modelling process of traditional methods, the moons of Mars (Phobos and Deimos) are regarded as points, which causes the model to be inaccurate. In order to solve these problems, we simplified the Mars's moons into ellipsoids or solid diamonds, and then established a TDOA model with the nonspherical Mars's moons as reflecting celestial bodies through differential geometry and geometric optics. Finally, we analysed the time dispersion caused by the Mars's moons in theory. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that the point model error is 5·66 km, and the 3D model error is within 70 m. Thus, the 3D TDOA model established in this paper is meaningful. In addition, the Sun–Mars-moons–spacecraft angle, solar flare, three-axis length, and attitude of the Mars's moons have a great effect on the dispersion profile, while the Mars's moons-to-spacecraft distance has a small effect.
This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the associations between dietary fibers (DF) intake and depressive symptoms in a general adult population in Tianjin, China. A total of 24,306 participants (mean age, 41 years; range 18-91 years) were enrolled. DF intake was assessed using a validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Associations between DF intake and depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Socio-demographic, behavioral, health status, and dietary factors were adjusted. In men, compared to participants in the lowest quartiles for total, soluble, vegetable, and soy DF, odds ratios (ORs; 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for depressive symptoms in the highest were 0.83 (0.69, 0.99), 0.74 (0.63, 0.87), 0.79 (0.65, 0.96), and 0.69 (0.60, 0.81), respectively. In women, compared to participants in the lowest quartiles for vegetable and soy DF, the ORs (95% CIs) for depressive symptoms in the highest were 0.77 (0.64, 0.93) and 0.82 (0.70, 0.95), respectively. No association was found between total or soluble DF intake and depressive symptoms in women. No association was found between insoluble, cereal, fruit, or tuber DF intake and depressive symptoms in men and women. Linear associations between DF intake and depressive symptoms were only detected for soy foods DF (men, β = -0.148, P < 0.0001; women, β = -0.069, P = 0.04). Results suggest intake of soluble, vegetable, and soy DF were inversely associated with depressive symptoms. These results should be confirmed through prospective and interventional studies.
Previous nutritional studies have shown that insulin regulation is different between DT and A strains of gibel carp. As leptin plays a pivotal role in the effects of insulin, we hypothesized that leptin regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism would differ between the two strains. To test our hypothesis, recombinant human leptin was injected into two strains. The results showed that leptin activated PI3K-AKT, AMPK-ACC, and JAK2-STAT signaling pathways in both strains. Hypoglycemia induced by leptin might be due to higher glucose uptake by the liver and muscles together with enhanced glycolytic potential and reduced gluconeogenic potential. Decreased lipogenesis and up-regulated fatty acid oxidation were induced by leptin. In terms of genotype, the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway was more strongly activated by leptin in the muscle tissue of the A strain, as reflected by the heightened phosphorylation of AKT. Furthermore, glycogen content, glycolytic enzyme activity, and gluconeogenic capability were higher in the A strain than the DT strain. Strain A had higher levels of fatty acid synthesis and lipolytic capacity in the liver than the DT strain, but the opposite was true in white muscle. Regarding leptin-genotype interactions, the DT strain displayed stronger regulation of glucose metabolism in the liver by leptin as compared to the A strain. Moreover, a more active JAK2-STAT signaling pathway accompanied by enhanced inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by leptin was observed in the DT strain. Overall, the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by leptin differed between the two strains, as expected.
Shifts in the maternal gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Understanding the interaction between gut microbiota and host glucose metabolism will provide a new target of prediction and treatment. In this nested case-control study, we aimed to investigate the causal effects of gut microbiota from GDM patients on the glucose metabolism of germ-free (GF) mice. Stool and peripheral blood samples, as well as clinical information, were collected from 45 GDM patients and 45 healthy controls (matched by age and prepregnancy body mass index (BMI)) in the first and second trimester. Gut microbiota profiles were explored by next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and inflammatory factors in peripheral blood were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fecal samples from GDM and non-GDM donors were transferred to GF mice. The gut microbiota of women with GDM showed reduced richness, specifically decreased Bacteroides and Akkermansia, as well as increased Faecalibacterium. The relative abundance of Akkermansia was negatively associated with blood glucose levels, and the relative abundance of Faecalibacterium was positively related to inflammatory factor concentrations. The transfer of fecal microbiota from GDM and non-GDM donors to GF mice resulted in different gut microbiota colonization patterns, and hyperglycemia was induced in mice that received GDM donor microbiota. These results suggested that the shifting pattern of gut microbiota in GDM patients contributed to disease pathogenesis.
