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Suicide attempt (SA), which is one of the strongest predictors of completed suicide, is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) but its prevalence across epidemiological studies has been mixed. The aim of this comprehensive meta-analysis was to examine the pooled prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD.
A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from their commencement date until 27 December 2017. Original studies containing data on prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD were analyzed.
In all, 65 studies with a total of 27 340 individuals with MDD were included. Using the random effects model, the pooled lifetime prevalence of SA was 31% [95% confidence interval (CI) 27–34%], 1-year prevalence was 8% (95% CI 3–14%) and 1-month prevalence was 24% (95% CI 15–34%). Subgroup analyses revealed that the lifetime prevalence of SA was significantly associated with the patient setting, study region and income level, while the 1-month prevalence of SA was associated with only the patient setting.
This meta-analysis confirmed that SA was common in individuals with MDD across the world. Careful screening and appropriate interventions should be implemented for SA in the MDD population.
The following paper investigates the prevalence and characteristics of asymptomatic norovirus infection in the population living around oyster farm sites. Two consecutive surveys were conducted from January 2014 to December 2014 and 4549 stool samples were screened during the same time period. The total asymptomatic infection rate was 4.04% (184/4549). Norovirus infection rate was 5.20% in oyster farming population which was significantly higher compared with non-farming population where the infection rate was 3.65% (χ2 = 5.49, P < 0.05). A total of 184 NoV positive samples were identified by real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and semi-nested RT-PCR and 136 sequences were obtained. The sequences were clustered into 14 genotypes. GI strains were clustered into six genotypes, including GI.2, GI.3, GI.5, GI.6, GI.8 and GI.9; while GII strains were clustered into GII.2, GII.3, GII.4, GII.5, GII.6, GII.8 and GII.13. GI.9 and GII.17 were the predominant and most prevalent genotypes, respectively. The GII.17 genotype replaced GII.4 becoming the dominant genotype in the oyster farming area in 2014. To sum up, long-term monitoring of asymptomatic infection is crucial for the detection of new variant strains and for identifying outbreaks during the early stage.
We construct modulus-based synchronous multisplitting iteration methods to solve a large implicit complementarity problem on parallel multiprocessor systems, and prove their convergence. Numerical results confirm our theoretical analysis and show that these new methods are efficient.
A “RE-free” and I-phase-containing Mg–8Sn-based alloy system was developed and successfully fabricated through the equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) process. The influence of the Zn/Al mass ratio on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the as-ECAPed Mg–8Sn–(5,6,7)Zn–2(wt%)Al alloys was investigated using an optical microscope, an X-ray diffractometer, a scanning electron microscope, a transmission electron microscope, and a universal testing machine. Grain size, dynamic recrystallization behavior, and texture were found to be greatly affected by the Zn/Al mass ratio. Furthermore, the ultimate tensile strength (250 MPa) and elongation (14.5%) of the alloy with a Zn/Al mass ratio of 3 were considerably increased compared to those of the as-ECAPed alloys with Zn/Al ratios of 2.5 and 3.5 (ultimate tensile strength and elongation of 215 MPa and 13% and 184 MPa and 10%, respectively). This significant enhancement was attributed to extensive grain boundary strengthening, precipitation strengthening, and higher work hardening capacity as well as texture randomization. The strength and ductility of the as-ECAPed alloys are also discussed in terms of the I-phase and Mg2Sn formation.
Results of the relationships between dietary whole-grain consumption and the risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer-specific mortality are mixed. We summarised the evidence based on a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Pertinent studies were identified by searching articles in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to 20 January 2016 and by reviewing the reference lists of the retrieved articles. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary relative risks (SRR) and 95 % CI. In all, eleven prospective studies (ten publications) were included in the meta-analysis. There were a total of 816 599 subjects and 89 251 cases of all-cause mortality. On the basis of the highest v. the lowest categories of intake, whole grains may be associated with a lower risk of mortality from all causes (SRR 0·87; 95 % CI 0·84, 0·90), CVD (SRR 0·81; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·89) and all cancers (SRR 0·89; 95 % CI 0·82, 0·96). For each 3 servings/d increase in whole-grain intake, there was a 19 % reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality (SRR 0·81; 95 % CI 0·76, 0·85), a 26 % reduction in CVD mortality (SRR 0·74; 95 % CI 0·66, 0·83) and a 9 % reduction in cancer mortality (SRR 0·91; 95 % CI 0·84, 0·98). The current meta-analysis provides some evidence that high intake of whole grains was inversely associated with the risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer-specific mortality. Further well-designed studies, including clinical trials and in different populations, are required to confirm our findings.
In light of government investment over the past decade, we explored the capacity for disaster response in Heilongjiang Province, identifying the factors that affect response capacity.
