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The association between time-restricted eating (TRE) and the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is less studied. Moreover, whether the association is independent of physical exercise or diet quality or quantity is uncertain. In this nationwide cross-sectional study of 3,813 participants, the timing of food intakes was recorded by 24-h recalls; NAFLD was defined through vibration-controlled transient elastography in the absence of other causes of chronic liver disease. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. Participants with daily eating window of ≤ 8 h had lower odds of NAFLD (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.52-0.93), compared to those with ≥ 10 h window. Early (5am-3pm) and late TRE (11am-9pm) showed inverse associations with NAFLD prevalence without statistical heterogeneity (pheterogeneity = 0.649) with ORs of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.36-1.47) and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.44-0.84), respectively. Such inverse association seemed stronger in participants with lower energy intake (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.38-0.89, pinteraction = 0.020). There are no statistical differences in the TRE-NAFLD associations according to physical activity (pinteraction = 0.390) or diet quality (pinteraction = 0.110). TRE might be associated with lower likelihood of NAFLD. Such inverse association is independent of physical activity and diet quality, and appears stronger in individuals consuming lower energy. Given the potential misclassification of TRE based on one- or two-day recall in the analysis, epidemiological studies with validated methods for measuring the habitual timing of dietary intake are warranted.
The oscillatory Kelvin–Helmholtz (K–H) instability of a planar liquid sheet was experimentally investigated in the presence of an axial oscillating gas flow. An experimental system was initiated to study the oscillatory K–H instability. The surface wave growth rates were measured and compared with theoretical results obtained using the authors’ early linear method. Furthermore, in a larger parameter range experimentally studied, it is interesting that there are four different unstable modes: first disordered mode (FDM), second disordered mode (SDM), K–H harmonic unstable mode (KHH) and K–H subharmonic unstable mode (KHS). These unstable modes are determined by the oscillating amplitude, oscillating frequency and liquid inertia force. The frequencies of KHH are equal to the oscillating frequency; the frequency of KHS equals half the oscillating frequency, while the frequencies of FDM and SDM are irregular. By considering the mechanism of instability, the instability regime maps on the relative Weber number versus liquid Weber number (Werel–Wel) and the Weber number ratio versus the oscillating frequency (Werel/Wel–$\varOmega$s2) were plotted. Among these four modes, KHS is the most unexpected: the frequency of this mode is not equal to the oscillating frequency, but the surface wave can also couple with the oscillating gas flow. Linear instability theory was applied to divide the parameter range between the different unstable modes. According to linear instability theory, K–H and parametric unstable regions both exist. However, note that all four modes (KHH, KHS, FDM and SDM) corresponded primarily to the K–H unstable region obtained from the theoretical analysis. Nevertheless, the parametric unstable mode was also observed when the oscillating frequency and amplitude were relatively low, and the liquid inertia force was relatively high. The surface wave amplitude was small but regular, and the evolution of this wave was similar to that of Faraday waves. The wave oscillating frequency was half that of the surface wave.
Overall diet quality during pregnancy has played an important role on maternal glucose metabolism. However, evidence based on the adherence to the dietary guideline is limited, especially for Asian populations. We aimed to examine the association between adherence to the Chinese dietary guideline measured by the Diet Balance Index for Pregnancy (DBI-P) and maternal glucose metabolism, including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) status, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose. Data were obtained from the baseline survey of the Yuexiu birth cohort. We recruited 942 pregnant women at 20–28 weeks of gestation in 2017–2018. Dietary intakes during the past month were collected using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. The scores of DBI-P were calculated to assess dietary quality. Lower absolute values of the scores indicate higher adherence to the Chinese dietary guidelines. All participants underwent a 75 g of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were conducted. The Benjamini–Hochberg method was used to adjust multiple comparisons across DBI-P food components. The value of high bound score indicator, reflecting excessive total food intake, was positively associated with OGTT-2h glucose levels (β = 0·037, P = 0·029). After adjustment for multiple comparisons, the score of animal food intake was positively associated with OGTT-2 h glucose levels (β = 0·045, P = 0·045) and risk of GDM (OR = 1·105, P = 0·030). In conclusion, excessive total food intake was associated with higher postprandial glucose in pregnant women. Lower compliance with the dietary guideline for animal food was associated with both higher postprandial glucose and increased risk of GDM during pregnancy.