The particularity of nuclear power plant environment requires that the nuclear power inspection robot must be remote control operation. The main purpose of the inspection robot is to carry out inspection, prevention, reporting, and safety emergency operation on the instruments, so as to provide guarantee for the safe operation of the nuclear power plant. Based on the representative configuration of nuclear power robot at home and abroad, this paper develops a small and lightweight nuclear power plant inspection robot, including walking mechanism, lifting mechanism, operating mechanism, image acquisition, information communication and control system, etc., to carry on the statics analysis to the key components of the inspection robot and verify that the stiffness and strength of the mechanical structure meet the requirements of lightweight design. Modal analysis is carried out to verify that the motor does not cause resonance when working. The kinematic model of the robot has been established and can provide the theoretical basis for the controller design. A hierarchical control system based on LabVIEW upper computer monitoring and control operation interface is established, which uses adaptive fuzzy Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control to simulate the walking control, and then realizes the control of walking mechanism through software programming, and the adaptive fuzzy PID control has better effect than the conventional PID control. The S-type acceleration and deceleration algorithm is used to realize the accurate control of the position location of the lifting mechanism. Finally, combined with the experiment of 5MS robot comprehensive experimental platform, it is proved that the inspection robot can realize remote control function operation.
The development of thermoelectric measurement technology at nanoscale is a challenging task. Here, a novel MEMS-based dual temperature control (DTC) measurement method for thermoelectric properties of individual nanowires was proposed. Different from conventional thermal bridge testing devices, this DTC thermoelectric testing device can obtain the thermoelectric properties by independently control ambient temperature and temperature difference between two ends of the nanowires through two separate resistance thermometers without auxiliary heating devices. The reliability of the model and the testing accuracy were verified by accurately measuring the thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient of VO2 nanowires.
The present study aimed to investigate the association of early-year exposure to famine with abdominal fat accumulation and function, and further evaluate the influence of first-degree family history of diabetes and physical activity on this association. The present work analyzed parts of the REACTION study. A total of 3033 women were enrolled. Central obesity was defined as waist circumferences (W) ≥ 85 cm. Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) was used to evaluate visceral adipose distribution and function. Partial correlation analysis showed body mass index (BMI), W, glycated hemoglobin A1c, and CVAI were associated with early-year exposure of famine (both P < 0.05). Logistic regression showed that the risks of overall overweight/obesity and central obesity in fetal, early-childhood, mid-childhood, and late-childhood exposed subgroups were increased significantly (all P < 0.05). Compared with non-exposed group, the BMI, W, and CVAI of fetal, early- to late-childhood exposed subgroups were significantly increased both in those with or without first-degree family history of diabetes, and in those classified as physically active or inactive, respectively (all P < 0.05). The associations of BMI, W, and CVAI with early-year exposure to famine were independent of their associations with first-degree family history of diabetes (all P < 0.01) or physical activity status (all P < 0.001). Early-year exposure to famine contributed to abdominal fat accumulation and dysfunction, which was independent of the influence of genetic background and exercise habits. Physical activity could serve as a supplementary intervention for women with high risk of central obesity.
The variability of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) during the Holocene exhibits significant regional response, and its evolution needs further discussion. A well-dated, high-resolution sea-surface temperature record based on long-chain unsaturated alkenones, grain-size data, and clay mineral assemblages from the South Yellow Sea sediment is presented to investigate the sedimentary provenance and reconstruct the EAM over the past 9.5 ka. The results show that the sediments are most likely supplied by the Huanghe. The evolution of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) can be divided into three periods: strong and relatively stable conditions during 9.5–7.0 ka, weakened conditions during 7.0–1.5 ka, and strengthened conditions during 1.5–0 ka. The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) has experienced five periods: weakened conditions during 9.5–6.7 ka, weak and relatively stable conditions during 6.7–5.6 ka, strong and relatively stable conditions during 5.6–2.6 ka, strengthened conditions during 2.6–1.5 ka, and weak and stable conditions during 1.5–0 ka. Moreover, in-phase correlation was found between the EAWM and EASM at the orbital time scale in response to orbital-driven solar insolation, but out-of-phase correlation at a centennial time scale is predominantly associated with solar activity.
Hot-water ice-coring drills are often used to recover ice core samples from desirable depths in conjunction with full-scale hot-water drilling systems. However, the recovered cores exhibit varying qualities. The coring performance of a hot-water ice-coring drill depends significantly on the structure of the coring drill head (nozzle angle, diameter and number). To discover the most significant factor affecting ice-coring performance, nine types of drill heads were designed and tested in this study according to the orthogonal test design. Results indicated that the nozzle angle is the most significant factor that affects the coring quality and the optimal angle is ~15°. The number of nozzles is the second most important factor; a large number assists in obtaining ice cores of high quality. The optimal nozzle configuration to recover good quality cores are the following: the nozzle diameter, number of nozzles and nozzle angle are 1 mm, 60 nozzles and 15°, respectively, with the maximum diameter and 2 mm, 60 nozzles and 15°, respectively, with the maximum length.