We surveyed 1257 medical staff in 65 secondary and tertiary hospitals in Heilongjiang province to explore their perceptions of disaster management capacity using a cross-sectional multistage, stratified cluster sampling method.
All tertiary hospitals (100%) and most secondary hospitals (93%) have documented disaster management plans that are regularly reviewed. In secondary hospitals, drills were less prevalent (76.7%) but the occurrence of simulated training exercises was closer to tertiary hospitals (86.0%). We noted that 95.4% of all hospitals have leadership groups responsible for disaster preparedness capacity building, but only 10.8% have a stockpiled network of reserve supplies.
Although response capacity has improved in Heilongjiang Province, vulnerabilities remain. We recommend that priorities should be targeted at preparedness capacity building, in terms of reliable and relevant operational response plans, the expansion of existing response mechanisms to oversee local education and scenario training, and to ensure there is sufficient access to protective equipment and materials, either held in reserve, or alternatively by activating resilient supply chain mechanisms. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:176–183)
The co-doped ZnB2O4:Eu3+, Tb3+ phosphor was prepared by a thermal conversion method using Zn[B3O3(OH)5]·H2O:Eu3+, Tb3+ as the precursor, which was characterized by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer, x-ray powder diffraction, infrared, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence. The effects of doped concentration, calcining temperature, and calcining time of precursor on the luminescence property of ZnB2O4: Eu3+, Tb3+ phosphor were investigated. The results showed that the ZnB2O4: Eu3+, Tb3+ phosphor with maximum luminescent intensity was obtained by calcining the precursor at 900 °C for 6 h. It is found that the ZnB2O4: Eu3+, Tb3+ phosphor prepared by this method exhibits much stronger emission intensity than that synthesized by conventional high temperature solid-state method. Meanwhile, ZnB2O4: Eu3+, Tb3+ also has stronger emission intensity and higher red to orange ratio than those of ZnB2O4: Eu3+.
Epidemiological studies have examined associations between dietary patterns and the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, information on dietary patterns and the risk of type 2 diabetes in Chinese populations is scarce. The aim of the present study was to identify dietary patterns and examine their association with incident hyperglycaemia in Nanjing, China.
A community-based prospective cohort study. Dietary assessment was carried out using a validated eighty-seven-item FFQ. Dietary patterns were identified by exploratory factor analysis. Participants were categorized into tertiles of dietary factor score for each dietary pattern. The relationship between dietary patterns and hyperglycaemia risk was analysed using multivariable linear and Cox regression.
Seven communities from two urban districts in Nanjing, China.
A total of 2900 of Chinese local residents aged 30 years or above, free of hyperglycaemia and other serious diseases, who participated in the baseline survey from June to September 2007 were followed up 3 years later from June to September 2010 for the development of hyperglycaemia. Fasting blood samples were collected at both baseline and 3-year follow-up surveys. Hyperglycaemia was defined as fasting plasma glucose concentration of ≥6·1 mmol/l or already taking oral hyperglycaemia agents for treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Five major dietary patterns were identified: (i) the ‘condiments’ pattern; (ii) the ‘animal and plant protein’ pattern; (iii) the ‘healthy traditional’ pattern; (iv) the ‘fruits, eggs and juice’ pattern; and (v) the ‘alcohol, milk and tea’ pattern. A total of 2093 (72·2 %) individuals completed the follow-up survey and the 3-year cumulative incidence of hyperglycaemia was 7·5 % (158/2093). A 1-unit increase in the score for the ‘healthy traditional’ pattern was associated with a decrease of 0·054 mmol/l in fasting plasma glucose (P=0·017), while a 1-unit increase in the ‘fruits, eggs and juice’ pattern score was associated with an increase of 0·050 mmol/l in fasting plasma glucose (P=0·023) by multivariable linear regression. For men, tertile 3 of the ‘fruits, eggs and juice’ pattern was associated with an 88 % greater risk (hazard ratio=1·88; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·54) of hyperglycaemia than tertile 1 of this pattern. Being in tertile 3 of the ‘alcohol, milk and tea’ pattern was associated with a 35 % greater risk (hazard ratio=1·35; 95 % CI 1·04, 2·16) relative to tertile 1 in women, while for the ‘'healthy traditional’ pattern tertile 3 was associated with a 41 % lower risk (hazard ratio=0·59; 95 % CI 0·35, 0·99) compared with tertile 1. The ‘condiments’ and the ‘animal and plant protein’ patterns were not independently associated with hyperglycaemia.
Our findings suggest that modifying dietary patterns could reduce hyperglycaemia incidence in the mainland Chinese adult population.
To assess correlations between cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary isothiocyanate (ITC) level, in addition to glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes and other individual factors.