As optical parametric chirped pulse amplification has been widely adopted for the generation of extreme intensity laser sources, nonlinear crystals of large aperture are demanded for high-energy amplifiers. Yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCa4O(BO3)3, YCOB) is capable of being grown with apertures exceeding 100 mm, which makes it possible for application in systems of petawatt scale. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge, an ultra-broadband non-collinear optical parametric amplifier with YCOB for petawatt-scale compressed pulse generation at 800 nm. Based on the SG-II 5 PW facility, amplified signal energy of approximately 40 J was achieved and pump-to-signal conversion efficiency was up to 42.3%. A gain bandwidth of 87 nm was realized and supported a compressed pulse duration of 22.3 fs. The near-field and wavefront aberration represented excellent characteristics, which were comparable with those achieved in lithium triborate-based amplifiers. These results verified the great potential for YCOB utilization in the future.
The Palaeo-Mesozoic geodynamic evolution of the Tangjia–Sumdo accretionary complex belt, which separates the North and South Lhasa Terrane, remains controversial. Moreover, the lack of geological records restricts the understanding of the evolution of the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean from the middle Permian until the middle Triassic. Here we present zircon U–Pb geochronology, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic compositions of the Yeqing gabbro. Zircon U–Pb geochronology yields ages from 254 ± 1 to 249 ± 1 Ma. In situ Hf isotopic analyses yield ϵHf(t) values of −0.2 to +6.3. These samples have high TiO2 (3.69 wt %) and P2O5 (0.78 wt %) contents, with typical patterns like ocean island basalt (OIB). Besides, they are classified as high-Nb basalts (HNBs) based on the high content of Nb (45.3–113.5 ppm). Whole-rock Sr–Nd isotopic compositions are similar to OIB, with initial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7047–0.7054, 143Nd/144Nd of 0.512526–0.512647 and ϵNd(t) of 0.3–2.7. These signatures suggest that the Yeqing gabbro is mainly derived from low-degree melting of the garnet lherzolite mantle. Based on field observations of HNBs intruding into the continental margin and their geochemical characteristics, we infer that the Yeqing gabbro was generated in a subduction environment. Combined with the regional geology of the subduction environment and the evolution of oceanic islands in the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean, we propose that the Yeqing gabbro may represent a product of the asthenosphere upwelling through a slab window produced by subduction of seismic ridge in the Sumdo Palaeo-Tethys Ocean, called plume – subduction-zone interaction, during the late Permian to early Triassic.
Daqingshan is located in the northwestern North China Craton where late Neoarchaean supracrustal rocks occur widely, but where magmatic zircon ages have rarely been reported for plutonic rocks. In this study, we report SIMS U–Pb zircon ages and Hf isotope, whole-rock element and Nd isotope compositions for 12 magmatic samples, including TTG, quartz monzonitic and monzogranitic gneisses, and meta-gabbroic and dioritic rocks. They have magmatic zircon ages of 2530–2469 Ma; some samples have ages of <2.48 Ga likely influenced by late Palaeoproterozoic tectonothermal events, making their ages less reliable. TTG gneisses have low Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios, with whole-rock ϵNd(t) and in situ magmatic zircon ϵHf(t) values of +1.2 to +2.4 and −1.1 to +6.2, respectively. Quartz monzonite and monzogranite gneisses and gabbroic to dioritic rocks have similar Nd–Hf isotope compositions to the TTG gneisses. The absence of zircon >2.6 Ga in the early Precambrian rocks suggests that the Sanggan Group may have formed in an oceanic environment, whereas the TTG rocks formed as a result of partial melting of the basaltic rocks of the Sanggan Group under relatively low-pressure conditions. Combined with previous studies, the main conclusions are that in the Daqingshan area, late Neoarchaean magmatism was widespread, the late Mesoarchaean – early Neoarchaean was an important period of juvenile continental crustal growth, and the late Neoarchaean supracrustal and plutonic rocks most likely formed in an arc environment. These are common signatures for Neoarchaean crustal evolution throughout much of the North China Craton, and also globally.
According to the Healthy China 2030 Plan, children under 5 years is the main focus group to achieve universal health and sustainable development of China. To identify the major threats to children’s health, we analyzed and compared the burden of disease and risk factors among children under 5 years in China and other regions.
Indicators were gathered from the Global Burden of Disease 2019, which included the standardized rates and risk factors of mortality and DALYs of children under 5 years in China, Western Europe, North America and the world from 1990 to 2019. Paired t-test or Wilcoxon test were used to compare the rates based on gender. A joinpoint regression model was used to analyze the trend, and the Annual Percent of Change (APC) was calculated and statistically tested.
From 1990 to 2019, the all-cause mortality and DALYs of children under 5 years in China decreased from 1 153.81/100 000 to 160.39/100 000 and 104 426.40/100 000 to 16 479.01/100 000, respectively. The top 3 causes of both death and DALYs were neonatal preterm birth, congenital heart anomalies, lower respiratory infections. The top 3 risk factors of both death and DALYs were low birth weight, short gestation, child wasting. Unintentional injuries, behavioral and environmental risks posed greater threats to children compared with other regions. The rates of mortality and DALYs of the top 15 diseases and injuries in boys and girls showed a downward trend (p<0.05), and most of them were higher in boys than girls (p<0.05).