No studies have reported on how to relieve distress or relax in medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aimed to establish which relaxation technique, among six, is the most feasible in first-line medical health workers wearing medical protective equipment.
This was a two-step study collecting data with online surveys. Step 1: 15 first-line medical health workers were trained to use six different relaxation techniques and reported the two most feasible techniques while wearing medical protective equipment. Step 2: the most two feasible relaxation techniques revealed by step 1 were quantitatively tested in a sample of 65 medical health workers in terms of efficacy, no space limitation, no time limitation, no body position requirement, no environment limitation to be done, easiness to learn, simplicity, convenience, practicality, and acceptance.
Kegel exercise and autogenic relaxation were the most feasible techniques according to step 1. In step 2, Kegel exercise outperformed autogenic relaxation on all the 10 dimensions among the 65 participants while wearing medical protective equipment (efficacy: 24 v. 15, no space limitation: 30 v. 4, no time limitation: 31 v. 4, no body position requirement: 26 v. 4, no environment limitation: 30 v. 11, easiness to learn: 28 v. 5, simplicity: 29 v. 7, convenience: 29 v. 4, practicality: 30 v. 14, acceptance: 32 v. 6).
Kegel exercise seems a promising self-relaxation technique for first-line medical health workers while wearing medical protective equipment among COVID-19 pandemic.
In this paper, the microstructure and the shear property of Cu/In–45Cu/Ni solder joints by transient liquid phase were studied, and the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) growth mechanism was investigated. The results showed that the IMCs volume ratio of solder joints was increased firstly and then decreased with increasing bonding time, and the IMCs volume ratio reached its maximum value of 95.8% at 60 min. The Cu interfacial IMC of the solder joint with dense microstructure was Cu2In phase at 60 min, and the Ni interfacial IMC was Ni3In7. The maximum shear strength of solder joints was obtained at 60 min, which is 15.21 MPa. The shear fracture appeared honeycomb structure, and the fracture occurred at the phase interface of Ni3In7/Cu11In9. The thickness of the interfacial IMCs and the white IMCs around the Cu particles (Cu@IMC) was increased continuously with increasing bonding time, and thus, the interconnection of Cu–Ni substrates was realized ultimately.
Various treatments are found to be moderately effective in managing Demodex-related diseases except tea tree oil (TTO) and terpinen-4-ol (T4O), which showed superior miticidal and anti-inflammatory effects in numerous clinical studies. Their possible effects include lowering mite counts, relieving Demodex-related symptoms, and modulating the immune system. This review summarizes the current clinical topical and oral treatments in human demodicosis, their possible mechanisms of action, side-effects and resistance in treating this condition. TTO (especially T4O) is found to be the most effective followed by metronidazole, ivermectin and permethrin in managing the disease. This is because TTO has anti-parasitic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and wound-healing effects. Furthermore, nanoTTO can even release its contents into fungus and Pseudomonas biofilms. Combinations of different treatments are occasionally needed for refractory cases, especially for individuals with underlying genetic predisposal or are immuno-compromised. Although the current treatments show efficacy in controlling the Demodex mite population and the related symptoms, further research needs to be focused on the efficacy and drug delivery technology in order to develop alternative treatments with better side-effects profiles, less toxicity, lower risk of resistance and are more cost-effective.
Parabronema skrjabini is one of the most harmful nematodes to camels and is responsible for economic losses in animal husbandry industry. There is an urgent need for in-depth studies of potential vectors of the nematode due to its scant regarding information. As previous studies indicated that flies may be the vectors of P. skrjabini, we captured flies in the main camel-producing areas of Inner Mongolia. After autopsy of the specimens of two species of horn flies, we observed the morphology of the suspected nematode larvae found in them. Internal transcribed spacer ribosomal-DNA gene sequences were considered the best candidate to confirm the species of the larvae found. Our results showed that the homology compared with P. skrjabini was 99.5% in GenBank. Subsequently, we preliminarily identified two species of horn flies through morphological observation and then sequenced the mitochondrial-DNA-gene cytochrome oxidase subunit I obtained from two species of horn flies, with 100 and 99.2% similarity to sequences deposited in GenBank, respectively. Thus, we identified Haematobia titillans and Haematobia irritans and provided evidence for their potential role as vectors of parabronemosis. Our study provides reference for future research on the life history of the nematode and the vectors of parabronemosis.