The study included cohort participants whose urinary ITC levels had been previously ascertained. Urinary ITC was assessed using HPLC. Usual dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables was assessed using a validated FFQ and total dietary ITC intake was calculated. Recent cruciferous vegetable intake was determined. GST genotypes were assessed using duplex real-time quantitative PCR assays. Spearman correlations were calculated between the covariates and urinary ITC levels and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the mean urinary ITC excretion according to GST genotype.
Urban city in China.
The study included 3589 women and 1015 men from the Shanghai Women’s and Men’s Health Studies.
Median urinary ITC level was 1·61 nmol/mg creatinine. Self-reported usual cruciferous vegetable intake was weakly correlated with urinary ITC level (rs=0·1149; P<0·0001), while self-reported recent intake was more strongly correlated with urinary ITC (rs=0·2591; P<0·0001). Overall, the GST genotypes were not associated with urinary ITC level, but significant differences according to genotype were observed among current smokers and participants who provided an afternoon urine sample. Other factors, including previous gastrectomy or gastritis, were also related to urinary ITC level.
The study suggests that urinary secretion of ITC may provide additional information on cruciferous vegetable intake and that GST genotypes are related to urinary ITC level only in some subgroups.
In this paper, a compact multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna system with high isolation is proposed for 2.4 GHz wireless local area network (WLAN) application. The system is composed of two aperture-coupled shorted patch antennas with a spacing of 4 mm (only 0.032λ). The antenna is fed with an H-shaped coupling slot, and the defected shorting wall is used for high isolation. The proposed MIMO system exhibits an isolation of better than −20 dB and a maximum isolation of −43 dB at the central frequency. The envelope correlation coefficient is less than 0.01. The simulated and measured results show that the proposed antenna is a good candidate for MIMO system with higher isolation and better diversity.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
Clathrin heavy chain 1 (CLTC) has been considered a “moonlighting protein” which acts in membrane trafficking during interphase and in stabilizing spindle fibers during mitosis. However, its roles in meiosis, especially in mammalian oocyte maturation, remain unclear. This study investigated CLTC expression and function in spindle formation and chromosome congression during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Our results showed that the expression level of CLTC increased after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and peaked in the M phase. Immunostaining results showed CLTC distribution throughout the cytoplasm in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Appearance and disappearance of CLTC along with β-tubulin (TUBB) could be observed during spindle dynamic changes. To explore the relationship between CLTC and microtubule dynamics, oocytes at metaphase were treated with taxol or nocodazole. CLTC colocalized with TUBB at the enlarged spindle and with cytoplasmic asters after taxol treatment; it disassembled and distributed into the cytoplasm along with TUBB after nocodazole treatment. Disruption of CLTC function using stealth siRNA caused a decreased first polar body extrusion rate and extensive spindle formation and chromosome congression defects. Taken together, these results show that CLTC plays an important role in spindle assembly and chromosome congression through a microtubule correlation mechanism during mouse oocyte maturation.
The Lower Yangtze foreland basin is situated to the northwest of the early Palaeozoic Wuyi–Yunkai orogen in South China. To demonstrate its provenance history and the denudation of the orogen, seven sandstone samples were collected from the upper Ordovician to Silurian strata for U–Pb dating. The zircons show a broad range of ages that can be linked with the ages of specific units in the Wuyi–Yunkai orogen. The zircon spectra in the late Ordovician samples are similar to those in the pre-orogenic strata, suggesting a recycled source. The dominant age population of 880–740 Ma in the early Llandovery samples indicates that the middle Neoproterozoic volcanic rocks were the primary source. A significant age population of 460–425 Ma in the late Llandovery to Wenlock samples reflects the fact that the synorogenic magmatic and metamorphic rocks were exposed to provide detritus. The youngest zircons from the uppermost Silurian strata yield an age of 425 Ma, which approximates the inferred depositional age. This age, together with available biostratigraphic data, indicates that the foreland basin was formed 448–425 Ma ago. We surmise a possible link between the Wuyi–Yunkai orogen and the Appalachian–Caledonian orogen based on the geological constraints and palaeomagnetic data.
Since the pioneer work by Bender and Boettcher on non-Hermitian Hamiltonian under paritytime (PT) symmetry [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5243 (1998)], PT-symmetry optical coupled systems have been investigated extensively. Here we propose theoretically perfect transparency of a PT-symmetric acoustic coupled system which is comprised of a waveguide channel and two same-sized side-coupled resonators. Specifically, we demonstrate that with the change in the amplitude of attenuation and amplification coefficient, the spatial symmetry of two resonators is spontaneously broken which triggers an acoustic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) by assigning anti-phase to the pressure field inside the two resonators.