The burden of diseases among children under 5 years in China has decreased significantly from 1990 to 2019. Compared to other regions, it remains to strengthen the prevention and control of preterm birth, birth defects and unintentional injuries, and to adopt targeted gender-specific interventions. Promoting the parenting behavior and multiple social security may also affects children’s health status.
Instrument delivery is critical part in vascular intervention surgery. Due to the soft-body structure of instruments, the relationship between manipulation commands and instrument motion is non-linear, making instrument delivery challenging and time-consuming. Reinforcement learning has the potential to learn manipulation skills and automate instrument delivery with enhanced success rates and reduced workload of physicians. However, due to the sample inefficiency when using high-dimensional images, existing reinforcement learning algorithms are limited on realistic vascular robotic systems. To alleviate this problem, this paper proposes discrete soft actor-critic with auto-encoder (DSAC-AE) that augments SAC-discrete with an auxiliary reconstruction task. The algorithm is applied with distributed sample collection and parameter update in a robot-assisted preclinical environment. Experimental results indicate that guidewire delivery can be automatically implemented after 50k sampling steps in less than 15 h, demonstrating the proposed algorithm has the great potential to learn manipulation skill for vascular robotic systems.
Transbronchial lung biopsy is an effective and less-invasive treatment for the early diagnosis of lung cancer. However, the limited dexterity of existing endoscopic instruments and the complexity of bronchial access prevent the application of such procedures mainly for biopsy and diagnosis. This paper proposes a flexible robot for transbronchial lung biopsy with a cable-driven mechanism-based flexible manipulator. The robotic system of transbronchial lung biopsy is presented in detail, including the snake-bone end effector, the flexible catheters and the actuation unit. The kinematic analysis of the snake-bone end effector is conducted for the master-slave control. The experimental results show that the end effector reaches the target nodule through a narrow and tortuous pathway in a bronchial model. In conclusion, the proposed robotic system contributes to the field of advanced endoscopic surgery with high flexibility and controllability.
In this study, we report the first complete mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Nippotaenia mogurndae in the order Nippotaeniidea Yamaguti, 1939. This mitogenome, which is 14,307 base pairs (bp) long with an A + T content of 72.2%, consists of 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two rRNA genes, and two non-coding regions. Most tRNAs have a conventional cloverleaf structure, but trnS1 and trnR lack dihydrouridine arms of tRNA. The two largest non-coding regions, NCR1 (220 bp) and NCR2 (817 bp), are located between trnY and trnS2 and between nad5 and trnG, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomic data indicate that N. mogurndae is closely related to tapeworms in the order Cyclophyllidea.
The sequential occurrence of three layers of smooth muscle layers (SML) in human embryos and fetus is not known. Here, we investigated the process of gut SML development in human embryos and fetuses and compared the morphology of SML in fetuses and neonates. The H&E, Masson trichrome staining, and Immunohistochemistry were conducted on 6–12 gestation week human embryos and fetuses and on normal neonatal intestine. We showed that no lumen was seen in 6–7th gestation week embryonic gut, neither gut wall nor SML was developed in this period. In 8–9th gestation week embryonic and fetal gut, primitive inner circular SML (IC-SML) was identified in a narrow and discontinuous gut lumen with some vacuoles. In 10th gestation week fetal gut, the outer longitudinal SML (OL-SML) in gut wall was clearly identifiable, both the inner and outer SML expressed α-SMA. In 11–12th gestation week fetal gut, in addition to the IC-SML and OL-SML, the muscularis mucosae started to develop as revealed by α-SMA immune-reactivity beneath the developing mucosal epithelial layer. Comparing with the gut of fetuses of 11–12th week of gestation, the muscularis mucosae, IC-SML, and OL-SML of neonatal intestine displayed different morphology, including branching into glands of lamina propria in mucosa and increased thickness. In conclusions, in the human developing gut between week-8 to week-12 of gestation, the IC-SML develops and forms at week-8, followed by the formation of OL-SML at week-10, and the muscularis mucosae develops and forms last at week-12.
The subduction model of the Neo-Tethys during the Early Cretaceous has always been a controversial topic, and the scarcity of Early Cretaceous magmatic rocks in the southern part of the Gangdese batholith is the main cause of this debate. To address this issue, this article presents new zircon U–Pb chronology, zircon Hf isotope, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotope data for the Early Cretaceous quartz diorite dykes with adakite affinity in Liuqiong, Gongga. Zircon U–Pb dating of three samples yielded ages of c. 141–137 Ma, indicating that the Liuqiong quartz diorite was emplaced in the Early Cretaceous. The whole-rock geochemical analysis shows that the Liuqiong quartz diorite is enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and is depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), which are related to slab subduction. Additionally, the Liuqiong quartz diorite has high SiO2, Al2O3 and Sr contents, high Sr/Y ratios and low heavy rare-earth element (HREE) and Y contents, which are compatible with typical adakite signatures. The initial 87Sr/86Sr values of the Liuqiong adakite range from 0.705617 to 0.705853, and the whole-rock ϵNd(t) values vary between +5.78 and +6.24. The zircon ϵHf(t) values vary from +11.5 to +16.4. Our results show that the Liuqiong adakite magma was derived from partial melting of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic plate (mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) + sediment + fluid), with some degree of subsequent peridotite interaction within the overlying mantle wedge. Combining regional data, we favour the interpretation that the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust was subducted at a low angle beneath the Gangdese during the Early Cretaceous.
When a firm is accused of serious misconduct, its executives, even those who are nonculpable, are stigmatized by the firm's stakeholders, a phenomenon known as courtesy stigma. One research stream explores how executives’ social networks mitigate courtesy stigma, with an emphasis on the positive effect of social networks. From the perspective of a social network as an information pipe, we suggest that social networks are a double-edged sword in the context of courtesy stigma because of their distinctive insulation and exposure mechanisms. Our proposed hypotheses are supported via event history analysis using data collected from a Chinese sample of listed firms that demonstrated financial misconduct in the period 2007–2016. Our study contributes to the literature on social networks and courtesy stigma by revealing their complex links.
The spatio-temporal variation of leaf chlorophyll content is an important crop phenotypic trait that is of great significance for evaluating crop productivity. This study used a soil-plant analysis development (SPAD) chlorophyll meter for non-destructive monitoring of leaf chlorophyll dynamics to characterize the patterns of spatio-temporal variation in the nutritional status of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves under three nitrogen treatments in two cultivars. The results showed that nitrogen levels could affect the maximum leaf SPAD reading (SPADmax) and the duration of high SPAD reading. A rational model was used to measure the changes in SPAD readings over time in single leaves. This model was suitable for predicting the dynamics of the nutrient status for each leaf position under different nitrogen treatments, and model parameter values were position dependent. SPADmax at each leaf decreased with the reduction of nitrogen supply. Leaves at different positions in both cultivars responded differently to higher nitrogen rates. Lower leaves (8th–10th positions) were more sensitive than the other leaves in response to nitrogen. Monitoring the SPAD reading dynamic of lower leaves could accurately characterize and assess the nitrogen supply in plants. The lower leaves in nitrogen-deficient plants had a shorter duration of high SPAD readings compared to nitrogen-sufficient plants; this physiological mechanism should be studied further. In summary, the spatio-temporal variation of plant nitrogen status in maize was analysed to determine critical leaf positions for potentially assisting in the identification of appropriate agronomic management practices, such as the adjustment of nitrogen rates in late fertilization.
This study examines how Chinese firms capture value from their innovations. We propose that relationship-building through business entertainment may be helpful. In particular, wining and dining key stakeholders, including clients, suppliers, distributors, and government officials, can help firms gain access to complementary resources necessary for commercializing their innovations, facilitating capturing value from innovations. However, business entertainment is less effective in regions with relatively developed market-supporting institutions, including factor markets and legal institutions. The analysis results of archival data and data from a World Bank survey of Chinese firms support all the above arguments.
Current studies on inhibitory effects of n-3 PUFA on pro-inflammatory cytokines have inconsistent results. Thus, a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials was conducted to identify the effects of n-3 PUFA administration on circulating IL-6 and TNF in patients with cancer. Studies that examined the effects of n-3 PUFA administration on circulating IL-6 and TNF in patients with cancer were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE from January 1975 to February 2021. Differences in n-3 PUFA administration and control conditions were determined by calculating standardised mean differences (SMD) with 95 % CI. Twenty studies involving 971 patients met the inclusion criteria. The overall SMD were 0·485 (95 % CI 0·087, 0·883) for IL-6 and 0·712 (95 % CI 0·461, 0·962) for TNF between n-3 PUFA administration and control conditions. Sources of heterogeneity were not found through subgroup and meta-regression analyses. Publication bias was observed in TNF with a slight contribution to the effect size. n-3 PUFA can reduce circulating IL-6 and TNF levels in patients with cancer. Results supported the recommendation of n-3 PUFA as adjuvant therapy for patients with cancer, possibly excluding head and neck cancer, owing to their anti-inflammatory properties.